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GPeative 
Gompuking 

the #2 magazine of computer applications and software 



November 1981 
vol 7, no 11 
$2.50 

140-44 



Getting Started With 
an Apple or TRS-80 

Atari Color Explained 

Evaluations: 

• Bridge Challenger 

• New Apple Games 

• Crypto Machine 

• Raster Blaster 

• Soundchaser 

• Air Combat 

Sneak Preview of 
the Sinclair ZX81 

Ted Nelson : 
Electronic Mail — 
What's Coming 

Authoring 
Systems 



IBM Personal 
Computer 

The Big Blue Giant 
Makes Its Move 






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Comm 

Software 
Encyclopedia 



The COMMODORE 
SOFTWARE 
ENCYCLOPEDIA is 
now available from 
your authorized 
COMMODORE Dealer, 
for . . . 



$495 



The next edition of the 
COMMODORE 
SOFTWARE 
ENCYCLOPEDIA will be 
available in 90 to 120 
days. If your software is 



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not listed and you would 
like to have it listed in 
the next edition, please 
submit details to: 

Software Department 
Commodore Business 
Machines, Inc. 
Computer Systems 
Division 

300 Valley Forge 
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PA 19406. 
HOTLINE Number 
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Connect with Your Apple^Dealer 

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Wordsworth just sits at a desk and 
does what he's told. With unique new, 
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step— to perform even the most 
complicated tasks. 

It can not only "take a letter," 
but it can revise it, customize it in mil- 
lions of ways (quite literally), person- 
alize it, print it on your letterhead or 
business form so you can't tell it from 
hand-typed ... in short, everything 
but put it in an envelope. 

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evaluations & profiles 

■1 A The IBM Personal Computer Staples 

The perfect computer? 

20 Soundchaser Lubar 

Passport to great Apple sound 

26 Sinclair ZX81 Tebbutt 

New from England 

34 Authoring Systems Lubar 

Apple programming made easy? 

40 A PP ,esoft Compilers Herman 

A comparative review 

50 Assembly Language Programming Greene 

A course from Heath 

54 Home Financial Decisions Rowe 

A new module for the Tl 99/4 

58 Computer Air Combat Archibald 

Monday night at the flights 

R2 Raster Blaster Archibald 

Flipping out 

64 Bridge Challenger Linderholm 

68 Crypto Machine Miller 

77 Apple/UCSD Pascal 1.1 Tonkens 

A user's evaluation 

7g Zgrass Meeks 

A language for graphics users 

33 New Games for the Apple Lubar 

articles 

Q4 Tower of Babel Blank 

A tourist's guide to computer languages 

1 06 Boxes Miner 

A structured spatial language 

116 Pascal < Ada and Computer Literacy Ahl 

Interview with Arthur Luehrmann 

■J 24 Tnreo Roads to Pascal Lubar 

Learning "the language of the future'' 

-\ 28 The MaQ icians, The Snark & The Camel Nelson 

Report on the Electronic Mail and Message Conference 

"| 58 Basic and Pascal Evans 

A side-by-side comparison 

1 66 Basic Beats Pascal Ever 

1 74 Trilingual Tutorial Horn 

Basic, Basex, and Z80 Assembly Language 

1 82 Model I and Model II ROM Look Alikes Cesaitas 



fi I »*/ 



I M% m 



" ns & software 

1 84 Periodic Table Schmidt 

1 86 Grammar Rudeen 

A program to create your own 

1 92 PET Screen Llne Length Picciotto 

Solving the problems of a 40-character line 

200 Shared Appreciation Mortgage Crawford 

Can it save you money? 

21 A Wo* 1 * 1 Generator for "Traveller" Marvel 

232 Building a Better Input Ashwell 

236 Short Proor8m « Buchanan & Shapiro 

ww TRS-80 keyboard repeat and Apple disk catalog 

238 How to So,v * ,! Piole 

Digital didactics 

to.ents 

6 Notices Fee 

"| Input/Output Readers 

24 D «**line: Tomorrow Ahl 

News and views 

250 Appl ° Cart Carpenter 

Getting started: hardware, software, printers 

258 ° ut ' K>8,: Atari SmallA Small 

How the Atari handles color 

262 TR S-80 Strings Gray 

Getting started, CRT filters, and a drunk snake 

270 Puzzles a Problems Townsend 

272 Software Legal Forum Bayer 

276 Now Products Staples 

288 Index to Advertisers 

Il|#D r*r)\}£>f) A r u m °r laid to rest: IBM has 
■ ■■*> l^UVv#i announced it's long-awaited entry 
into the personal computer market. See page 14 for details on 
the IBM Personal Computer. 



NOVEMBER, 1981 

VOLUME 7, NUMBER 11 

Creative Computing (ISSN 0097-8140) is published monthly by Creative Computing 

P O Box 789-M. Morristown. NJ 07960 Second Class postage paid at Lincoln NE 

68501 

Editorial offices located at 39 East Hanover Ave . Morris Plains. NJ 07950 Phone 

(201)540-0445 

Domestic Subscriptions 12 issues $20. 24 issues $37; 36 issues $53 Send 

subscription orders or change of address (P O Form 3575) to Creative Computing 

PO Box 789-M. Morristown. NJ 07960 Call 800-631-8112 toll-free (in New 

Jersey call 201-540-0445) to order a subscription (to be charged only to a bank 

card) 

Copynght©1961 by Creative Computing All rights reserved Reproduction prohibited 

Printed in USA 

Creative Computing is printed by Mid-America Webpress. Lincoln. NE 68501 




NOVEMBER 1981 



staff 



Publisher/Editor-in-Chief 



David H. Ahl 



Editorial Director 
Editor 

Associate Editor 
Managing Editor 
Contributing Editors 




Editorial Assistant 
Secretary 



George Blank 

Elizabeth Staples 

David Lubar 

Peter Fee 

Dale Archibald 

Charles Carpenter 

Charles W. Dwyer 

Stephen B Gray 

Glenn Hart 

Stephen Kimmel 

Harold Novick 

Peter Payack 

Alvln Tottler 

C. Barry Townsend 

Gregory Yob 

KarlZinn 

Andrew Brill 

Elizabeth Magin 



Production Manager 
Art Director 
Artists 

Typesetters 



Laura MacKenzie 

Sue Gendzwil 

Diana Negri 

Chris DeMilia 

Joanne Fogarty 

Jean Ann Vokoun 
Maureen Welsh 



Advertising Sales 



Marketing 



Rick Burden 

Renee Fox Christman 

Jeff Horchler 

Renea Cole 

Earl Lyon 
Laura Conboy 



Creative Computing Press 
Managing Editor 



Edward Stone 



Software Development 



Software Production 



William Kubeck 

Kerry Shetline 

Eric Wolcolt 

Neil Radick 

Bill Rogalsky 

Rita Gerner 

Heather Everitt 



Operations Manager 
Personnel & Finance 
Bookkeeping 
Retail Marketing 

Circulation 



Office Assistants 



Order Processing 



Shipping & Receiving 



William L. Baumann 

Patricia Kennelly 

Ethel Fisher 

Jennifer Burr 
Laura Gibbons 

Frances Miskovich 

Dorothy Staples 

Molra Fenton 

Carol Vita 

Elsie Graft 

Brian Chamberlain 

Regina Jones 

Terri Murphy 

Sue Guppy 

Rosemary Bender 

Linda McCatharn 

Diane Feller 

Mary McNeice 

Jim Zecchin 

Ralph Loveys 

Gail Harris 

Linda Blank 

Mark Smith 

Karen Brown 

Susan DeMark 

Ronald Antonaccio 

Scott McLeod 

Nick Ninni 

Mark Archambault 

Mike Gribbon 



advertising sales 

Advertising Coordinator 

Renee Christman 
Creative Computing 
P O Box 789-M 
Morristown. NJ 07960 
(201)540-0445 

Western States 

Jules E. Thompson. Inc. 
1 290 Howard Ave.. Suite 303 
Burlingame. CA 94010 
(415)348-8222 

In Texas call (713) 731-2605 

Southern California 

Jules E. Thompson. Inc. 

2560 Via Tejon 

Palos Verdes Estates. CA 90274 

(213)378-8361 

Mid-Atlantic, Northeast 

CEL Associates, Inc. 
27 Adams Street 
Braintree. MA 02 184 
(617)848-9306 

Midwest 

Ted Rickard 
435 Locust Rd. 
Wilmette, IL 60091 
(312)251-2541 

New York Metropolitan Area 
Nelson & Miller Associates, Inc. 
55 Scenic Dr. 

Hastings-on-Hudson, NY 10706 
(914)478-0491 

Southeast 

Paul McGinnisCo 
60 East 42nd St 
New York. NY 10017 
(212)490-1021 



attention authors 

Creative Computing will not be 
responsible for the return of unsolicited 
manuscripts, cassettes, floppy disks, pro- 
gram listings, etc. not submitted with a 
self-addressed, stamped envelope. 

OK to reprint 

Material in Creative Computing may 
be reprinted without permission by 
school and college publications, per- 
sonal computing club newsletters, and 
nonprofit publications Only original 
material may be reprinted; that is, you 
may not reprint a reprint Also, each re- 
print must carry the following notice on 
the first page of the reprint in 7-point or 
larger type (you may cut out and use this 
notice if you wish): 

Copyright © 1981 by Creative Com- 
puting. 39 E. Hanover Ave., Morris 
Plains. NJ 07950. Sample issue $2 50. 
1 2-issue subscription $20. 

Please send us two copies of any publi- 
cation that carries reprinted material. 
Send to attention: David Ahl. 

microform 

Creative Computing is available on 
permanent record microfilm. For com- 
plete information contact University mi- 
crofilms International. Dept. FA,, 300 
North Zeeb Road. Ann Arbor, Ml 48106 
or 18 Bedford Road. London WC1R 4EJ. 
England. 



foreign customers 

Foreign subscribers in countries listed below 
may elect to subscribe with our local agents using 
local currency Of course, subscriptions may also 
be entered directly to Creative Computing (USA) 
in U.S. dollars (bank draft or credit card) All foreign 
subscriptions must be prepaid. 

Many foreign agents stock Creative Computing 
magazines, books, and software However, please 
inquire directly to the agent before placing an 
order Again, all Creative Computing products may 
be ordered direct from the USA-be sure to allow 
for foreign shipping and handling 



CANADA Surface 


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AUSTRALIA 


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ELECTRONIC CONCEPTS PTY . LTD 




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Ground Floor 55 Clarence St 






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CREATIVE COMPUTING 






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Stoke Golding. Nuneaton CV1 2 6EL 




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CREATIVE COMPUTING 






P O Box 789-M 






Morristown. NJ 07960. USA 







CREATIVE COMPUTING 



WE ARE MOVING TO 
LARGER QUARTERS! 

Thank you . . . 

... for making our expansion possible and for 
helping make us the leading distributor 
of microprocessor systems, terminals 
and printers. 

We are showing our appreciation by 
producing a special catalog with thousands 
of items at greatly reduced prices. 
Call or write today. 

Help us move our inventory before we have 
to move it. 



MiniMicroMart, Inc. 

943 W. Genesee St. 

Syracuse, New York 13204 

(315)422-4467 



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t i ces ... noli ces ... net i c 



Math/Science 
Conference 

Arizona State University is hosting the 
10th Annual Math/Science Conference 
emphasizing the following areas: The 
microcomputer as a medium for instruction, 
as a tool for research and as an information 
manager. A variety of workshops and 
demonstrations will be offered as well as 
panel discussions and problem solving 
groups. 

This two day conference will be held 
on the Arizona State University campus 
on January 15 and 16. 1982. 

Vendors interested in securing a booth 
are invited to contact Dr. Gary Bitter of 
Arizona State University, 203 Payne, 
Tempe, Arizona 85287 or phone (602) 
965-3322. 

For further information or registration 
materials write to: Nancy Watson, 203 
Payne Hall, Arizona State University, 
Tempe, AZ 85287. 

Price Changes 

An investigation, prompted by several 
reader complaints has revealed that when 
Atari lowered the price of the Atari 400, 
and increased the memory to 16K, they 
also made the Basic cartridge an optional 
extra at $60. This makes a significant 
difference in the comparative charts on 
pages 35 and 189 of our 1981 Buyer's 
Guide issue, and brings the price of the 
16K Atari 400 with Basic to approximately 
$450. 

The price quoted for the 16K Apple II 
Plus should have been $1330. The 32K 
machine is priced at $1430. and the 48K 
at $1530. 



"We must beware of what I call 'inert 
ideas'— ideas that are merely received 
into the mind without being utilized, or 
tested, or thrown into fresh new combina- 
tions." 

Alfred North Whitehead 



Additional Information 

The program MyChess, mentioned in 
the article, "Of Cabbages and Kings" (Aug- 
ust, 1981). is also available for the H-89 
and Z-89 computers. This version, with 
graphics, can be obtained from The Soft- 
ware Toolworks, 14478 Glorietta Dr., Sher- 
man Oaks, CA 91423 (213-986-4885). The 
disk costs $34.95 plus $2 postage and 
handling (specify HDOS or CP/M). 

The illustration on page 68 of the Sep- 
tember 1981 Creative Computing was 
"Moon and Sun" from Micro Painter, and 
is copyright 1981, Datasoft, Inc. 

Additional ordering information for the 
book Understanding Computer Systems 
from which "Explaining Computer Related 
Concepts and Terminology" was excerpted 
in the October issue of Creative Computing 
was received too late to appear with the 
article. 

In the U.S., Understanding Computer 
Systems can be ordered from Computer 
Science Press, 1 1 Taft Court, Rockville, 
Ml) 20850. In England and Ireland, order 
from Chartwell-Bratt, Old Oxchard, Bick- 
ley, Bromley. England. In Scandinavia and 
for other information contact Firma Law- 
son, Gustav Adolfsgatan 9, 582 20 Linko- 
ping. 

Cybernetics Conference 

A conference sponsored by the Ameri- 
can Society for Cybernetics will be held 
at the Marvin Center, George Washington 
University, Washington D.C. from Thurs- 
day, October 29 to Sunday, November 1, 
1981. 

The theme of the conference will be a 
redefinition of the field of cybernetics— 
both its intellectual and practical con- 
tent. 

For further information contact Dr. 
Laurence D. Richards. Department of 
Administrative Science, Colby College, 
Waterville. ME 04901; (207) 873-1131. 



Computer Game 
of the Year 

From among the multitude of computer 
games available, gamers from all over the 
U.S. recently chose their favorite computer 
game, and the honor went to Automated 
Simulations, Inc. for its fantasy role-playing 
game, "Temple of Apshai." 

Each year the Academy of Adventure 
Gaming Arts and Design, a group of hobby 
industry manufacturers, wholesalers, pub- 
lishers and others, sponsors the "Charles 
Roberts" awards for excellence in game 
design. This is the first year the awards 
included a category for computer games. 

Call for Papers 

The Journal of Computer-Based Instruc- 
tion is seeking papers on quality studies 
that deal with a variety of computer uses 
in health sciences education. The following 
areas are representative but not inclusive: 
innovative uses of the computer for edu- 
cation, studies that use the computer for 
stimulus presentation and data recording, 
integration of computer based education 
(CBE) into the curriculum, and models 
for utilizing CBE in the health sciences 
curriculum. 

Papers from all health sciences are 
desired, including medicine, dentistry, 
nursing and allied health. It is expected 
that this issue will represent "state-of-the- 
art" research in computer-based education. 
Outlines of papers should be received by 
October 30, 1981. 

For further information and guidelines 
for submission of outlines and papers 
contact: David P. Yens, Ph.D., Special 
Issue on Health Sciences Education Editor, 
JCBI, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 
Annenberg Building 5-16. One Gustave 
L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029. 

"Thoughts are but dreams till their effects 
be tried. " 

Shakespeare 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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Turn your Apple into the world's 
most versatile personal computer. 



The SoftCard™ Solution. SoftCard 
turns your Apple into two computers. 
A Z-80 and a 6502. By adding a Z-80 
microprocessor and CP/M to your 
Apple, SoftCard turns your Apple into 
a CP/M based machine. That means 
you can access the single largest body 
of microcomputer software in exist- 
ence. Two computers in one. And. the 
advantages of both. 

Plug and go. The SoftCard system 
starts with a Z-80 based circuit card. 
Just plug it into any slot (except 0) of 
your Apple. No modifications required. 
SoftCard supports most of your Apple 
peripherals, and. in 6502-mode, your 
Apple is still your Apple. 

CP/M for your Apple. You get CP/M 
on disk with the SoftCard package. It's 
a powerful and simple-to-use operating 
system. It supports more software 
than any other microcomputer operat- 
ing system. And that's the key to the 
versatility of the SoftCard/Apple. 

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BASIC included. A powerful tool. 
BASIC-80 is included in the SoftCard 
package. Running under CP/M. ANSI 
Standard BASIC-80 is the most 
powerful microcomputer BASIC 
available. It includes extensive disk I/O 
statements, error trapping, integer 
variables, 16-digit precision, exten- 
sive EDIT commands and string func- 
tions, high and low-res Apple graphics, 
PRINT USING, CHAIN and COM- 
MON, plus many additional com- 
mands. And, it's a BASIC you can 
compile with Microsoft's BASIC 
Compiler. 

More languages. With SoftCard and 
CP/M. you can add Microsoft's ANSI 
Standard COBOL, and FORTRAN, or 



Basic Compiler and Assembly Lan- 
guage Development System. All, more 
powerful tools for your Apple. 
Seeing is believing. See the SoftCard 
in operation at your Microsoft or Apple 
dealer. We think you'll agree that the 
SoftCard turns your Apple into the 
world's most versatile personal 
computer. 

Complete information? It's at your 
dealer's now. Or, we'll send it to you 
and include a dealer list. Write us. Call 
us. Or, circle the reader service card 
number below. 

SoftCard is a trademark of Microsoft Apple II and 
Apple II Plus are registered trademarks of Apple 
Computer. Z-80 is a registered trademark of Zilog. 
Inc. CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital 
Research. Inc. 



/MICROSOFT 

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Microsoft Consumer Products. 400 108th Ave. N.E., 
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TWELVE STRONG 
HEATH/ZENITH YOUR 



Pick a strong partner 

A computer purchase is the beginning of a long term 
partnership between you and the people you buy trom. 
Your ongoing need for software and accessories re- 
quires a partner who will stand by you with a growing 
line of products. And nowhere will you find a more com- 
plete line of hardware, software and accessories than 
at your Heathkit Electronic Center. Here are twelve 
strong reasons to make Heath/Zenith your partner. 

1. The All-in-One Computer 

The heart of the Heath/Zenith line is the stand-alone 
89 Computer. It's a complete system with built-in 5 1 /4-inch 
floppy disk drive, professional keyboard and keypad, 
smart video terminal, two Z80 microprocessors, and 
two RS-232C serial I/O ports. It comes with 16K RAM, 
expandable to 64K. 



Peripherals 

These include the popular Heath IZenith 
19 Smart Video Terminal, loaded with 
professional features. And the 14 Line 
Printer, priced as low as $495. Other 
printer brands are on display, 
including high- '*? 
speed, typewriter-^* 
quality printers. «■.., 



Th 
sp 




3. Software 

Word processing, includes reliable, easy-to-use 

Zenith Electronic Typing and powerful, full-featured 

WORDSTAR. 

Small Business Programs, feature General Ledger and 

Inventory Control. 

HUG, Heath Users' Group, offers members a library of 

over 500 low-cost programs for home, work or play. 

4. Programming Languages 

For your own custom programs, 
Microsoft languages are 
available in BASIC (compiler 
and interpreter), FORTRAN 
and COBOL. 

5. Operating Systems 

Three versatile systems give you the capability to per- 
form your specific tasks. 

CPIM by Digital Research makes your system com- 
patible with thousands of popular CP/M programs. 
UCSD P-System with Pascal is a complete program 
development and execution environment. 
HDOS, Heath Disk Operating System gives you a 
sophisticated, flexible environment for program 
construction, storage and editing. 






6. Utility Software 

Expand the performance range of your computer with 
a broad selection of utility tools, including the best of 
Digital Research and the complete line of innovative 
Softstuff products. 

7. Disk Systems 

The 8-inch Heath/Zenith 47 

Dual Disk System adds over 2 

megabytes of storage to your 

89 Computer. Diskettes are 

standard IBM 3740 format, double-sided, 
double-density. 

The 5V*-inch 87 Dual Disk System adds 
200K bytes of storage to your 89. Both 
disk systems feature read/write protec- 
tion and easy plug-in adaptability. 



8. Self-Study Courses 

Learn at your own pace 
with Programming 
Courses that teach you 
to write and run your own 
programs in Assembly, 
BASIC, Pascal or 
COBOL. 

A course on Computer Concepts 
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REASONS TO MAKE 
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where Heath /Zenith Products are displayed, sold and serviced. 



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..input/output.. 




CerfsUp 



Dear Editor: 

We enjoyed your recent articles on computer Othello. We 
are concerned, however, that some of the square ranking 
recommendations contained in these articles may lead pro- 
grammers astray. A recent informal survey of the best players 
and programmers in the United States Othello Association 
produced a virtually unanimous judgment: programs based 
upon the old idea of "square values" suffer from an inherent 
weakness which severely limits their potential. They may be 
quite effective against random play or against programs which 
maximize disc-count at each move, but they will be no match 
for programs based on more up-to-date strategies. 

Today's best Othello players (be they human or machine) 
are not particularly concerned with occupying the so-called 
"good" squares. Rather they seek to gain control of the game 
by so restricting their opponent's flexibility (that is. their 
opponent's store of legal options at each turn) they can for all 
practical purposes dictate where their opponent must move. 
It is sometimes possible to engineer this type of advantage 
relatively early in the game, and properly handled, it can 
often be perpetuated until such time as the controlling player 
can begin to accumulate stable (permanently unflippable) 
discs. 

Given the above, we believe that the strategy advice offered 
by Stephen Kimmel (which leans heavily on Goro Hasegawa's 
lamentable "How to Win at Othello") is extremely unreliable, 
and that the algorithm offered by David Levy could be improved 
in two ways. 

First, "structural" factors (square rankings) should be all 
but eliminated, perhaps retaining only a slight positive value 
for unoccupied corners and negative values for the contiguous 
squares. Second, the computer should monitor the opposition's 
"mobility" as well as its own, striving to minimize the former 
and maximize the latter. This will insure that the program 
thinks offensively as well as defensively. 

The quality of Othello programming is improving rapidly, 
and some excellent work has recently been done by Paul 
Rosenbloom, Charlie Heath. Dan and Kathe Spracklen. and 
Peter Frey and Larry Atkin. to name only a few. In order to 
stimulate further improvement, the United States Othello 
Association is currently organizing a 1982 computer Othello 
tournament; anyone interested in participating should write: 
USOA. P.O. Box 342. Falls Church, VA 22046. 

Jonathan Cerf 

World Othello Champion 

George Sullivan 

Editor, Othello Quarterly 

Post Office Box 342 

Falls Church. VA 22046 



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11 



put. ..input/oulput...mput...intiut/oi9lput... input. ..inpu 



Square Deal 



Dear Editor: 

I enjoyed Stephen Kimmel's article on the computer Othello 
tournament [Creative Computing, July, 1981). The author 
provided a delightful blow-by-blow account and the ultimate 
outcome was very satisfying— the good guy won. 

I would like to inform your readers that the winning program 
is no longer available. I have recently finished a new Othello 
program which is written in assembly language for both the 
TRS-80 and Apple and is packed with user features. 

It is available from Odesta Publishing. 920 Pitner Ave., 
Evanston, IL60201. 

I believe my new program, like its predecessor, is more 
than equal to the competition, and would welcome another 
tournament which pits my new program against all comers, 
including those which have recently been advertised as champ- 
ions. 

Peter W. Frey 

Visiting Professor 

University of California, Santa Cruz 

Santa Cruz. CA 95064 

Where Are You When We Need You? 

Dear Editor: 

I own an Ohio Scientific Challenger IP. and I believe that 
my computer, and all OSI computers in general, are frequently 
misrepresented. OSI computers are continually left out of 
comparison lists of "Popular Computers" whether the article 
is about hardware. Basic, or other software. The annoying 
fact is that OSI is not there. 

When an article does include OSI, i.e. "What can you buy 
for under $1000" (Vol. 7. No. 9) The facts sometimes get 
distorted. "The challenger format which includes a disk drive. 
C1PMF. offers 30K initially which can be expanded to 62K." 
Neither of the memory figures is correct. Due to I/O allocations, 
the C1P series cannot be expanded beyond 32K, expanding 
to 62K would mean pulling out the Basic ROMs, as they and 
the Monitor constitute the upper I0K of memory. (The 6502 
can address only 64K of memory.) 

With the new C1P series II, it is necessary to add a 630 
expander board to the computer to get the new options: 
sound, joysticks, keypads and an important option you didn't 
include. VIC-like (or actually C4P-like) color. 



Finally, you didn't bother to include OSI's C4P and C8P 
cassette-based computers in your article. These are still below 
$1000 before disks are added. As an OSI owner, I rarely see 
any articles pertaining to my computer, though I intend to 
write some. But I would like to see my computer get its fair 
share in general articles. Please try to help me out. 

Howard Ship 
P.O. Box 103 
Randolph. MA 02368 

We would like to print articles on the CIP. C4P, and C8P. 
hut receive very few submissions. We need good articles and 
programs. — GB 



Password Plus 

Dear Editor: 

In the August 1981 issue of Creative Computing a reader 
was puzzled over how to include passwords in a program, and 
keep them secret. 

Here is one solution that I have found. The only way to do 
this is with a line editor, as you mentioned. A good one. is the 
"Progam Line Editor" (PLE) from Synergistic Software. 

In a checkbook program I am developing I hide the password 
behind a REMark statement. Using the PLE. insert control- 
Hs within the remark statement to backspace over the line. 
For example, the following line is from my program: 

3 PW$ = "HOBBIT";REM hhhhhhhhhhhhhPASSWORD 
CODE \Nv\ 

The "h" is a control-H and the " \ " is a space. The line will 
be listed as: 

3 PW$ = PASSWORD CODE 

The control-Hs will backspace over the Rem and the 
password, then "PASSWORD CODE" will be printed over 
the line that you do not wish to be seen. It is important to 
include spaces at the end of the line so that any characters 
not covered by the message will be erased. You could wipe 
out the entire line if you wish: just include enough control-Hs 
and spaces to cover the line. You can even use control-Js to 
issue line feeds or control-Ks to move the cursor up a line or 
two. 

Randy Reeves 

13451 Little Ranch Rd. 

Cypress, TX 77429 




BLOUGHf Buzz UGH I 
ICK! CLICK I CAN'T 
STAND WATCHING 
OPERATIONS/ 



Hal Gerhardt 




12 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 





$30 lets you take 

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VisiCalc is a trademark of Personal Software Inc. , which is the exclusive world-wide publisher and distributor of the VisiCalc program. 



IBM Personal 
Computer 

The Big Blue Giant 
Makes Its Move 



Betsy Staples 



"Didn't they make any mistakes?" asked 
one of our staff members in disbelief upon 
hearing our description of the new IBM 
Personal Computer. 

"Not that we could see," was the 
response. 

The long-awaited, much-heralded, 
frequently-leaked IBM Personal Computer 
was introduced by IBM on August 12, 
1981 at the largest press conference the 
company has hosted since the introduction 
of the 360 in the mid-1960s. 

And, indeed, it appears that IBM has 
done just about everything right. Upon 
first inspection, the machine seems to have 
everything a personal computer user could 
want: high resolution graphics, sound, disk 
drives, printer, lots of memory, system 
software, business applications software, 
word processing software, game software, 
a reasonable price and the IBM name. 

The new computer, which uses a 16-bit 
8088 mpu, is designed for business, school 
and home use and. unlike other IBM 
products, doesn't even have a number. It 
is aimed squarely at the consumer market, 
as evidenced in another departure from 
IBM tradition, the decision to sell through 
retail stores. Beginning in October, the 
Personal Computer will be sold through 
participating ComputerLand dealers and 
Sears, Roebuck, and Co.'s new business 
machine stores. It will also be available 
through IBM Product Centers and a special 
sales unit in the Data Processing Divi- 
sion. 

The price of the basic unit is $1565. A 
system with 64K of memory, monitor and 
disk drive would be around $3000, and an 
expanded system for business use with 
color graphics, two disk drives and printer 
would cost about $4500. 

Hardware 

The complete system consists of the 
"system unit" which houses the mpu, 
memory and optional disk drives; a 20" x 
8" x 2" keyboard which attaches to the 
system unit with a 6' spiral cable; a 
monochrome display for which a black 
and white or color television may be 
substituted; and a dot matrix printer. 




The printer bears a striking resemblance 
to the Epson MX-80, but members of the 
press were told that it could not possibly 
be an MX-80 since it has a two-tone case 
and the IBM logo on the front. Whatever 
its name, it prints at 80 cps bidirectionally, 
and features a 9 x 9 character matrix; 12 
type styles; a choice of 40, 66, 80 or 132 
characters per line; and page spacing and 
column skip for word processing. (A 
complete evaluation of the MX-80 can be 
found in Creative Computing, July 1981.) 



It appears that IBM has 
done just about 
everything right. 



A spokesman for IBM would not spec- 
ulate on plans to offer a letter-quality 
printer, but added that the computer has 
a standard RS-232 interface and may be 
used with many of the printers currently 
on the market. 

The memory is divided into 40K of 
ROM and 16K of user memory which 
may be expanded by combining plug-in 
chips and boards to 256K. The optional 
one or two disk drives acccomodate the 5 
1/4" diskettes with a storage capacity of 
160K bytes each. The system unit also 
contains five system expansion slots through 
which other peripherals, including com- 
munications devices and joysticks or 
paddles, may be connected. 

The monochrome display offers 25 lines 
of 80 characters of text on an 11 1/2" 
screen, upper and lower case, underlining, 
high intensity blinking characters, and 
reverse image. 

One of the nicest components of the 
system is the 83-key, typewriter-like key- 
board, which offers access to 256 charac- 
ters, including APL symbols and foreign 
punctuation marks. It includes a numeric 
keypad and 10 function keys, and features 
"tactile feedback" (IBMese for "very nice 
touch"). 



Graphics and Sound 

Although the demonstration at the press 
conference was geared to the general press 
and did not provide much detail regarding 
the graphics and sound systems, it was 
quite apparent that these features will set 
it apart from its competition. 

The color graphics system can display 
any of the 256 characters in any of 16 
foreground and 8 background colors. There 
are two levels of resolution: medium, which 
is 320 x 200 pixels, and high, which is 640 
x 200 pixels. 

We were very impressed with the high 
speed animation with simultaneous sound 
(all in Basic) which composed part of the 
demonstration, and with the ability of the 
machine to create "business graphics"— 
graphs, pie charts, etc.— in color. 



System Software 

The "cassette level" of the Basic Inter- 
preter is included in ROM on the basic 
system. It is based on Microsoft Basic; 
provides I/O instructions for entry and 
retrieval of data; and supports the key- 
board, display, light pen and printer as 
well as a full complement of editing and 
mathematical functions. 

The "diskette and advanced levels" are 
optional. The diskette extension supports 
the use of disk drives, while adding date, 
time of day and communications capabil- 
ities to the system. The advanced extension 
enchances the display graphics to include 
features such as point, circle and get/put 
display, while increasing light pen and 
joystick support for design work and home 
entertainment. 

The IBM Personal Computer DOS 
supports the disk drives, allowing the user 
to write or read from disk, display a 
directory, and rename, erase, display or 
copy files. 

Also available are a Pascal compiler 
and UCSD p-System, as well as CP/M-86 
from Digital Research, all designed to 
allow easy transfer of currently available 



14 



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NEW THIS FALL: our advanced high resolution 
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Easy to mix text and graphics. 



CLEAR m Iff KFML lffJNf' feFSW KFSTR MM M EWE FI£L» 
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A good right hand at work. 

Five programmable function keys. 



Text processing in up to 8 colors. 

And 36. 40. 72. and 80 columns. 



The image is the reality 



These are unretouched 
photos of monitor 
screen images produced 
by the NEC PC -8000 
Series microcomputer 
system. 

In addition to this 
dramatic and easy-to-use 
graphics capability, the 
system also supports 
CP/M , so you can gain 
immediate access to that 
vast, diverse, and 
well-established library 
of business and 
professional software. 

All of which is over and 
above our own 
NEC general accounting, 
accounts receivable, 
inventory control, data 
base management, 
and word processing 
systems software, 
available right now. 



In fact, the entire PC Series 
story is a very 
impressive one. To see 
the picture for yourself, 
visit your nearest NEC 
America dealer. If you 
don't know who that is 
yet, call one of our 
distributors, and the . 
tell you. 

Comput Distribu: 
Detroit. Ml 
313/288-0000 

High Technology 
St. Louis. MO 
314/838-6502 



Micro Distributors 
Rockville, MD 
301/468-6450 

Microamerica 
Need ham, MA 
617/449-4310 

Renaissance Technology 
Pleasant Hill, CA 
415/930-7707 

Sigma Distributing 
Seattle, WA 
206/454-6307 

Waybern Corporation 
Garden Grove, CA 
714/554-4520 



Productivity 

at your fingertips 



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MAKE 
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• Put FOCUS reports into VISICALC. 

• Use DATADEX files in VISICALC 
models. 

• Link VISICALC P & L models too 
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IBM, continued... 

applications software to the new com- 
puter. 



Applications Software 

Undoubtedly the most useful of the 
optional applications packages offered by 
IBM is the familiar and popular VisiCalc 
from Personal Software. (See Creative 
Computing, August 1980). 

Also available for business users are 
General Ledger, Accounts Receivable and 
Accounts Payable by Peachtree Software. 
And Easywriter from Information 
Unlimited Software has been chosen to 
provide word processing capabilities on 
the machine. (See Creative Computing, 
October 1980.) 

Communications software allows users 
to access such data sources as Dow Jones 
New/Retrieval and The Source. IBM also 
intends to offer a full subset of 3270 
emulation capabilities. 

Finally, we were surprised to note that 
the bastion of "serious computing" lists 
Microsoft Adventure among the available 
applications for it newest computer. 

So serious, in fact, does IBM appear to 
be about offering a library of interesting 
and useful applications software packages 
to their customers, that they have formed 
a new Personal Computer Software Pub- 
lishing Department which will review and 
consider for publication software submitted 
by outside authors. Software information 
packets detailing the submission procedure 
may be obtained by writing: IBM Personal 
Computer Software Submissions, Dept. 
765. Armonk. NY 10504. 



Documentation 

A cursory glance at the documentation 
in the demonstration area revealed several 
feet of manuals describing all aspects of 
the machine- Each is color coded and 
comes in a tidy little box. There was not a 
trace of a mimeographed or photocopied 
page in any of the books; they appear 
complete and ready for distribution. 

Several of the manuals provide design 
specifications and information intended 
to encourage third party software and 
peripheral vendors to support the 
machine. 



Service 

Service is one of the things upon which 
IBM has built its reputation, and the 
company shows no signs of slacking off 
when it comes to the Personal Computer. 
The machines may be serviced at any of 
the retail outlets mentioned above, or the 
user may purchase an annual maintenance 
contract for between 10% and 15% of the 
price of the equipment. Under the main- 
tenance contract, the customer calls IBM 
and specifies which part of the system is 
not working. Within 48 hours, a courier 
appears at the customer's door with a 
replacement for the defective unit. 

The above information is based on 
observations made during demonstrations 
presented by IBM personnel and on 
literature provided by them. Watch these 
pages for an in-depth evaluation in which 
we will let you know if, indeed, IBM has 
succeeded in producing the perfect per- 
sonal computer. □ 



We were very 

impressed with the high 

speed animation with 

simultaneous sound. 




18 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Plain Talk About Business Computers 



"\ 



Can a Small Computer 
Really Save You Time? 



Time is Money 

Theophrastus said time was the most 
valuable thing a man could spend. Fifteen 
centuries later Haliburton agreed saying. 
we reckon hours and minutes to be dollars 
and cents." Today, time is more valuable 
than ever— and more fleeting. 

About the only way to gain time is to use 
it more efficiently and effectively. That's 
where we come in. 

Small Business Computers— by the way. 
the small' refers to computers, not to busi- 
ness—will dramatically increase your effec- 
tiveness and help save you time and money. 
How so? 

You get flagrantly honest evaluations and 
reviews of computers and software. We 
don't just tell you what a program can do; 
we tell you what it doesn't do. what it does 
poorly, and what it should do for the price. 
If advertisers don t like that, we don't want 
their business, and you're better off without 
them. Fortunately, most companies appre- 
ciate our honesty. In fact, one of our 
reviewers has gained a reputation because 
of the many software houses that have 
incorporated his suggestions into their 
products We re proud of that 

Plain Talk 

Small Business Computers explains the 
complexity of today's computerized business 
world without the technical jargon and 
doubletalk that may have held you back 
before. In its easily comprehensible "how- 
to" style. Small Business Computers answers 
your questions while providing the infor- 
mation you need to make some tough 
decisions. As you select, purchase, and 
install your computer system. Small Business 
Computers will guide you through each 
step calmly and comfortably— helping you 
to evaluate your computer needs and avoid 
unnecessary pitfalls. As you use your 
computer, be it mini or micro. Small Business 
Computers will be there to help you do so 
efficiently and with confidence while inform- 
ing you of the latest developments and 
future possibilities of computers in busi- 
ness. 

For Example 

You have just purchased a mailing list 
program. Everything is fine until the file 
has to be sorted by zip code If the program 
has that capability, all is well. If not. you 
have a big problem. If you had just invested 
a few hours reading Small Business Com- 
puters, you would have known what func- 
tions to look for before buying the program; 
you would have known how to plan for 
future needs. That s just one example. 
Expand this concept into other areas, other 
programs and systems, and you can see 
what you get for your investment. 




Added Expertise 

As the newest member of the Creative 
Computing family of fine computer publi- 
cations. Small Business Computers will be 
expanding to offer subscribers more valuable 
information than ever before. Creative 
Computing editors and contributors will be 
unleashing their business expertise in Small 
Business Computers through articles, eval- 
uations and applications of particular interest 
to the business person. Creative Computing 
has a reputation of editorial excellence and 
integrity built on unbiased, in-depth product 
evaluations; articles by top thinkers in the 
field; and pragmatic, innovative applica- 
tions. 

One management consulting firm, for 
example, used the Shell-Metzner sort 
described in Creative, and saved $3000 a 
month, and we still receive letters thanking 
us for the hardhitting, candid, evaluation 
of word processing printers we published 
over a year ago. and which, incidentally, 
cost us several advertisers. 

All this knowledge and experience will 
now be available to business people in 
Small Business Computers 

So. don t let anyone give you that old 
story about how complicated and difficult 
computers are We don t buy that. Our 
magazine— our whole philosophy— revolves 
around the sharing of honest information. 
If you don t know where to start, we'll put 
you on the right track. If you're already on 
the road, we II show you the best route. 



For Any Size Business 

Whatever your business— manufacturing 
or banking, retail or research— Small Busi- 
ness Computers will increase your efficiency 
and help save you time and money. 

Subscribe today; Small Business Com- 
puters is the best consultant your business 
will ever have. 

Order Today 

To order your subscription to Small Business 
Computers send $12 00 for 1 year (6 issues) 
If you prefer, call our toll free number 800- 
631-8112 lin N.J. 201-540-0445) to put 
your subscription on your Master Card. Visa, 
or American Express card. Canadian and 
other foreign surface subscriptions are 
$18 .00 per year and must be pre-paid We 
guarantee that you will be completely 
satisfied or we will refund the remaining 
portion of your subscription. 
Send orders to: 



Small 

Business Computers 



Magazine 



39 E. Hanover Ave 

Morris Plains. NJ 07950 

800-631-8112 

(In NJ 201-540-0445) 



NOVEMBER 1981 



19 



CIRCLE 290 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



M 



ta 



Passport to Great Sound 



m 



aJ 



Dawd Ltvbar 

Passport Designs has given 
Apple owners a chance to 
become musicians, and musicians 
a reason to buy Apples. The 
Soundchaser Computer Music 
system integrates a keyboard, 
synthesizers, and software, producing a 
very nice package. The keyboard is a 
beauty, housed in wood and well made. 
The three-voice synthesizers are versatile, 
and contain dip switches for various 
settings. The software is easy to use and 
visually excellent. Set-up is fairly simple: 
the keyboard attaches by ribbon cable to 
a card in slot seven. Two synthesizer boards 
go into slots two and four. After connecting 
the cards to a speaker using standard 
RCA plugs (not included), the system is 
ready to run. 

Upon booting the disk, the software 
brings in an orchestra. The orchestra 
consists of four instrument definitions and 
four sequences. A sequence is a series of 
notes and chords which can be cycled 
repeatedly, producing backup, rhythm, 
or half of a duet. The opening menu gives 
a choice of HELP. DISK. EDIT, or 
SEQ(uence). HELP provides a summary 
of the system. DISK allows the user to 
load or save files. EDIT is where instru- 
ments are created or altered. And 
SEQUENCE allows recording and playback 
of sequences. 

The EDIT section presents a split 
graphics screen, beneath which are text 
items. The top half of the screen is used 
for displaying waveforms. The lower half 
contains a graphic representation of various 
slides and switches. The creation of 
instruments is rather fascinating, and can 
be educational as well. For instance. El is 
the amplitude envelope. Using one of the 
game paddles, the user can draw a new 
envelope, then mark the sustain portion. 
He can then immediately give a PLAY 




creative 
computing 
equipment 
evaluation 



command, go to the keyboard, and hear 
the results of the change. With two 
envelopes lone for amplitude and one 
that modulates the pitch of the oscillator) 
and two low frequency oscillators under 
software control, the user can define a 
broad range of instrument sounds, and 
create special effects. It's quite interesting 
to hear the changes produced by relocating 
the sustain point or changing the shape of 
an envelope. 

More control is offered through the 
voice panel. One switch changes the range 
of octaves available from the keyboard. 
With four positions on the switch, and 
four (K'taves on the keyboard, this produces 
a range of seven octaves, though, of course, 
the user is limited to four at any one time. 
Other switches assign the second envelope 



to the oscillator or filter. The 
slides control filter range, filter 
resonance, envelope time, and 
filter time. Adding to the options, 
dip switches on the synthesizer 
card select between square and 
triangle waves. There is enough power 
here for serious work, and plenty of 
flexibility for fun experimentation. 

The EDITOR was tackled by a com- 
bined group of musicians and programmers. 
We were able to produce a variety of 
effects, ranging from pleasing organ tones 
to bizarre instruments that played one 
note when a key was pressed, followed by 
an octave scale after the key was released. 
The visual nature of the display greatly 
aided instrument development. Needless 
to say. both the musicians and the pro- 
grammers had a good time. 

Moving to the SEQUENCER, the instru- 
ments can be put through their paces. 
The first step is to select one of four 
instruments, assign it to a sequence, then 
lay down a track. The computer will record 




20 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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18 



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COMPUTING § 



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fl 



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KRAM (disk) $99 95 now $44.47 

Super KRAM (disk) S175 00now $144.77 

Request (disk) S225 00 now $141.17 

Thinker (disk) $495 00 now $424.77 

Space Intruders (cass ) $19 95 now $14.47 

All MICRO-ED 1»%4>*ILIst 

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We maintain a huge inventory of Apple software and 
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#18 SOFTWARE 



ULTIMATE SOFTWARE PLAN 



We'll match any advertised price 
on any item that we carry. And if 
you find a lower price on what you 
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it. just show us the ad and we'll 
refund the difference. 
It's that simple. 



Combine our price protection 
with the availability of full profes- 
sional support and our automatic 
update service and you have the 
Ultimate Software Plan. 

It's a convenient, uncomplicated, 
logical way to get your software. 



ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 

Medical! PAS-3) (849/(40 

Denial (PAS-3) (849/(40 

ASVST DESIGN 

Pro! Time Accounting $549 $40 
<s General Subroutine $269 $40 
-- Application Utilities (439/(40 
COMPLETE BUS SYSTEMS 
Creator »269/$2S 

Reporter $169(20 

Both (399/(45 

COMPUTER CONTROL 
Fabs IB-tree) d 59/(20 

UltraSortll (159/(25 

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Pearl (level 1) ( 99 $25 

Pearl (level 2) $299 $40 

^ Pearl (level 3) $549/$50 
DIGITAL RESEARCH 
CP/M 2 2 

NorthStar JI49/S25 
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Micropolis $169 $25 

Cromemco $189 $25 

PL/l-80 $459/$35 

• BT-80 »179/»30 

Mac » 85/* 15 

Sid S 65/S15 

Z-Sid S 90/* 15 

Tex t 90/J15 



\S (New items or new prices) 

CP/M users specily disk systems and formats Most formats available 



MICROSOFT 

BasiC-80 $289/$na 

Basic Compiler *329/$na 

Fortran-80 *349/*na 

Cobol-80 *574/*na 

M-Sort $124/$na 

Macro-80 *144/*na 

Edit-80 * 84/*na 

MuSimp/MuMath $224/$na 

MuLiSP-80 $174/$na 
ORGANIC SOFTWARE 



OeSpool 

DMA 

Ascom 

DMA-DOS 

CBS 

Formula 

GRAHAM-DORIAN 

General Ledger 

Acct Receivable 

Acct Payable 

Job Costing 

Payroll II 

Inventory II 

Payroll 

Inventory 

Cash Register 

Apartment Mgt 

Surveying 

Medical 

Dental 

MICRO AP 

S-Basic 

Selector IV 



* 50/* 10 

(149/(15 
*179/*35 
*369/*45 
$539*45 

$729 $40 
J729/J40 
*729/*40 
*729/*40 
*729/*40 
*729/*40 
*493/*40 



• TextWriter III *111/*25 
DateBcok II *269/*25 

*- Milestone *269/*30 

OSBORNE 
General Ledger 
Acct Rec/Acct Pay 
Payroll w/Cost 
All 3 

All 3 + CBASIC-2 
PEACHTREE 1 
General Ledger 
Acct Receivable 
Acct Payable 

Payroll *399/*40 

Inventory (399/(40 

Surveyor *399/*40 

Property Mgt (799/(40 

CPA Client Write-up *799/*40 

• P5 Version Add » 1 29 
SOFTWARE WORKS 
Adapt (COOS toCP/M) * 69/*na 
Rattor t 86/Sna 

SOHO GROUP 

MatchMaker i 97/J20 

Worksheet *177/*20 

STRUCTURED SYSTEMS 

GLorARorAPorPay *599/*40 
Inventory Control *599/*40 

Analyst *199/*25 

Lettenght *179/*25 

QSort i 89/*20 



PASCAL 

Pascal/MT-i- *429/*30 

Pascal/Z $349 $30 

• Pascal/UCSD 4 *429/*50 
* Pascal/M *189.'*20 

WORD PROCESSING' 

• WordSearch * 179/150 
SpellGuard *229/*25 
VTS/80 *259/*65 
Magic Wand »289/*45 
Spell Binder (349(45 

OTHER GOODIES 

The Last One (549/S95 

SuperCalc *269/*50 



t 59/* 20 

* 59/S20 

* 59/J20 
1129/J60 
*199/*75 

(399/(40 
(399/(40 
(399/(40 



Targ 



$189/(30 
(149/(15 
(149/(15 
( 89/(50 
(229/(50 
( 98/(20 
(129/(25 



irget 
BSTAM 

*» BSTMS 
Tiny "C" 

Tiny C Compiler 
CBASIC-2 
Nevada Cobol 

• MicroStat (224/(25 

Vedit (105/(15 

MiniModel (449/(50 

StatPak (449,(40 

Micro B+ (229/(20 

Raid (224/(35 

Strmg/80 ( 84/(20 



String/80 (source) 
^ ISIS II 
• Plan 80 



INFO UNLIMITED 
EasyWnter 
Datadex 
Other 



(279/(na 
(199/(50 
(269/(30 



(224 
(349 

less 15 i, 



SUPERSOFT 

Diagnostic I 
Diagnostic II 
Disk Doctor 



(493/(40 * Forth (8080 or Z80) 



(493/(40 
(493/(40 
(729/(40 
(729/(40 
(729/(40 

(269/(25 
(469/(35 



MICRO DATA BASE SYSTEMS 



HDBS (269/(35 

MDBS (795/(40 

^DRSorQRSorRTL (269/(10 
MDBSPKG (1295/(60 
MICROPRO 

WordStar (319/(60 

Customization Notes ( 89/(na 

Mail-Merge (109/(25 
WordStar/ Mail-Merge (419/(85 

DataStar (249/(60 

WordMaster (119/(40 

SuperSortl (199/(40 

^ Spell Star (175/(40 



Fortran 

Fortran w/Ratfor 

Other 

TCS 

GL or AR or AP or Pay 

All 4 

UNICORN 
** Mince 
* Scribble 
• Both 

WHITESMITHS 
"C" Compiler 

Pascal (incIC) 



( 49/(20 
( 84/(20 
( 84/(20 
(149/(30 
(219/(30 
(289/(35 
less 10% 

( 79/(25 
(269/(99 

(149/(25 
(149/(25 
(249/(50 



(600/(30 
(850/(45 



MICROSOFT 

Soltcard (Z-80 CP/M) (259 

Fortran ( 1 79 

Cobol (499 

MICROPRO 

Wordstar (269 

MailMerge (99 

Wordstar/MailMerge (349 

Super Sort I ( 1 59 

PERSONAL SOFTWARE 

Visicalc3 3 (159 

CCA Data Mgr ( 84 

Desktop/Plan II (159 

Visiterm (129 

Visidex (159 

Visiplot (149 



Visi trend /Visiplot 
Zork 

PEACHTREE* 

General Ledger 
Acct Receivable 
Acct Payable 
Payroll 
Inventory 



(229 
( 34 

(224/(40 

(224/(40 
(224/(40 
(224/(40 
(224/(40 



DATABASE 

FMS-80 (649/(45 

dBASE II (629/(50 

Condor II (899/(50 

Access/80 (749/(50 



'OTHER GOODIES 

dBASE II (329/(50 
• VU »3R 

lusew/Visicalc) (79 

Super-Text II (127 

Data Factory (134 

DB Master (184 

Charles Mann less 1 5% 

STC less 1 5% 



ORDERS ONLY-CALL TOLL FREE VISA • MASTERCHARGE 

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TWX 910-321-3597 BVHL Attn: DiscSoft 



Sound Chaser, continued... 

what is played, and replay it exactly, so 
timing is important. If the player makes a 
mistake, he has to do the whole thing 
over again. Not hard for a musician, but a 
task for those programmers who barely 
remember the bass line for Heart and 
Soul. With a sequence recorded, the fun 
starts. It can be replayed while something 
different is done live on the keyboard. A 
tempo control allows sequences to be 
replayed at sixteen different speeds. The 
new tempo is relative to the one used 
when the sequence was defined. Thus a 
sequence recorded at tempo eight can be 
played slower or faster. A sequence 
recorded at sixteen (the slowest tempo) 
can be speeded up but not played slower. 
The disk contains a good selection of 
sequences, mostly of the backup-rhythm 
sort. Pleasing sequences and instrument 
definitions can be saved to disk. 

At the moment, the system is limited to 
six voices, though there is talk of interfacing 
it with the Mountain Card. Using two 
oscillators per voice, this would provide 
an eight-voice system. When playing live 
music along with a sequence, the keyboard 
has priority. Thus, if more than six notes 
are played simultaneously, notes will be 
dropped from the sequence. 

The manual contains clear descriptions 
of all operations, accompanied with dia- 
grams of the screen. An appendix on 
synthesizer functions includes good back- 
ground information on the technical aspects 
of sound generation. For those with a 
bent toward machine language, the manual 
provides a sample assembler routine to 
access the Soundchaser keyboard. 

The Soundchaser keyboard costs $650. 
Synthesizer boards are $350 each. Software 
is provided free of charge to customers 
purchasing the keyboard and at least one 
synthesizer. The software requires a 48K 
Apple with Applesoft and one disk drive. 

Passport Designs, Inc., 785 Main St., 
Suite E. Half Moon Bay, CA 94109. □ 

' YOU A c>"J f tn < ; 

\ «* * yon. r I--- 




CIRCLE 131 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



22 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Introducing STC's Low-Cost Coloring Board 

Put some 
color 
in your 
Apple 
for only 
$60. 









$60. vs. 800. 

Introducing low-cost color 

graphics for Apple computers. 

To our knowledge, many other 
color graphic capabilities for the 
Apple cost at least $800. Now 
you can create, change, store 
and retrieve colored drawings 
for only $60. with STC's new 
Coloring Board program. 

For Education, Business, 
Industry, Entertainment. 

There are virtually unlimited uses 
for the Coloring Board, any 
situation that can benefit from 
graphic displays: classroom 
instruction, sales meetings, engi- 
neering parts drawings, home 
entertainment, you name it. You 
get high resolution and six colors: 
black, blue, white, green, orange 
and violet. You can combine 
graphics with alphanumerics of 
various sizes and colors, upper 
and lower case. 



Easy and Fun To Use. 

The Coloring Board is easy to 
learn and fun to use. No special 
equipment is needed, just your 
standard Apple game paddles 
(or joystick) and keyboard. 
And we've made it even easier. 
You can automatically generate 
arcs, circles, squares, rectangles, 
ellipses, triangles and other 
shapes. In addition, the basic 
package comes with a map of the 
world, a map of the U.S., a space 
shot and more. What's more, 
you can directly output your 
graphics to a printer. 

All for only $60. 



Contact Your Local STC Dealer. 

We'll be happy to direct you to 
your local StC Coloring Board 
dealer. Just write or call Software 
Technology for Computers, P.O. 
Box 428, Belmont, Ma. 02178. 
(617)923-4334. 

Be sure to look at our other 
business packages as well. 

Dealer inquiries invited. 

(Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer 
Company) 




SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY tor COMPUTERS 

PO Box 428. Belmont. MA 02178(617) 923-4334 



CIRCLE 281 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



c w. . . dateline : tomo wo w. . . tte 



David H. Ahl 



BELL LABS' 32-BIT MPU RUNS C AND UNIX 



Bell Labs' MAC-32 is a true 32-bit mpu with every data and address bus, CPU 
register and instruction having 32 bits. With an effective clock rate of 32 MHz, the 
MAC-32 should grossly outperform virtually every other 16 and 32 bit mpu currently 
available. 

Since the MAC-32 was designed for use in AT&T telecommunictions applications, it 
is optimized for data manipulation using C and Unix. As a result, it has many data types 
including words, half words, bytes, bit fields and blocks; split CPU control with separate 
fetch and execute units; and 16 on-chip registers of 32 bits each. 

Although currently not intended for use outside of the Bell System, that could 
change with the advent of commercial marketing through the unregulated "Baby Bell" 
subsidiary. 

CAN ACORN BECOME AN OAK TREE OVERNIGHT? 

Acorn, a British firm founded in 1978 was doing nicely with their Atom kit 
computer. However, founder Christopher Curry convinced the BBC early this year that a new 
Acorn computer could meet the BBC's requirements for their TV educational courses. 

Simultaneously, Acorn was negotiating with the Dept. of Industry to have an Acorn 
ccomputer approved for the Government 50% grant for secondary schools which install 
computers for teaching purposes. 

Now, approved for both programs, Acorn has contracted for manufacturing at three 
plants in the U.K. as well planning additional production in Hong Kong, Australia and the 
United States 

Cost of the Acorn BBC machine is about $500. Sure, apples are bigger than acorns. 
But oak trees are much bigger than apple trees. 

THE MEDIA DISCOVERS COMPUTER SIMULATIONS 

For news stories that last more than a week or so, media people start looking for 
new angles to keep the public interested. Lately these angles have involved several small 
computer software packages. 

Creative Computing's Air Traffic Controller package was featured on the AP 
newswire which led to TV spots on NBC, ABC and PBS; ten radio interviews and numerous 
newspaper and magazine mentions including articles in Time and the Mall St. Journal (in 
which it shared the spotlight with Instant Software's Flightpath ). 

The persistent Medfly led Dick Milewski of The Software Works to quickly bring to 
market MedFly Mania , a simulation which explores ways to bring the fly under control. It, 
along with Creative Computing's STERL program (on the Ecology Simulations I package) were 
featured on many radio and TV shows in August and September. At the rate the flies are 
spreading, these two packages could have a long media life. 

A year ago, Muse's Three-Mile Island program enjoyed similar attention. 

Although it's nice to get free publicity, we'd just as soon avoid this kind for 
our rats infestation and malaria epidemic programs. 



BUSINESSMEN, MANAGERS ARE BIGGEST ON-LINE USERS 

Three times as many businessmen and managers are likely to use "The Source" 
information service than engineers, scientists, professionals or even people in a 
computer- related job. Among the most popular services are research, electronic mail, 
business planning and forecasting, financial market monitoring, personal portfolio 
maintenance and home education. Fifty-six percent of Source users "sign on" three times a 
week or more. 



24 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 






HE GRAPHIC 

DIFFERENCL 

BETWEEN ATARI COMPUTERS AND ALL OTHERS. 




3.7 million reasons why the 
ATARI Personal Computer 
is something to see. 

The display screen used with our computers 
is composed of 192 horizontal lines, each 
containing 320 dots. Delivering color and lu- 
minosity instructions to each dot for a sec- 
ond requires 3.7 million cycles. . .a lot of 
work for the normal 6502 processor. 

That's why the ATARI computer has 
equipped its 6502 with its own electronic as- 
sistant. It's called ANTIC, and it handles all 
the display work, leaving the 6502 free to 
handle the rest. What this means to you is 
uncompromisingly spectacular display capa- 
bilities without loss of computer power need- 
ed to carry out the demands 
of your program. 

That's a quality you just don't find in ordi- 
nary personal computers. And it's one of 
the reasons some computer experts say 
that ATARI computers are so far ahead 
of their time. 

There's more... which is what 
you'd expect from ATARI. 
Language. The ATARI Personal 
Computer uses several program- 
ming languages to give the user 
maximum control of its extraordi- 
nary capabilities. PILOT, Microsoft 
BASIC' and ATARI BASIC are 
understood and spoken by the 
ATARI computer. You'll also 
find our Assembler Editor car- 
tridge indispensable for 



Ml 



machine language programming. 
Sound. An ATARI computer has four sound 
generators, or voices, activated by a sepa- 
rate microchip. This leaves the principal mi- 
croprocessor chips free to perform other 
tasks. And you can take full advantage of 
this capability which is designed 
for easy programming. 
Change. ATARI Personal Computers have 
been designed to make change and expan- 
sion easy. The ATARI computer has a modu- 
lar operating system* that can be easily 
replaced as new technology develops. If you 
need it. memory expansion requires no more 
than inserting additional RAM modules* 
And the ATARI ROM cartridge system also 
makes it easy to change languages. In short, 
your ATARI computer won't be obsoleted by 
future developments . . .because it already 
incorporates the future. 
Sharing. To learn more about the amaz- 
ing capabilities of ATARI computers, visit 
your local computer store for a demon- 
\ stration. Or send for our Technical Us- 
er's Notes, intended for the serious 
programmer. They are only $27 and 
contain a lot more information about 
our computers' special capabilities 
than most companies could tell. 
See your ATARI dealer, or send 
$30 ($27 plus $3 postage and 
handling), payable to ATARI, to 
Technical User's Notes, c/o 
ATARI Customer Service, 1340 
Bordeaux Avenue, Sunnyvale. 
CA. 94086 



ATARI 

Computers for people. 

C 1 981 Atari, Inc. Q A Warner Commumcalions Company 

CIRCLE 123 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



"ATARI 800'" computer only 




plastic. And very nice it looks, ton.' 



and my guess is you shouldn 7 hold 
your breath waiting for them. ' 



n$W:t1ii**l 



build it. 




I ncle ( live has come up with a lovely 
product with enormous appeal and 



'. . . the single stroke keyword entry is 
a joy to use. . . ' 





' you'll have to be careful not to 

haiM your PA I r SEa tOO close together, 
unless you enjoy watching the screen 
Ho absolutely bananas.' 



'Finding your nay round the Keyboara 
is a real hoot — some of the keys have 
file functions.' 




'Hardly high resolution but better than 
a poke in the eye with a sharp stick.'' 



'Kids will love it (so will Dads). 





The idea of producing a superior 
machine to the ZXSO and selling it fo 



'...I suspect that more than a few people 
who are already familiar u -ith computers 



'When loading a program, the pattern 
on the screen shows you irhen data 
is being recognized. ' 



treatiue 
computing 
equipment 
eunluatian 



This M'i ievn of the Sinclair ZXHI is reprinted from our "sister" publication. Personal Computer World, in 
England. Although the ZX81 was not vet available in the I ' S. at the time this issue went t<> press {August 
1981), »<■ anticipate that if it has not been introduced h\ the time vou read this, it will be m the near future. 
I'm es mentioned have been converted to their approximate equivalents in I S dollars, and we expect that 
certain features peculiar to Britain (such as programs referring to pounds, shillings and pence) will be 
modified for the U.S. model I IIS 




David Tebbutt 



Right from the start. I had better 
explain that the ZX81 costsSlOOin kit 
form and SIS) ready-built and, as such, 
represents absolutely amazing value for 
motley. Whatever shortcomings are high- 
lighted in this Benchtest must be 
weighed against this fact. 

Like the ZX80. its predecessor, the 
ZX81 will be available by mail-order 
and, by the time you read this, deli- 
veries should be coming through, dive 
Sinclair tells me that he plans to up 
production to 10,000 units per month 
starting in April and that he'll be pro- 



fewer of you order the new machine per 
month, delivery should be swift. 

Sinclair has been a bit cheeky in his 
advertisements. I'ndera column entitled 
'New, improved features', hi' proceeds 
to mention three things that were in- 
cluded in the ZX80 when it was 
launched over a year ago! 

For the benefit of those unfamiliar 
with the ZX80. it was the first ready 
built computer to break the psycho 
logical $200 price barrier. It was well 
made but looked slightly cheap in its 
lightweight plastic case and with its 
shiny keyplate. The "keys' were printed 
on a plastic membrane with a metallised 
back: when each 'key' was pressed, the 
metallic back came in contact with PCB 
tracks, shorting them to complete the 
appropriate circuit. The system plugged 
into the domestic television to give an 
extremely clear display, and program 
storage could be made onto the home 
cassette recorder The ZX80 came with 
Ik of user memory (HAM) and a Ik 
operating system Basic language chip. 

The main limitations of the ZX80 
were the fact that it could not handle 
loating point numbers or cassette files. 
Also, when first launched, memory ex- 
pansion came a bit expensive but this 
changed when the 16k plug-in RAM 



sonai Computer World, 1-4 Rathhone Place, 
London W1P 11)1 



became available. The ZX80 certainly 

represented a great step forward and 
offered excellent value for money for 
people wanting to learn about com- 
puting. 

So what in the ZX81 is new. com- 
pared with the ZX80'.' First, an extra 
4k of ROM is provided, which allows 
30-odd additional functions to be in- 
corporated. This will also drive the 
printer (expected in the summer). I 
couldn't test this, but 1 have seen it 
working. It is an electrosensitive printer 
requiring aluminised paper, the surface 
is burnt off by an electrical 
e to reveal the black paper 
underneath. Don't study the photos 
too closely, because they show a model, 
not the real thing. The ZX81 costs an 
ama/ing SH) less than the ZXSO, thanks 
lc tome neat design consolidation in a 
Ferranti chip custom-built to Sinclair's 
requirements. The total number of chips 
in the basic system is four, against the 
ZXHO's 21. Hie ZX81 and its peripheral 
products are all cased in sturdy black 
ABS plastic. And very nice it looks, too 

Hardware 

Although physically smaller than the 
ZXHI), the new machine weighs in at 
13oz, about 2oz heavier than its pre- 
decessor. The system needs a IMF 
television, a cassette recorder and a 
power supply to make it usable 

On my colour television the screen is 
a pleasant green and all characters are 
displayed in black. The machine offers 
no colour facilities and my guess is that 
you shouldn't hold your breath waiting 
for them. I suspect that a projection 
system based on three of Uncle dive's 
miniature TV tubes might appear one 
day but. then again. I also suspect that 
he'd introduce another computer to 
take advantage of this. The displa) is 21 
lines of 32 characters of which two lines 
are reserved for system messages and 
commands. Low resolution graphics are 
provided to give 64 by 11 plotting 
points. As with the ZX80, the display is 
very clear and rock-steady. 



I'm pleased to see that the new 
power supply has its own flying lead for 
the attachment of a normal mains plug. 
(The ZX80 was awkwardly designed 
with an integral plug which often 
needed an additional socket or ex ten 
sion lead.) This power supply must give 
600 mA at 9V but, since the ZX81 
draws close to this, the standard power 
supplies actually give 700 m.\ and I 
would recommend that readers using 
their own supplies go for the higher 
rating, too. 

Once again, the keyboard is formed 
by 



chemicals, Coca Cola, cigarette ash, 
monkeys, editors, etc I. The keyboard 
layout is different from the ZXHO's so, 
if you're upgrading, prepare to make a 
few mistakes at first. At the same time 
it is an improvement, since each key 
word is frequently placed at or mar its 
initial letter. (All sou have to do now is 
learn the qwertv layout ' | 

Here are a few ideas for Uncle dive: 
a plug-in battery pack, a plug in single 
line LCI) display and a remote (infra-red 
or ultrasonic) facility so that you can sit 
in your armchair beaming the display in- 
formation at an aerial adaptor on the 
television. 

Compared with the ZX80, the ZX81 
looks very smart indeed one could 
almost s;n tasteful. It has a nice shape 
and texture and the keyboard is made 
of a non-reflective material, a definite 
improvement . 

The plug-in 16k RAM pack fits to 
the edge of the PCB where it protrudes 
from the rear of the casing. The cursor 
takes a while to appear at switch-on, 
because the system is checking to see 
how much memory is present in order 
to set certain system variables. If you're 
a machine code freak you can reset the 
HAM TOP variables in order to give you 
somewhere safe to tuck your precious 
program. 

Five screws hold the ZXKI together: 



- «••"•■■«•* OHIIUII UIIVII I LIU |;oi|> 

on which the machine stands (footpad 
surely not). You know what I mean 



ZX81 , continued 





those non-skid things. There's a sub- 
stantial heat sink for the regulator under 
the rear of the keyboard — it's a good 
place to warm your hands on a chilly 
morning. The PCB is held into the 
casing by two screws. The keyboard is 
separate from the main PCB and is con- 
nected to it by a couple of flat printed 
cables. The main PCB is well designed 
and neatly made. Assembly of the 
ZX81 is done very professionally by the 
Timex Corporation in Scotland (the 
same people that are making Sinclair's 
latest miniature television). 

The basic ZX81 contains four chips 
- ROM, 3.5 MHz Z80A CPU, Ik 
memory and the Ferranti custom-made 
chip — plus a limited assortment of bits 
and pieces. It's very, very simple — I 
think even I could build it. A few spare 
positions on the board give the manu- 
facturer a certain amount of flexibility 
to tweak the machine to the require- 
ments of different television systems 
and to be prepared in case a memory 
chip famine occurs. The Ferranti chip 
handles all the I O and control signals 
between the various elements of the 
machine. Nosing around inside, I notice 
that it has a very cosmopolitan flavour, 
with memory from Malaysia, the CPU 
and ROM from Japan, a UHF modu- 
lator from the Philippines, a regulator 
from El Salvador and the custom chip 
from Britain. The edge connector is not 
gold-plated (what do you expect for 
$150?); it's just the PCB printing taken 
out to the edge. The 16k RAM pack 
contains two boards connected at the 
edge. One board contains eight 4116s 
which are driven by the other board's 
assortment of seven chips which handle 
the memory addressing and refreshing. 



Software 

The ZX81 syntax-checking is excellent 
because, unlike the ZXSO's. instead of 
operating on each character as it's 
entered, the system waits until NEW- 



LINE is hit. Finding your way around 
the keyboard at first is a real hoot — 
some of the keys have five functions. 
As before, the single stroke keyboard 
entry is a joy to use and the automatic 
spacing inserted by the system makes 
program listings clearly legible. For 
example, if you tried to enter 
10FORN=lTO10, it would appear as 
10 FOR N = l TO 10. Pretty neat, huh? 

Editing is very simple. You position 
the cursor on the line to be modified, 
hit the EDIT key and then make your 
corrections. Additional characters and 
functions are automatically inserted at 
the cursor position within the line 
while RUBOUT deletes the character 
or function to the cursor's left. A touch 
on the NEWLINE key confirms the 
changes. 

The machine can be used as a cal- 
culator but shouldn't be bought for 
that purpose since the precision is less 
than one would expect of such a 
device. It is, however, far better than 
the integer-only ZX80, offering • 
10* /— '* . If numbers get out of hand it 
presents results in standard scientific 
notation. For those who can't readily 
visualise this level of accuracy, 
it means numbers up to 4,294,967, 
295 can be represented with 
complete accuracy. That's 2 32 — 1. The 
smallest positive number is about 4 x 
10~ 39 . Five bytes are needed to store a 
number, which goes a long way to ex- 
plaining why the Benchmark timings are 
slower than with the ZX80, which only 
required two. 

An enormous number of functions 
have been crammed onto this rather 
small keyboard. This has been achieved 
by using two special keys: graphics, 
which allows the user to key all the 
graphic characters as well as the normal 
characters as white on black; and 
function, which allows the user access 
to (surprise, surprise!) special functions. 
A normal mode of operation also exists. 
In addition to all this, the keyboard has 
a bog-standard shift key, thus increasing 
the range of options for each key still 
further. 

The character set is a one-off it's 
not ASCII or anything I recognise. I 
think we'd be safe if we called it ('live 
code. The TV display isn't exactly 
memory-mapped it tends to move 
around and change its size depending on 
what's going on. It is, however, possible 
to find the start of the screen area and 
then to access the screen by PEEKing 
and POKEing the screen locations in the 
buffer. 



Basic 

All but one of the ZX80'i Basic 

functions, plus a substantial number of 
additions, have been incorporated into 
the 8k ROM which drives the ZX81. 
The following commands and state- 
ments are provided over and above the 
old ZX80 repertoire: ASN. ACS. A IN. 
COS. EXP, INKEYS. PI. SON, SIN, 
SQR, INT. I.EN. LN, TAN, VAE, <-, 
>=,<>, COPY, DIMAS, FAST. FOR. . 



COMPUTER CENTER 



SUPER SELECTION & 
DISCOUNT PRICES 



ATARI 




16KBAM $ 90. 

810 DISK DRIVE 4«9. 

410 RECORDER 70. 

850 INTERFACE 160. 



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•2399. 



Z-2H HARD DISK SYSTEM $7899. 

CS-3 SYSTEM THREE 6399. 

CS-2 SYSTEM TWO 3799. 

DDF ADD ON 5-1/4" DUAL DRIVE . . . 1099. 

APPLE II PLUS (48K) $1200. 

DISK II W73.3 CONTROLLER 575. 

DISK II W/O CONTROLLER 499. 

HP 85 

•2750. 



HEWLETT-PACKARD 




28 



HP-83 $1915. 

1 6K RAM 260. 

5-1/4 DUAL MASTER DISK DRIVE . , , 2125. 

HP-IB INTERFACE 340. 

ROM DRAWER 39. 

MASS STORAGE ROM 122. 

VISICALC (TM) PLUS 160. 

^TRS-80 MODEL II 64K $3699." 

TRS-80 MODEL II HARD DISC* 4200. 

TRS-80 MODEL III W/2 DRIVES 48K . . 2200. 

•Available Soon 

TRS-80 it ■ trademark of Tandy Corp. 

COMPUTER CENTER 

DigiByte Systems Corp. 

31 East 31st Street. New York, N.Y. 10016 

OUTSIDE NEW YORK CALL TOLL FREE: 

(800)221-3144 

^ IH NEW YORK CALL |21g| 689-6130 
CIRCLE 173 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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(batwaan Madlion A Park Avanuat) 



COMPUTER CENTER 



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(Amarlcan Brandt Bldg. batwaan 46th & 47th St.) 



presenting the LARGEST SELECTION OF SOFTWARE EVER ASSEMBLED. 



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ATARI 

D MISSILE COMMAND (ATI 3595 

D ASTEROIDS (ATI 3595 

O SPACE INVADERS (AT> 1795 

□ ASSEMBLER DEBUG (AT| 5395 
D BASKETBALL (AT| . 3595 
D VIDEO EASEL-LIFE (AT, 3595 
D SUPER BREAKOUT (ATI 35 95 
D MUSIC COMPOSER (ATI 53 95 

□ COMPUTER CHESS (AT| 2B00 
Q 3-D TIC TAC TOE (ATI 3595 
D STAR RAIDERS (AT) 3595 
O PADDLES (AT| 1795 
D JOYSTICKS (ATI 1795 

ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL 

□ ADVENTURE 40 (T) 625 
D ADVENTURE (1.2.3) |D] (APT I 3595 
D ADVENTURE (4.5.8) |D| (APT) 35 95 
D ADVENTURE (7.8.91 |D| (APT) 35 95 
D ADVENTURE (specify 1-12) (APT AT) 1795 

□ PROJECT OMEGA (T) 1795 

□ PROJECT OMEGA (T| |D| 2250 
D PLANETOIDS |D| (AP| 1795 
D MEAN CHECKERS MACHINE (T) 1795 
D DR CHIPS (T) 1795 
Q KID-VENTURE 1 (AP ,T| 1795 
D LUNAR LANDER IT ATI 17 95 
O MOUNTAIN SHOOT (AT| 1345 

□ SLAG (Ti 1795 

□ STARTREK35 (ATT) 1795 
a STARTREK35 [D] (Ti 1795 
QSUNDAYGOLF (AT| 1355 
D ZOSSED IN SPACE (Ti 17 95 
O SILVER FLASH |T I 1795 
D SILVER FLASH |0| (T) 17 95 
D MISSILE ATTACK |T| 1795 
D STAR SCOUT (T) 1795 
D GALACTIC EMPIRE (ATI 17 95 

AVALON HILL 

D MIDWAY (ATAPPT) 13 50 

D NUKE WAR (ATAPPT) 1350 

D PLANETMINERS IATAP.PT) 1350 

D CONVOY RAIDER (ATAPPTl 1350 

D 81 BOMBER (ATAPPT) 1350 

a LORDS OF KARMA (ATAPPTl 1800 

D CONFLICT 2500 (ATAPPT) 13 50 

D COMPUTER ACQUIRE (AP.P.T) 16 50 

ACORN SOFTWARE 

a ATERM |T) 1795 

D SYSTEM SAVERS (T) 13 55 

a DISASSEMBLER (T) 1355 

D DISK'TAPE UTILITY (Tl 1795 

D STAR TREK SIMULATION |T| 895 

D GAMMON CHALLENGER (T| 13 55 

D PIGSKIN (T) 1355 

D ULTRA TREK (T| 1355 

D SPACE WAR (T) 8 95 

D WARP/LANDER (Tl 895 

D BASKETBALL |D| (T| 18 95 

D BASKETBALL (T) 1355 

Q DUEL-NDROIDS |D] (Tl 1895 

D DUELN-DROIDS (T| 13 55 

Q INVADERS FROM SPACE (Tl 13 55 

Q INVADERS FROM SPACE |D| <T| 1895 

D PIGSKIN |D| (T) 18 95 

a PINBALL (T| 1355 

D PINBALL [0| IT) 18 95 

D SUPERSCRIPT [D] (T) 28 95 

D EVEREST EXPLORER (T) 13 55 

D EVEREST EXPLORER |D| (T) 1895 

EPYX- AUTOMATED SIMULATIONS 

D TUESDAY QUARTERBACK [D| (API 26 95 
□ STAR WARRIOR |C D| (AP.Tl 3595 

D THREE PACK [D| (AP.P.Tl 4500 

D STAHFLEET ORION |C.D| (APT) 22 SO 

II you don't see it 
listed, write... 
we probably have 
it in slock! 



Check program desired 
Complete ordering information 
and mail entire ad 
Immediate Shipments Irom stock 



KEY: 

AT -Atari 

AP-Apple 

P-Pet 

T-TRS-80 

C-Cassette 

D-on Disc. 

If not marked-Cassette 

ATARI is 4 trademark ol ATARI INC 

APPLE is a liademaik ol APPLE C0MPUIER INC 

TRS-SO is a trademark ol TANDY CORP 

PET is a trademark of C0MM00ORE BUSINESS MACHINES 



EPYX- AUTOMATED SIMULATIONS 

O STARFLEET ORION |C) (PATl 22 50 

D INVASION ORION [C.D| (APT) 22 50 

D INVASION ORION |C| (PAT) 22 50 

□ TEMPLE OF APSHAI |D| (APT) 35 95 

□ TEMPLE OF APSHAI |C| (P.T) 35 95 

D DATESTONES OF RYN |D ,C| (AP T| 17 95 

D DATESTONES OF RYN |C| (PAT) 17 95 

□ MORLOC TOWER |C.D| (APT) 17 95 

O MORLOC TOWER |C| (P AP) 17 95 

Q RESCUE AT RIGEL [CD] (APT) 26 95 

□ RESCUE AT RIGEL |C| (PATl 26 95 

Q HELLFIRE WARRIOR |D| (APT) 35 95 

O HELLFIRE WARRIOR |C| (P) 35 95 

BIG FIVE SOFTWARE 

D ATTACK FORCE (T) 14 30 

Q GALAXY INVASION (T) 14 30 

O METEOR MISSION II (I I 14 30 

O SUPER NOVA (Tl 14 30 

□ COSMIC FIGHTER (T| 14 30 

MEO SYSTEMS 

□ DEATH MAZE 5000 (AP) |D| 15 30 
D DEATH MAZE 5000 (Tl 1165 
D LABYRINTH (Tl 1 1 65 
D RATS REVENGE IT) 1165 

□ REALITY ENDS (T) ... 1165 

CALIF. PACIFIC 

D 3-D GRAPHICS (AP) |D| 35 95 

D AKALAPETH OIDS (AP) |D| 3150 

Q APPLE (AP) ID] 26 95 

D FENDER BENDER (API |D| 22 50 

□ RASTER BLASTER (API |D| 24 00 
D BUDGES SPACE ALBUM (AP) [D] . . 35 95 
O BUDGE S TRILOGY (AP) |0| 26 95 

MICRO LAI 

a CROWN OF ARITHIAN (AP) |D| 3150 

D DATA FACTORY (AP) |D| 130 00 

D MINI FACT (AP) |D| 65 95 

D DOGFIGHT (API |D| 26 95 

D MAD VENTURE (API |0| 22 50 

SIRIUS SOFTWARE 

D STAR CRUSIER (AP) |D| 22 50 

O GORGON (AP) [D] 33 00 

D CYBER STRIKE (AP) |D| 36 00 

D PHANTOM FIVE (AP) |D| 26 95 

□ SPACE EGGS (AP) [D| 24 00 
D ORBITRON (AP) |D| 26 95 

QUALITY SOFTWARE 

Q 30 TIC TAC TOE (T 1 1355 

O 6502 DISASSEMBLER (AT I 10 55 

Q ATARI ASSEMBLER (AT) 22 SO 

D ASTEROIDS IN SPACE |D| (AP) 17 95 

D BATTLESHIP COMMANDER (AP) 13 55 

D BATTLESHIP COMMANDER |D] (AP) 17 95 

O FASTGAMMON |D| (APT) 22 50 

D FASTGAMMON (APT ATI 17 95 

D FRACAS ADVENTURE |D| (AP) 22 50 

DQSLIGHTPEN (Ti 1795 

D SKETCH 80 (T| 1355 

Q FORTH (AT) |0| 69 00 

STRATEGIC SIMULATIONS 

D COMPUTER AMBUSH |D| (AP) 51 SO 

O COMPUTER BISMARCK |D| (AP.Tl 51 50 

D MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL |D| (AP) 31 50 

a COMPUTER CONFLICT ID] (API 35 00 

D COMPUTER NAPOLEONICS |D] (AP) 51 50 

D COMPUTER QUARTERBACK [D| (AP) .35 00 

a COMPUTER AIR COMBAT |D] (AP) 5150 

D WARP FACTOR |D| (AP) 35 00 

D CARTELS & CUTHROATS |D| (AP) 51 50 

D OPERATION APOCALYPSE |D] (AP) 51 50 

□ TORPEDO FIRE |D| (API 5150 



SUB-LOGIC 

D 3D GRAPHICS (API 45 00 

D 3D GRAPHICS |D] (AP| 53 00 

Q A-2 FS1 FLIGHT SIMULATOR (AP) 22 00 

D A-2 FS1 FLIGHT (D| (AP) 2900 

a T80-FS1 FLIGHT SIMULATOR (T| 2200 

a 3D GRAPHICS (T) 26 50 

PERSONAL SOFTWARE 

DCCAMGMT |D] (PAT| 90 00 

D DESK TOP PLAN II |D| (AP) 17500 



O VISICALC [DJ (ATP API 17000 

D ZORK (T) |6| 3595 

D VISIDEX (AP) |D| 170O0 

D VISIPLOT (AP) |6| 162O0 

D VISITERM (AP) |0] 135 00 

□ VISITREND (API |D] 21000 

MICROSOFT SOFTWARE 

D ADVENTURE |D| (APT) 2550 

□ ASSEMBLY DEVELOPMENT |D| (T| 8000 
D BASIC COMPILER ID] |T) 17500 

□ EDITOR/ASSEMBLER (T| 2550 

D FORTRAN COMPILER |D| (T) 8000 

O LEVEL III BASIC (T) 44 00 

□ MuMATH |DI (Tl 64 00 
D OLYMPIC DECATHALON |0| (T AP) 25 00 
O OLYMPIC DECATHALON (Tl . 2500 
D TYPING TUTOR (APT). 1355 
D TYPING TUTOR |D| (AP) 1795 
D Z-80SOFTCARD |D] (AP) 31500 
D16kRAMBOARD (AP) 16500 

ON LINE SYSTEMS 



D HI RES AOVEN 40 ID 

D HIRESADVEN 41 |D 

D HIRESADVEN «2 |D 

D HI RES ADVEN »3 |D 



(AP) 17 95 

(AP) 22 50 

(AP.ATl 2900 

(AP) 31 00 



D HI-RES FOOTBALL |0| |AP| 36O0 

D HI-RES SOCCER |D| (AP) 2695 

D HI-RES CRIBBAGE |D] (AP) 22 50 

D MISSILE DEFENSE |D] (AP) 2695 

D SUPERSCRIBE |D| (AP, 7600 

BRODERBUND SOFTWARE 

D GALACTIC EMPIRE (AP) |D| . 2250 

D GALACTIC TRADER (AP) |D| . . . . 22 50 

D GALACTIC REVOLUTION (AP) |0] . 22 50 

D GALACTIC TRIOLOGY (T| |D] 3595 

D TAWALAS REDOUBT (AP) [D| 2695 

□ HYPER HEAD ON (AP) ID] 22 50 
D GALAXY WARS (AP| [D] 22 50 
D ALIEN RAIN (AP) |D] 2000 
O TANK COMMAND (AP) ID) ... . 13 55 
D GOLDEN MOUNTAIN (AP) [01 1795 
D SNOGGLE [01 (API 2250 

SYNERGISTIC SOFTWARE 

D DUNGEON 8 WILDERNESS [D] (AP) 2900 

D DUNGEON ID] (AP) 1575 

O ODYSSEY |6| (AP) 2500 

□ WILDERNESS |D] (API 18 00 

□ PROGRAM LINE EDITOR |D] (AP) 36 00 

D THE LINGOUIST (AP| |D| 3600 

D HIGHER GRAPHICS II (AP) |D] 31 00 

D HIGHER TEXT II (AP) [D| 31 00 

SOFTWARE PUBLISHING 

a PERSONAL FILING SYSTEM (AP) |D| . . . 8550 

□ PFSREPORT (AP) |D| 8550 

SENTIENT SOFTWARE 

□ OO-TOPOS (API |D] 29 70 

TG PRODUCTS 

D PADDLES (AP) 38 00 

□ JOYSTICKS (AP) 56 00 



Ship the above programs as checked to 



Number of Programs Ordered. . . . 



Mr /Mrs 
Address 

City 

Slate 



Amount of order. 



Zip- 



N Y residents add Sales Tax 

Add shipping anywhere in the U S 

Total amount enclosed 

Charge my D Master Charge 



2.00 



□ Visa 



I have a 



Name of Computer 



Signature 



CREAT COMP'NOV 1981 



K memory Card No 



Personal Checks please allow 3 weeks 



Expires 



Mail to: 



DIGIBYTE SYSTEMS CORP. 

31 East 31st Street, New York. N.Y. 10016 
OUTSIDE NEW YORK CALL TOLL FREE (800) 221-3144 4 

%^ Prices subiect lo change without notice IN NEW YORK CALL (212) 889-8975 «»^ 



CIRCLE 173 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ZX 81, continued... 

TO. . . STEP, LLIST, LLIST n, LPRINT, 
PAUSE, PLOT, PRINT AT, PRINT 
TAB, SCROLL, SLOW, UNPLOT. The 
missing function is TLS, which was used 
to return a string minus its first charac- 
ter. This ROM plus an appropriate key- 
pad overlay is available to existing ZX80 
users who wish to upgrade their 
machine. They should note, however, 
that even with the new ROM they will 
continue to get the screen flicker which, 
I'm sure, they've grown to know and 
love by now. 

The machine can be operated in two 
modes — SLOW (sometimes called 
'compute and display'), and FAST. 
FAST mode offers the world famous 
screen flicker every time you hit a key, 
while SLOW mode keeps the screen 
refreshed at all times, resulting in a nicer 
display, moving graphics and a lot of 
irritating delays: see the Benchmarks for 
comparisons. If you need to see the 
screen continuously then SLOW mode is 
a boon. If you don't, say if you were 
doing lots of calculations, then it's 
better to use the FAST mode. The two 
can be called from within a program, 
thus offering the best of both worlds. 
The SCROLL feature removes the top 
line from the screen and moves each line 
up, leaving a blank bottom line. Without 
SCROLL, the display freezes when the 
bottom line is reached. A PAUSE in- 
struction is provided which suspends a 
program's operation for a user-defined 
period or until a key is depressed . The 
screen is visible when in PAUSE mode, 
regardless of whether the program is 
running FAST or SLOW. In SLOW 
mode the screen flickers slightly when 
the PAUSE takes effect but in FAST 
mode it has to come on altogether. This 
means that you'll have to be careful not 
to have your PAUSEs too close together, 
unless you actually enjoy watching the 
screen going absolutely bananas. The 
IN KEYS function is welcome since it 
can be tested to see if a key is being 
depressed and, if so, which key it is. 
This feature is great for fast-moving 
games since you need only hit the key 
you're interested in — there's no need 
to hit NEWLINE. 

There are no DATA or READ in- 
structions but this can be circum- 
vented by saving a program with all its 
associated variables and then using a 
GOTO to kick the program off when 
it's reloaded. (RUN automatically clears 
any variables.) Pressing CONT, not 
surprisingly, allows you to continue the 
program. PLOT and UNPLOT functions 
(0,0 is in the bottom left-hand corner) 
are provided, giving a graphics capa- 
bility of 44 by 64 points. Each point, or 
pixel (picture element), is a quarter the 
size of a normal character. Hardly high 
resolution but better than a poke in the 
eye with a sharp stick! 

The cassette needs either 35mm 
sockets or an appropriate adaptor. 
SAVE is offered but no VERIFY, so 
saving a long program can be a bit 
worrying. I suggest you first save a few 
short programs, just to make sure the 



Technical Specification 

CPU: NEC Z80A, 3.5 MHz 

Memory: Ik RAM expandable to 16k 

Keyboard: Plastic membrane under-surface printed 

Screen: Domestic UHF television 

Cassette: Domestic audio recorder 

Firmware: 8k ROM containing Basic and operating system 



Binary Operations 



+ — 



/ 



> < 



<- 



<> 



Statements (all except INPUT may be used as commands) 

CLEAR CLS CONT COPY DIM FAST FOR. TO. .(STEP) GOSUB 

IF. .THEN INPUT LET LIST LLIST LOAD LPRINT 

NEXT PAUSE PLOT POKE PRINT (TAB) (AT) 

REM RETURN RUN SAVE SCROLL SLOW 

UNPLOT 



GOTO 
NEW 
RAND 
STOP 



Functions 

ABS ACS AND ASN ATN CHRS CODE COS EXP INKEYS 

INT LEN LN NOT OR PEEK PI RND SGN SIN 

SQR STR$ TAN USR VAL 



controls are set properly. When loading 
a program, the pattern on the screen 
shows you when data is being recog- 
nised. The theory of cassette adjustment 
is that you play a data tape, gradually 
turning the volume up until the pattern 
appears. Then you turn it up a little 
more and it should be ready for use. 

The printer, when it arrives, will 
allow you to LPRINT and LLIST data 
and programs respectively. Even better, 
it will allow you to dump the screen 
contents to the printer using the COPY 
command either within the program or 
as an immediate instruction. Such a 
screen copy takes about 12 seconds to 
produce. 

The only function to disappear is the 
TLS command mentioned earlier. The 
same thing can be accomplished using 
the LEN and TO instructions. All 
trigonometric stuff is in radians and PI 
is provided to help you unravel the 
results. SGN = signum which can possess 
one of three values: —1, and +1. At 
one stage the new ROM (for the ZX80 
and, subsequently, for the ZX81) was 
expected to offer DRAW, UNDRAW, 
DATA, READ and RESTORE features. 
Instead 1 think the idea of adding 



Benchmark Timings (in seconds) 


Slow Fast 


ZX80 


BM1 17.7 4.5 


1.5 


BM2 27.2 6.9 


4.7 


BM3 65.3 16.4 


9.2 


BM4 63.0 15.8 


9.0 


BM5 74.2 18.6 


12.7 


BM6 199.3 49.7 


25.9 


BM7 275.6 68.5 


39.2 


BM8 91.6 22.9 


couldn't be 




done 



printing facilities became more im- 
portant. After all, these features can be 
realised using the existing range of 
commands. 

A character string of any length may 
be used as a numeric variable name, 
providing it starts with a letter. String 
variable names are restricted to A? to 
Z$. String and numeric arrays may be 
any number of dimensions — the limit 
is dictated by the amount of free 
memory available. String arrays are 
character arrays really, with the last 
entry in a DIM statement being the 
number of characters per array element. 
With a full 16k RAM and a small pro- 
gram (it fitted on the screen) I set up a 
string array 100 x 6 x 25 characters 
long. I used this since each element 
would be about the size of a name and 
address record, allowing extra infor- 
mation like telephone number and 
birthday, for example. Substrings are 
handled using the TO function. LET 
A$=BS (3 TO 5) would make AS a three 
character string comprising the third to 
fifth characters of string BS. This 
open up possibilities for giant strings 
and the use of string slicing to extract 
variable length fields. 

Documentation 

A programming book is provided with 
the system: Z\8l Basic Programming 
by Steven Vickers. The cover is a very 
odd photo (montage?) of what appears 
to be a couple of model delta-wing jets 
on top of a solitary skyscraper at night. 
Two red windows peer at you from the 
upper floors. It must be full of deep 
meaning which totally escapes me. 
Sinclair Research specially com- 
missioned it. Can any psychologist 
readers tell us what it's all about, please? 



30 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



The ijfs: software series 



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$ 



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ARrsonal Information 
Management System* 



\bur APPLE* computer really can track purchase 
orders and inventory, analyze your investment records, 
maintain client and patient histories, or even catalog 

zine abstracts and your stereo collection. 
Software Publishing Corporation has the answer 
and it doesn't require programming! 

We call it the PFS software series— an easy 
to use yet powerful set of programs that let you 
design a system that's versatile enough to 
manage almost any kind of information. 

PFS, the personal filing system, let's 
you design your own form on the screen 
for organizing information. Once it's cre- 
ated you just fill in the blanks. Looking 
up what you've filed is just as easy. PFS 
can search for a number, a single piece of ^^^^^^^^^ 
data, a word within a page of text, or 

any combination. All forms that match apple 11 tym 

are displayed on the screen for browsing, updating, ex- 
panding, or printing. PFS can even create mailing labels. 

PFS: REPORT, the personal report system, uses 
the files PFS creates to produce a report tailored to your 

PI'S is a trink-niiirk of Software Publishing Corporation. 




specifications. Just mark the information you want listed 
and PFS: REPORT will sort it and let you specify head- 
ings, totals, averages, counts, and calculations. You can 
save your report design for use on a regular basis. 

PFS and PFS: REPORT come with simple 
self teaching manuals plus a support plan that 
includes program updates and factory experts 
ready to answer your questions. And all of this at 

an affordable price. Each program is priced 

below $100. 

The PFS software series is different. 
It is not a specialized application pack- 
age nor a complex programmer ori- 
ented data base manager. It's a personal 
^^ information management system that 
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formation your way without program- 
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able through your local dealers. If they don't carry it have 
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APPLE" is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 



Software Riblishing Corporation 



CIRCLE 269 ON READER SERVICE CARD 







Oo-Topos, the first and o 
adventure program written 
directly for Microcomputers 
by a science fiction writer. 
Now, Michael Berlyn, author 
of Crystal Phoenix and 
Integrated Man transports 
you to the truly distant, alien 
world of Oo-Topos. It's an 
original science fiction tale 
programmed for adventure. 
See your local software 
dealer and discover Oo-Topos. 
Requires DOS 3.3 Applesoft"'' in ROM 

From 

SENTlENT SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 4929, Aspen, Colorado 81612 
(303)925-9293 



CIRCLE 230 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



1981 by Sentient Software, Inc. Design and Art by Graformations, Inc. 



ilflb' ZHHtlSBVr?: 



"...deserves a top spot 
in the realm 
of adventuring." 
^^oftalk Magazine 

Exclusively distributed by 



4079 Glencoe Ave. 

Marna del Rey. CA 90291 

(800)421-0980 

In CA (21 3) 822-8933 

^-Applesoft is a registered trac> 
of AppJe CnmpotP- 



ZX 81, continued... 

The book is written for the novice, 
and it does a pretty reasonable job. It is 
infinitely better than the book given 
out with the ZX80. What a pity, then, 
that just as the reader is about to key 
something in for the first time, he 
encounters the most off-putting (and 
unnecessary) paragraph in the whole 
book: 'A message like this, telling the 
computer to do something straight 
away, is a command; this particular one 
is a PRINT command, but also a PRINT 
statement. Calling it a PRINT statement 
just specifies its form without referring 
to how the computer is going to use it. 
Thus every command takes the form of 
a statement, but so do some other 
things — program lines do, as we shall 
see in Chapter 8.' 

The style of the book isn't really to 
my taste although Steven reveals a lot 
about himself with his talk of dead tax 
collectors and expressions like 'Lor', 
love a duck'. Eye fans will be delighted 
with his reference to Talbot? on page 38 
(I find the question-mark rather 
becoming, don't you?). Oddly, error 
codes are referred to as report codes. 
Perhaps the idea of associating errors 
with the machine was just too abhor- 
rent, even if they do happen and even if 
they are usually the user's fault. Ho 
hum — more psychologist fodder. There 
are the usual typographical errors which 
didn't get cleared up but I couldn't find 
too many. The only other thing in the 
manual which actually troubled me was 
the reference to pounds, shillings and 
pence in one programming example. My 
kids (aged ten, eight and six months) 
didn't know what it was all about and, 
let's face it, a lot of these machines are 
going to be bought by, and for, kids. 



Potential use 

Who would use this machine? Kids will 
love it (so will Dads) and, at this price, 
I can't think of a better way of intro- 
ducing them to the subject. Most 
courses on computers and especially on 
Basic programming cost more than the 
ZX81. In my view you can buy a ZX81, 
have a lot of fun, learn a bit about com- 
puters and Basic programming and 
decide whether you like it or not. If 
you don't like it or if you decide to 
move on to bigger and better things, 
you can always sell the machine (or give 
it to Computer-Town). The 16k RAM 
pack is a must for anyone doing any- 
thing remotely serious. The printer, 
when it arrives, will give you the chance 
to keep a record of all that interesting 
stuff you've got locked in the machine. 
The floating point arithmetic certainly 
makes the ZX81 a far more useful 
machine than the ZX80 and I suspect 
that many people will give it serious 
consideration as a result. You must bear 
in mind the sort of limitations imposed 
by the ZX81's inability to handle files. 
You can save a program with all its 
variables on tape, which gives you 16k 
for both programs and data. In my 
earlier example, I managed to get 100 

NOVEMBER 1981 
■*- CIRCLE 230 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



records of 150 characters each into 
memory with a short program of 20 
lines or so. There's no reason why you 
shouldn't record the program again 
with another 100 records, which would 
overcome this particular limitation. The 
only problem you'd be left with, then, 
is the fact that other programs cannot 
access the same data. I think that if 
you're really worrying about this sort of 
thing then maybe you require a more 
substantial system. 

Expansion possibilities for the ZX81 
are limited at the moment to the 
printer and the 16k RAM pack. I asked 
Clive Sinclair if there was any chance of 
disks being developed and he gave the 
same enigmatic answer he gave a year 
ago when I asked the same question 
about the ZX80: 'We're working on it.' 
Draw your own conclusions. 

Conclusions 

He's done it again. Uncle Clive has come 
up with a lovely product which will 
have enormous appeal to people wanting 
to find out more about com- 
puters, but without it costing them an 
arm and a leg. The idea of producing a 
superior machine to the ZX80 and 
selling it for a lower price is absolutely 
wonderful. I'm full of admiration for 
the man. Most people would have 
upped the spec and held the price ('It 



really hurts me to do this') or even in- 
creased it slightly. The product is clearly 
aimed at the home market and I'm sure 
that it will do extremely well there, far 
better in fact than the ZX80. And that's 
rapidly becoming the biggest selling 
micro in the world! 

People who are wondering about its 
relevance to business or serious work at 
home ought to sit down and do a few 
calculations on just how much infor- 
mation they need to hold and how they 
wish to access it. You could hold 100 or 
so names and addresses or keep track of 
around 600 financial transactions in one 
load of the 16k memory. These figures 
allow for a fairly simple entry and en- 
quiry program in each case. By ab- 
breviating information you can clearly 
cram more in. By splitting your infor- 
mation across several tapes you can 
build a substantial file of information 
but each tape would have to be 
managed by a separate version of the 
program. 

If you know nothing about com- 
puters and you want to enjoy finding 
out about them, then this machine 
offers a value for money way of doing 
just that. Children will love the ZX81, 
there can be no question about that, 
and I suspect that more than a few 
people who are already familiar with 
computers will buy one, just to have a 
bit of fun. □ 



We don't play ha rd to get 




Fast, reliable delivery 
of personal computer 
software programs. 

If you have an Apple or TRS-80 
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hundreds of programs — in stock 
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Choose from entertainment, learning or home-application programs. All software 
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Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computers. TKSJHJ is a registered trademark of Radio Shack. A Tandy Corp. 
CIRCLE 166 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

33 



Authoring 




ms 



the 
Apple 




David Lubar 




Recognizing that many teachers aren't 
satisfied with the limited flexibility of many 
of the available software packages, and 
that most teachers don't have time to 
develop their own programs, several 
companies have produced authoring sys- 
tems. This is a rather fascinating concept: 
the programs are designed to write pro- 
grams. We recently received four authoring 
systems for the Apple. The crucial factors 
in evaluating them were ease of use. 
flexibility, and quality of the end product. 
On these and other criteria, the programs 
ranged from good to abominable. 

Zenith Educational System 

The Zenith Educational System (no 
relation to Heath/Zenith), is highly flexible 
but. as a result of this, complicated to 
use. In essence, the user builds lessons 
from modules, combining text pages, 
graphs, and graphics. For each question 
in a test, up to four possible answers are 
allowed. In other words the teacher can 
enter a question such as "If you had three 
pencils and gave two away and lost one. 
how many would you have?" and enter as 
correct answers "0." "zero." "none." and 
"nothing." Graphics can be tied into any 
frame of a lesson, and animated sequences 
can be set up. adding life to lessons. The 
program also allows the teacher to enter 
a hint for each question, and a response 
for correct answers. 

Another feature of the Z.E.S. system is 
revision questions. These are inserted 



creative computing 
SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Zenith Education System 

Type: Authoring System 

System: 48K Apple, Applesoft, 
Disk drive 

Format: 3 Disks 

Language: Basic 

Summary: Complex, but versatile 

Price: $250 

Manufacturer: 

Avant-Garde Creations 
P.O. Box 30160 
Eugene. OR 97403 



between regular questions, and are only 
asked if the student fails on the regular 
question. Incorrect answers to revision 
questions cause the program to print a 
message telling the student to call the 
teacher. The teacher has the option to 
continue or terminate the session. There 
are also automatic questions which are 
similar to revision questions except that 
they don't cause the program to halt. 





The graphics disk contains a selection 
of pre-defined shapes, and a program for 
creating shapes. Once shapes are created, 
they can be used in frames of the lesson. 
As a bonus, the flip side of the graphics 
disk contains a program that quickly 
initializes multi-boot disks. 

The Z.E.S. system also keeps student 
records that contain such information as 
number of questions attempted, number 
correct, and time taken to answer each 
question. 



34 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



A^-^^^.-^-*-^,^*^-^.^^: 






«S3S»3S»£«i5>£^?S3S=5^£«?£3 



. »»>>>>wy 






COMPETENCY EXAM PREPARATION SERIES 

This comprehensive set of programs consists of simulated exam modules, a thorough diagnostic package, and a 
complete set of instructional programs. It is designed to teach concepts and operations, provide drill and practice and 
assess achievement levels through pre and post testing. The Competency Exam Preparation Series provides a structured, 
sequential, curriculum encompassing mathematical, reading and writing instruction. 

The C.E.P.S. program is designed for individual student use or use in a classroom setting. Programs provide optional printer 
capability covering worksheet generation and performance monitoring. C.E.P.S. are available in three software formats. 

National Proficiency Series $1 ,299.00 

N.Y.S. Regents Competency Test, Preparation Series $1,299.00 

California Proficiency Assessment Test Preparation Series $1,299.00 

If desired separate Mathematics and Verbal packages are available for $799.00 ea. A Spanish language version of the 
Mathematics Instruction Package is available at no extra charge. 

COLLEGE BOARD PREPARATION SERIES 81/82 

Each program confronts the user with a virtually limitless series of questions and answers. Each is based on past exams 
and presents material of the same level of difficulty and in the same form used in the S.A.T. Scoring is provided in 
accordance with the formula used by College Boards. 

S.A.T., P.S.A.T., N.M.S.Q.T., set includes 25 programs covering Vocabulary, Word Relationships, Reading 
Comprehension, Sentence Completion, and Mathematics. Price $149.95 

EDUCATOR EDITION - includes all of the above programs plus detailed solutions and explanations. Price $229.95 
Independent Tests of S.A.T. series performance show a mean total increase of 70 points in students' scores. 
Update Pack to 81/82 specs. Available to previous owners. Price $69.95 



for TRS-80 NORTHSIAR 
PET. APPLE OSI 



ODYSSEY IN TIME 






' ^ 







This spectacular adventure game adds a new dimension of 
excitement and complexity to Time Traveler. Players must now 
compete with the powerful and treacherous adversary in their 
exacting quest for victory. 

To succeed they must vanquish this adversary in combat that 
rages across 24 time periods. 

Odyssey In Time includes all the challenges of Time Traveler 

plus 10 additional eras, including those of Alexander the Great, 

Emperor Asoka of India, Attila the Hun, Genghis Khan. Each 

game is unique, and may be interupted and saved for later play. 

available for APPLE & TR-80 PET, 32K - $39.95 




ISAAC NEWTON 

Perhaps the most fascinating and valuable ed- 
ucational game ever devised — ISAAC NEWTON 
challenges the players to assemble evidence and 
disc ern the underlying "Laws of Nature"that have 
produced fhis evidence. ISAAC NEWTON is an 
inductive game that allows players to intervene 
actively by proposing experiments to determine if 
new data conform to the "Laws of Nature" in 
question. Players may set the level of difficulty 
from simple to fiendishly complex. 

In a classroom setting the instructor may elect to 
< hoose "Laws of Nature" in j< cordjnce with the 
complete instruction manual provided. 
for insight into tome ot the Imsm principles underlying 
ISAAC NEWTON see CODI I . I SCHl R. BACH by Douglas 
R Hofstadler. Chapter XlXand Martin Gardner's MMIII 
MATIC M (. \ Ml Si olumn in Scientific American, October. 
1977 and lune. 1959 $24.95. 



flft 




TIME TRAVELER 



Confronts players with complex decision situations and 
the demand for real time action. Using the Time Machine. 
players must face a challenging series of environments that 
include; The Athens of Pericles. Imperial Rome, 
Nebuchadnezzar's Babylon. Ikhnaton's Egypt. Jerusalem at 
the time of the crucifixion, The Crusades. Machiavelli's 
Italy, The French Revolution, The American Revolution, 
and The English Civil War. Deal with Hitler's Third Reich, 
Vikings, etc. At the start of each game players may choose a 
level of difficulty . . . the more difficult, the greater the time 
pressure. To succeed you must build alliances and struggle 
with the ruling powers. Each game is unique. 

$24.95 



Kfell Software Corp. 



Send $2.00 for complete Catalogue. 

$5.00 Discount Coupon included in Catalogue. 
PROGRAMS AVAILABLE FOR ■■» 

TRS-80. APPLE II & PET Send check or money order to 

(unless otherwise indicated) *&V 21 Milbrook Drive. Stony Brook, NY 11790 

D disk or D cassette (please specify) (516) 751-5139 

All programs r»gu.ra I6K TRS-80 programs itqwtt LEVEL II BASIC APPLE programs raqwrt APPLESOFT BASIC NY Slttt P-tsmtnts Ada Salts Taw 



CIRCLE 219 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



2T>-S*i~&V>^~Z-!~!~!r!^>-Z^2^(*!<^~^^ 



Authoring Systems, continued... 

As mentioned, there is a price for this 
flexibility. The user can't just sit down 
and create a lesson. Modules have to be 
designed part by part. Different disks are 
required for creating text and graphics. 
The user must cope with a program disk, 
a module disk, and a graphics disk, doing 
a fair amount of disk swapping during the 
creation of a program. Even if the user 
has a dual-drive system, he must still use 
drive one for almost everything. 

In essence, the Z.E.S. system allows 
teachers to create useful programs, but 
demands planning and effort on the part 
of the teacher/author. 

The Learning Lab 

The Learning Lab allows the creation 
of fill-in, column matching, and multiple- 
choice tests. The teacher can also create 
compositions which can be linked to tests. 



These compositions are used to provide 
background on the questions in the test. 
This system also uses several disks, but 
takes advantage of a second drive if present. 
The Master Disk is the entry point for 
creating tests and viewing student scores. 
Tests are stored on another disk, and 
student records kept on a third. 

The fill-in test format allows a question, 
a preferred and alternate answer, and one 
hint. Column-matching allows ten pairs 



ntiitiuimiiiiii 



STOGED OH THIS DISK) TI 

YOUR INITIALS OR FIRST THREE LETTERS OF 

last hahe <In cast n&re thSh One person 

IS USINC IH 5 DISK) OBl 



Bell & Howell 
Courseware 
Development System 



Courseware Development System I was 
the easiest system to use and. though fairly 
fixed in the format of tests, allowed a 
surprising amount of flexibility. The system 
could be used with almost no reference 
to the documentation. The system is on 



UHAT HOULO YOU LIKE TO CALL THE 
EXERCISE. 0AU1D' 
•USTORYi 



TYPE IH THE NAHE AHO PUSH 

(NO cohhas or colons, please 




creative computing 
SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: The Learning Lab 

Type: Authoring System 

System: 48K Apple. Applesoft, 
Disk Drive 

Format: 2 Disks 

Language: Basic 

Summary: Constructs fill-in. multiple- 
choice, and column-match- 
ing tests. 

Price: $150 

Manufacturer: 

Micro Lab 

2310 Skokie Valley Rd. 

Highland Park. IL 60035 



of phrases and two unmatched phrases 
for padding out the answer column. Mul- 
tiple choice allows five answers, the fourth 
and fifth of which can be "all of the above" 
and "none of the above." 



EACH SECTI0H HILL C0HTAIN THESE PARTS 



TEXT PAGE(S> 



CORRECT AHSHER CROUP! ?> 
CORRECT AHSHER RESPONSE! S> 

UPOHC ANSNEP CROUF 
UPOHC AHSHER RESPONSE! S> 

UNEXPECTED AHSHER RESPONSE 

FAILURE HESSAGE 



HUHBER OF TRIALS BEFORE 
FAILURE HESSACE I 



SECTION 1 — QUESTION 
"ELL HE THE NAME OF UHG ARTHUR'S FATHER 



Once a test is created, the student can 
take it in either test or instruction mode. 
The instruction mode first presents a 
composition, if one exists for this test, 
then gives the student several chances to 
answer the questions, greeting right and 
wrong answers with canned comments. 
These comments may not appeal to every- 
one, but they are part of the program and 
cannot be changed. 

The Learning Lab keeps track of student 
scores, storing the information on a sepa- 
rate disk. It can also give the teacher 
statistics about a test, such as the number 
of times a test was taken, the average 
score, and the number of questions in the 
test. 

There seems to be one slight bug in the 
tests. The one we created crashed if the 
student hit the right arrow followed by 
return; perhaps the error traps need a bit 
of work. Aside from this problem and the 
canned comments. The Learning Lab could 
be fairly useful in a classroom. 



TYPE 'WMu-M 



creative composing 
SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Courseware Development 

Systems I 
Type: Authoring System 
System: 48K Bell & Howell computer 

or Apple with Applesoft. Disk 

Drive 
Format: Disk 

Language: Basic 
Summary: Easy to use 
Price: $300 

Manufacturer: 

Bell & Howell 

Audio- Visual Division 

Dept. 8876. 7100 McCormick Rd. 

Chicago. IL 60645 



36 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 





Now NRI takes you inside the 

new TRS-80 Model III microcomputer 

to train you at home as the 

new breed of computer specialist! 



NRI teams up with Radio Shack 

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It's no longer enough to he just a 
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Learn At Home 
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with NRI training, the programmer 
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Only NKI gives you both kinds of 
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Training includes new TRS-HO Model III micro- 
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(TKS Hon a trademark of it* Radio Shack ilniMoiiotTamh <«r i 
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Study. No classroom pressures, no night 
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you guidance, and available for special lielp 
if you need it. 

You Get Your Own Computer 
to Learn On and Keep 

NKI training is hands-on training, 
with practical experiments and demonstra- 
tions as the very foundation of your knowl- 
edge. You don't just program your computer, 
you go inside it... watch how circuits in- 
teract . . . interface with other systems 
gain a real insight into 
its nature. 

You also work 
with an advanced liquid 
crystal display hand- 
held multimeter and 
the NKI Discovery Lab, 
performing over 60 
separate experiments. 
You learn troubleshoot- 



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to use and keep. 



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>ge 



Authoring Systems, continued... 

one disk, and tests are stored on other 
disks. Each exercise is made up of units 
that begin with one or more text pages. 
The teacher doesn't have to worry about 
formatting the text: wraparound is auto- 
matically avoided during presentation of 
the test. The text pages, which are optional, 
can contain background information, 
lessons, or whatever else the teacher 
desires. Next comes the question, followed 
by the first correct-answer group. There 
can be several correct-answer groups. For 
each group, the teacher can specify a 
response to be given if the answer given 
by the student matches a member of the 
group. Next, the teacher can specify one 
or more wrong-answer groups. Again, 
responses can be entered for when the 
student matches a member of the group. 
This could be very useful for questions 
that many students are likely to answer 
with specific incorrect replies. The system 
next asks for a comment to be given for 
unexpected answers, a message in case 
the student fails to answer the question, 
and for any hints the teacher wishes to 
supply. 



CORRECT ANSMER CROUP 



UERY NELL 00HE' 



II CORRECT AHSNERS C0NPLETE «» 
>l URONG ONSHERS COnPLETE " 
HESSACE FOR AH UNEXPECTED AHSUER 
SORRY. THAT'S HOT RIGHT1 



II CORRECT GUSHERS COnPLETE It 
II UROHG ONSUERS CONPLETE II 
MESSAGE FOR AH UNEXPECTED AHSUER 
SORRY. THAT'S HOT RIGHT 

?kkRlt f .h^hI t vhh seL-oNEo 11 "■■ 

YOU BETTER REREA0 CHAPTER SEUEH1 



DO YOU HAUE AHY HINTS (Y'H)' Y 



HINT tl HE MRS THE HIFE OF IGRAIHE 
HINT 12 r 



creative computing 
SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Eureka Learning System 
Type: Authoring System 

System: 32K Apple, Applesoft. 

cassette or disk 
Format: Tape or Disk 
Language: Basic 
Summary: Not very good 
Price: $995 
Manufacturer: 

[■'.iconics. Inc. 

200 Cruz Alta 

Taos. NM 87571 



supplies the correct answer if the student 
is wrong. No hint or reinforcement is 
available. The Evaluate mode presents 
the questions as a test. 

The program allows for graphics and 
hi-res fonts. No shape utility is provided. 
Instead, the documentation suggests that 
the teacher should buy one of the com- 
mercially available programs for creating 
shape tables. This is but one of the 
absurdities and problems in this package. 
Rarely have we seen software that has no 
redeeming qualities. Unfortunately, this 
is one case where there is nothing good to 
say. To put it bluntly, we cannot recom- 
mend this program to anyone. 



This process continues for as many units 
as the teacher requires. The test is now 
ready to use. Earlier, at creation time, the 
teacher specifies how many incorrect 
answers should be allowed before the 
program presents the failure message. Now 
the teacher has the option of opening the 
test to all students or creating a roster. If 
a roster is used, student records are kept. 
The records show the student's scores for 
a test, and the aggregate results for each 
question in an exercise. 



!> CORRECT WISHERS COMPLETE It 



UROHC AHSUER CROUP (TVH>» 



UPOHC ANSWER CROUP 1 



HHAT RESP0HSE 00 YOU UAHT TO GIUEIF THE 
STUDENT'S AHSUER IS 1H THIS CROUP' 

HO. BERLIN HAS A FRIEND OF ARTHUR'S FATH 



CDS I earns high marks. As mentioned, 
it was easy to use. and flexible. By using 
various combinations of the available entry 
options, a teacher could produce a good 
lesson disk. 



Eureka Learning System 

In an attempt to produce a flexible 
system, the Eureka Learning System forces 
users into a syntax with all the charm and 
grace of Cobol. Test material is entered 
in a bizarre fashion in which the teacher 
must deal with entities and attributes, 
producing input that resembles code. This 
is just a part of the problem. These entities 
and attributes are organized into sentences, 
using a numbering system. The entry by 
the teacher at this point resembles an 
alphanumeric cryptogram. The end result 
of all this is that sentences can be presented 
in various ways with varying syntax. Once 
the teacher manages to create a quiz, it 
can be presented in several modes. The 
Practice mode allows one chance, then 



2 modify nane 
* noMfy subject 



t t ft ATtRiJCfES 

S LIST TEXT/SENT 

l! LOAD SHAPE 

13 SAUE TFXT 

15 CLEAN TEXT 

1? INSTALL SHAPES 



li m • 



FY EHTTTy 
FY ATTRIBUTE 
;fy SENTENCE 
FY LESSON 



Parting Thoughts 

At present, authoring systems have the 
advantage of allowing teachers to create 
tailor-made software. The disadvantage 
is that the structure of the created software 
is still within the drill-and-practice area. 
While this type of program can be useful, 
it pales before some of the professionally 
produced educational programs on the 
market. Still, a teacher can get a lot of 
mileage from an authoring system. For a 
look at another inexpensive, flexible system, 
see the review of Aristotle Apple from 
Stoneware (Creative Computing Oct.. 1980. 
p. 56). □ 



38 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



lheA2-GE1 
Graphics Editor 

for the 
Apple 1 1 



You bought your Apple for its graphics 
capabilities. Now with the A2-GE1. you can 
use those capabilities to the fullest 

With Object Editor you can create whatever 
objects you want in the colors of your choice. 
You can also type in whatever 3D text you 
want and in different sizes. And saving an 
object is as easy as naming it. 

Then give the object names to Motion 
Programmer and see how the beautifully laid 
out keyboard controls will let you switch objects 
on or off. animate them, or add upper or lower 
case 2D text mixed right in. It's remarkably 
easy. 

You can also record your entire presentation, 
animation and all. for later use with Motion 
Playback, or just take computer snapshots 
of scenes with Slide Show Playback 

The A2-GE 1 Graphics Editor requi res the 
A2-3D1 or 3D2 and includes Object Editor. 
Motion Programmer Motion Playback, and 
Slide Show Playback It also includes a special 
A2-3D2 interface for BASIC programmers. 

See your dealer for a 
demonstration. 



Graphics power 
for the 
non-programmer! 







Map of the I 
being 



LOGIC 

Communications Corp. 
713 Edgebrook Drive 
Champaign, IL 61820 
(217) 359-8482 
Telex: 206995 



A2-GE1 Graphics Editor 

$34 95 on disk (48K and 
A2-3D1 required) 



A2-3D1 Graphics Package 

$59 95 on disk (32K required) 



Apple is the registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc 



A2-3D2 Enhancement 

for color and independent 
object manipulation 
$24.95 on disk (48K and 
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A2-3D/A Saturn Navigator 

a 3D adventure program 
$24.95 on disk (48K. A2-3D1 . 
and Applesoft in ROM required) 



For direct order, include $3 for UPS or $5 for first class mall delivery 
Illinois residents add 5% sales tax Visa and Master Card accepted 



CIRCLE 187 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Applesoft Compilers: 

A Comparative Evaluation 



Helmar Herman 



Many Apple owners have waited with 
great anticipation for an Applesoft Basic 
compiler. Now, within a span of a few 
months, four companies have released 
Applesoft compilers. 

Why this interest in Applesoft compilers? 
And what is an Applesoft compiler any- 
way? 

To understand what a compiler is, and 
what it can do for you, you must first 
understand how your Applesoft Basic 
works. 

Interpreter 

Applesoft is an interpretive language. 
Each time a Basic statement is to be 
executed by Applesoft, Applesoft must 
re-examine the statement to determine 
what to do. (Please refer to the sample 
program in Listing 1.) 



10 INPUT ENTER A NUMBER:NUM 
20 PRINT SQR(NUM) 
30 GOTO 10 



Listing 1. Sample Applesoft program. 

Every time the program logic goes to a 
new line. Applesoft must examine the 
statement. For example, in line 10. Apple- 
soft must determine that it is an INPUT 
request, that ENTER A NUMBER is to 
be displayed prior to prompting the oper- 
ator, and that the response is to be placed 
in NUM. 

When a number is entered. Applesoft 
will then examine statement 20 and perform 
the specified action (PRINT). Applesoft 
will then examine the next statement. 30. 
and perform the GOTO request. 

Whenever a new line is encountered. 
Applesoft must re-examine the line as 
though it has never seen it before. It is 
because of this constant re-examination 
of statements that interpretive languages 
are slow. 

Another problem with interpretive lan- 
guages is that whenever program control 
is to transfer to a new statement (statement 



HellMr Herman. Creative Computer Applications. 
19 Shadwell Rd.. Nashua. NH 0.T062. 



30), Applesoft must spend time looking 
for the statement to which transfer is to 
be made. In a large program, this can 
take a considerable amount of time. 

Compiler 

A compiler transforms the Basic program 
into a machine language program. Each 
statement is examined by the compiler 
and is converted (compiled) into machine 
language instructions that perform the spe- 
cified action. 

When the program is run. the compiled 
machine language program is executed 
directly by the hardware, without a software 
interpreter having to examine each line. 

When program control is to be trans- 
ferred to a new statement, the address of 
the new statement is compiled into the 
machine language program, thus elimi- 
nating the need to search for the statement 
to which transfer is to be made. 

Advantages and Disadvantages 

There are various trade-offs with inter- 
preters and compilers. See Figure 1 for a 
list. 

In general, interpreters are much better 
when developing programs because of the 
ease and speed of program modification 



and debugging. Compilers are better when 
the program is ready for production work 
because of the speed advantage. 

Four Systems Examined 

The four systems being examined are 
Expediter II from On-line Systems, TASC 
from Microsoft Inc., Applesoft Compiler 
from Hayden Publications, and Speed Star 
from Southwestern Data Systems. 

In examining these systems, important 
items to look for are: 

1. Accuracy. The compiled programs 
should run exactly as the interpreted pro- 
grams do. 

2. Compatibility. All functions of the 
Applesoft interpreter should be sup- 
ported. 

3. Program Optimization. The faster 
and smaller the compiled program, the 
better. 

4. Communication. Compiled programs 
should be able to pass information to and 
from other compiled programs. 

5. Program Size. Compiled programs 
will normally be larger than the interpreted 
version. If the compiler generates excess- 
ively large programs, its usefulness may 
be limited. 



Item 


Interpreter 

Here the interpreter is 
far superior. A change 
to a program can be 
made and the results 
tested in just a few 
seconds. 


Compiler 

Whenever a change is 
made to a program, the 
program must be re- 
compiled before testing 
can proceed. 


Ease of program 
development 


Speed 


Interpreted programs 
run relatively slowly. 


Compiled programs run 
relatively fast. 


Size 


In general, interpreted 
programs are smaller. 


Compiled programs are 
generally two to three 
times larger than inter- 
preted programs. 


Remarks 


Remarks are to be 
avoided because they 
make the program 
larger and slower. On 
the other hand, pro- 
grams without remarks 
are very difficult to 
modify. 


Since remarks are re- 
moved during the com- 
pilation process, they 
may be used as needed. 



Figure 1. Tradeoffs between interpreters and compilers. 

40 CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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3-GLAMIS CASTLE- Yes. Pat and I are on our way to Britain to stay in the dreaded Glamis Castle. If we survive our real life adventure, we'll be 
measuring it and will be able to provide you with a 3-D game based on this ancient haunted site where King Duncan met his end at the hands of Macbeth. Our 
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$29.95/1 disk 

• •• SPACE GAMES ••• 

5-GALACTIC QUEST- An excellent combination of Star Trek and Space Trader. Battle the animated Vegan fighters as you warp from galaxy to 
galaxy At the same time, you may land on and trade with hundreds of planets. Super hires graphics and lots of sound. This has been one of our most popular 
games $29 95/1 disk 

6-SANDS OF MARS- Take an exciting voyage to the planet Mars via the Starship Herman. This game compared to the rest, is second only to 
Fantasyland 204 1 AD. It includes scrolling on the Atari and hundreds of full screen graphics You can move your little man through the terrain of Mars; if, of 
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• • • WAR GAMES • •• 

7- WORLD WAR III- You Atari gamers will have to see this in the Atari version to believe it! If your tired of war games which take 15 minutes a move 
and have a manual the size of a telephone book; but still want a complex, real-time action war game-this is it! It is designed for two arm-chair generals which 
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1 0-LITTLE CRYSTAL- The first of our line of education software, which will be completed by December. It includes a very fine version of Hangman. 
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1 1 -IMPERIAL WALKER- A fine game pack written by our Atari programmer. Michael (graphics) Potter. Includes the Walker animation which is 
superb. Gunfight. and Lasar Nim. a game of 'how many robots' $29.95 

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14-THE WARRIOR- <*7 -8) $64 1 5- ARCADE- (»9l l) $60 



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CIRCLE 165 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Compilers, continu 



Slightly less important items of interest 
are: 

1. Speed of Compilation. Since (in 
theory) compilation is performed only after 
the program has been debugged, the pro- 
gram won't be compiled very often. A 
fast compile is nice, but not a critical 
factor. 

2. Ease of Use. The compiler should be 




easy to use and forgiving in nature, 
should be fairly safe to assume, however, 
that most persons using an Applesoft com- 
piler must be familiar with Applesoft and 
know how to program. 

Also of interest to software authors who 
may want to market compiled programs 
is the policy of the compiler company 
toward distribution of compiled code. 



5 REM TEST A 

10 REM STRING MINIPULATION TEST AND TRY TO CAUSE APPLESOFT IR 

20 HOME : INPUT "HIT RETURN TO BEGIN TEST" J X* 



100 


REM FILL THE STRINGS 


105 


TEST* ■ "A" 


no 


x* ■ "*":y* - ■■*":/.* - "»" 


140 


FOR COUNT = TO 250 


150 


X* = X* + "«" 


160 


Y» = Y* + ••»" 


170 


Z» - Z« + "«'• 


175 


GOSUB 2000 


1O0 


NEXT COUNT 


200 


REM FILL ARRAYS WITH THE STRINGS 


701 


VTAB 12: HTAB 15: PRINT " 


205 


TEST* B" 


710 


DIM X*<20>,Y*<20),Z*<20) 


220 


FOR COUNT = TO 19 


230 


X*( COUNT) ■> X* 


240 


Y*<CnilNT) Y* 


25 


Z*< COUNT) ■ Z* 


255 


GOSUB 2000 


260 


NEXT COUNT 


300 


REM STRIP DOWN THE CHARACTERS 


301 


VTAB 12: HTAB IS) PRINT " 


305 


TEST* "C" 


307 


FOR COUNT ■ 1 TO LEN <X*> 1 



xpected Problei 

Programs that call other programs that 
have been compiled will have to be changed 
to do a BRUN XXXXXXXX (or BLOAD 
XXXXXXXXrCALL YYYY) instead of 
a RUN XXXXXXXX. 

Programs that depend on timing loops 
will have to be modified. For example, 
suppose a program uses the following 
statement to pause for a few seconds: 10 
FOR X=l TO 1000:NEXT X. With an 
interpreted version, this may take 2-3 
seconds. With a compiled version, however, 
it may take only a fraction of a second. 

Real-time games will have to be modified 
to adjust for the speed increase. How 
would you like it if all of a sudden the 
balls in your favorite game started whizzing 
by at five times the speed you're used to? 



5 REM TEST B 


10 REM PROGRAM SIZE TEST 


100A=1 


1010 END 



Listing 3A. Program size test. 



310 X* = LEFT* <X*, LEN (X*) - 1) 

320 Yt I ITT* (Y*, LEN <Y*> - 1) 

330 Z* = LEFT* <Z*, LEN <Z*> - 1) 

335 GOSUB 2000 

310 NEXT COUNT 

1000 PRINT "TOT COMPLETE" 

1010 END 

2000 REM ROUTINE TO DISPLAY CURRENT TEST AND COUNT 

7010 VTAB, 12: HTAB 15 

2020 PRINT TEST*, C0UNTJ 

2030 RETURN 



5 REM TEST B 


10 REM PROGRAM SIZE TEST 


100A=1 


110 B=2 


1010 END 



Listing 3B. Program size test. 



Listing 2. String manipulation test. 



5 REM TEST C 

10 REM TEST OF A BUBBLE SORT 

HOME : INPUT "HIT RETURN TO I r'JX* 

DIM A(100) 

FILL THE ARRAY 



20 
30 
100 
105 

110 



REM 
TEST* 
FOR COUNT 



120 A(COUNT) 



* 1 
101 



TO 100 
- COUNT 



125 
130 
200 
201 
205 
210 
215 
270 
230 
710 



GOSUB 20 00 

NEXT COUNT 

REM SORT THE ARRAY 

VTAB 12: HTAB 15: PRINT 

TEST* - "B" 

FOR 10 1 STEP 

COUNT ■ X: GOSUB 2000 



1 






FOR Y » 1 
IF A(Y) < 
,1 A<Y) 
A(Y) A(Y 
260 A(Y » 1) - 
270 NEXT Y 

Ml 
1000 PRINT 
1010 

2000 REM ROUT INI IU DISPLAY CURRENT 
2010 VTAB 12! HTAB 
2020 PRINT TEST*, COUNT; 
2030 RETURN 



TO X 

■'.( Y i 1 ) THEN 



1 ) 



'TLSI LIIMI t 



AND LliUHi 



M TEST D 
10 REN SPEED TEST FOR HEAVY DISK I/O PROGRAM 
20 HOME : INPUT "HIT RETURN TO BEGIN TEST"! A* 
30 D* • CHR* <1> 

"A" 
100 REM OUTPUT THE I 

NT Dtf'OPEN TESTF ILE,D1" 
FOR COUNT = I TO 100 
130 PRINT D*;"MRITI It SI TILE" 
110 PRINT "THIS IS THE SAMPLE RECORD, ";COUNT 

MOO 

160 NEXT COUNT 

170 PRINT Dt; "CLOSE TESTFTLE" 
200 REM READ THE FILE BACK 
710 TEST* "B" 

II L>*;"0IT N It STI II I " 
230 FOR CCOUNT ■ 100 TO 1 STEP I 
710 PRINT D*;"READ TESTE It I " 
250 INPU1 Z«,C0UN1 
260 "00 

270 NEXT CCOUNT 
7f)0 PRINT D*;"CI u iLE" 
1000 PRINT "TEST COMPLETI!" 
1010 

2000 REM ROUTINE IU DISPLAY CURRENT TEST AND COUNT 
'I D* 
TAB 12! HTAB 1/: PRINT " "J 
•'0 10 VTAB 12! HTAI 

: ■: ,i HUNT 

I URN 



Listing 4. Bubble sort test. 



42 



Listing 5. Speed test for heavy disk I/O program. 

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Compilers, continued... 






free, by the way, is a problem that arises 


is and how much it grows by adding one 




The Tests in large programs that do a great deal of 


simple statement. Listing 3A will show 




Test A (Listing 2) is a string manipulation string manipulation. As the area reserved 


you how much overhead each program 




test. Being tested is the speed of the for strings fills up, Applesoft periodically 


will have. To this overflow you then add 




compiled version and its vulnerability to condenses the strings (also called garbage 


the amount of storage taken by each 




Applesoft frees. Since string manipulation collection) to free up room at the end for 


compiled program statement. The lower 




requires a fair amount of work by the more strings. 


the overhead, the better. 




computer, I would expect a significant Test B (Listings 3A and 3B) is a test to 


Test C (Listing 4) is a general speed 




time improvement in this test. An Applesoft see how large a single statement program 


test. It uses a bubble sort (one of the 








slowest) to test the speed of a logic-bound 






program. 






TEST LENGTH SPEED 


Test D (Listing 5) tests the speed of a 
heavy disk I/O program. 1 expect that 






(CI) (C2) 


compiled programs will run at about the 
same speed as interpretive programs. 






A(I) 717 23 •• Listing 2. 


See Figure 2 for the results of the tests. 






A(O) 3465 30! 33 


All the compilers tested shared the 






A(M) 4797 13 98 


following features: 






A(H) 2500 (*1) 14 


1. The compilers produce machine lan- 






A(S) 3222 17 1 


guage object code that can be loaded and 
run with the BRUN command. 






B(I) 38 •• •• Listing 3A. 


2. The compiled program can be placed 






B(O) 2362 •• 11 


anywhere in memory. Once compiled for 






B(M) 4028 •• 62 


a particular place, it can only run there. 






B(H) 376 •• 10 


3. Figure 3 shows what commands are 






BIS) 2101 •• 1 


not supported by which compilers. 
4. Special compiler directive commands 






B(I) 46 .... Listing 3B. 


are supported via REM statements. 






B(O) 2384 .. 11 


5. Compiled programs cannot be inter- 






B(M) 4048 •• 62 


rupted with Ctl-C. 






B(H) 395 •• 10 


6. They support local or global variables. 






BIS) 2124 .. 1 


Global variables allow you to pass infor- 
mation from one compiled program to 






C(I) 464 124 •« Listing 4. 


another (but not from an un-compiled 






C(O) 2964 27 23 


program to a compiled one). 






C(M) 5049 40 94 


7. Once started, the compilers can only 






C(H) 2622 24 15 


be interrupted with the Reset key. 






C(S) 3070 53 1 


Expediter II 






D(I) 594 36 •• Listing 5. 


Expediter II comes with two disks. One 






D(O) 3275 32 27 


for DOS 3.2, and the other for DOS 3.3. 






D(M) 4642 30 94 


The disks are copy protected. 






D(H) 1937 30 13 


Rather than just producing a machine 






D(S) 2730 30 1 


language program which is then BRUN. 
the compiler produces a one statement 






The top numbers (I) are the interpreter figures; 


Applesoft program. The one statement is 






(O) are the On-Line compile figures; 


usually 1 CALL 4352. The machine lan- 






(M) are the Microsoft compiler figures; 


guage portion of the program is attached 






(H) are the Hayden compiler figures; 


to this single line Basic program. You can 






(S) are the Southwestern compiler figures. 


thus SAVE. LOAD, and RUN the program 
exactly as you would any other Basic 






Note— the compiled lengths for each compiler are calculated differently. 


program. 






Length comparisons may not be completely accurate. 


If you must have a BLOADable version 
of the compiled code, there are instructions 






(O) compiled length excludes variables. 


on how to accomplish this. 






(M) compiled length includes variables. 


You can also leave "holes" in your 






(H) compiled length includes non-string variables. 


compiled code to provide room for such 






(S) compiled length includes variables. 


things as the hi-res areas. 

One potentially difficult problem is in 






(CI) is the program run speed. 


the method used for string manipulation. 






(C2) is compilation speed (how long does it take the compile). 


Applesoft treats all strings as variable length 
strings. Thus a 5-byte string and a 60-byte 






*When Listing 2 was compiled and run on the Hayden compiler, an error 


string would take 65 bytes (plus overhead). 






occurred after the 147th loop of test A. The error was OUT OF MEMORY 


Expediter treats all strings as fixed length 






ERROR IN MODULE $0803. In accordance with a suggestion from the 


strings. Before compilation you must specify 






manual. I added the following line the program: 145 X=FRE(0). The program 


how long the strings are to be. All strings 






then ran in 15 seconds. 


will then be that length. Thus a 5-byte 
string would still occupy 60 bytes (or 








Figure 2. Test results. 


whatever string length was specified). 




44 


CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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CIRCLE 187 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



>mpilers, continue 



The good part of this is that there is 
never any garbage collection. Also, in 
theory, string operations should be faster. 
In practice, however, they appear to be 
slower. 

The bad part is that if you have many 
strings, they must all be as long as the 
longest one. which may cause a storage 
problem. 

Worse, is that you are not notified if 
you exceed a string length. The program 
just keeps on running, wiping out who 
knows what variables until eventually some- 
thing vital is destroyed and the program 
fails. 

There is an unusual restriction with 
this system. All arrays must be defined in 
the program physically ahead of the first 
use rather than logically ahead of the first 
use. Thus the following program is inval- 
id: 

10 GOSUB 100 
20A(20)=5 
30 END 
100 DIM A(20) 
110 RETURN 

The DIM statement at 100 must physic- 
ally precede the first use at statement 20 
even though statement 100 will be executed 
before statement 20. 

Because of this restriction, and because 
of the common practice of placing DIM 
statements at the end of programs (for 
speed), inexperienced users may have 
trouble with Expediter when compiling 
off-the-shelf programs. 

As far as speed and length of programs, 
the Expediter sits comfortably between 
the extremes produced by the tests, though 
it created the slowest code for the string 
program. On the other hand it has the 
fewest unsupported Basic statements of 
any of the compilers tested. 

An annual charge of five times the list 
price is charged for distribution of compiled 
code. 

On-line Systems, 36575 Mudge Ranch 
Rd.. Coarsegold. CA 93614. $99. 

TASC (The AppleSoft Compiler) 

The version of TASC that I tested was 
a pre-release Beta test version, and all 
test results should be viewed in that light. 

TASC is distributed on a DOS 3.2 disk. 
It can be muffin*d to produce a DOS 3.3 
version. The disk I have is not copy pro- 
tected, and Microsoft has indicated that 
they have not yet decided whether or not 
they will copy protect the final production 
version. 

TASC was written in Basic and then 
used to compile itself— a very intriguing 
concept. 

The output from TASC is a relatively 
small BLOADable file. The size of the 
object program is deceptive, however, 
because in order to run the program, you 
must first BLOAD the file RUNTIME. 
RUNTIME contains execution time sub- 



Unsupported 










Statement On-line 


Microsoft 


Hayden Southwestern 


CONT 


U 


U 


s 


u 


DEFFN 


S 


• 


» 


s 


DEL 


U 


u 


u 


u 


HIMEM 


U 


s 


s 


s 


IF X$ THEN 


S 


••• 


s s 


s 


LIST 


U 


u 


u 


u 


LOAD 


S 


u 


u 


u 


LOMEM 


U 


u 


s 


s 


NEXT 


»• 


s 


s 


s 


NOTRACE 


S 


u 


u 


s 


RECALL 


u 


u 


u 


u 


RESUME 


u 


s 


s 


u 


SAVE 


s 


u 


u 


u 


SHLOAD 


s 


u 


u 


s 


STORE 


u 


u 


u 


u 


TRACE 


s 


u 


u 


s 


& 


s 


u 


s 


•••• 


U = Unsupported 










S = Supported 










•DEF FN may be defined, bu 


not re-defined. 




**A FOR may have 


ane and only one corresponding NEXT 




The following program would be invalid: 






10FORX=lTO10 








20 IF X=5 THEN NEXT X:GOTO 40 




30 PRINT X:NEXT X 








40 END 










***Strings may not be used as a 


logical argument. 




Statements such as IF AS+BS THEN 100 are illegal. 




Statements such as IF A+B THEN 100 are legal. 




♦•••Makes the compil 


er crash. 









Figure 3. Unsupported Applesoft statements. 



routines which are called by your compiled 
program. It is approximately 4K long. 

It is a slight inconvenience to have to 
BLOAD RUNTIME every time you want 
to run a compiled program. On the other 
hand, the amount of disk space required 
for each program is reduced. 

For frequently used programs, you can 
simply write an Applesoft program that 
BLOADs the runtime package and then 
BRUNs your compiled program. 

Unlike the other compilers. TASC can 
be gracefully interrupted while com- 
piling. 

Whenever the program pauses for user 
information, such as program name, you 
can enter DOS command by prefixing the 
response with a Ctl-D. 

TASC fared worst in compilation speed, 
but did reasonably well in execution time. 
While the runtime routines take a fair 
chunk of space, the compactness of the 
compiled code could make up for this in 
long programs. TASC had more unsup- 
ported statements than any of the other 
compilers. 



Microsoft. Inc., 10800 NE Eighth Suite 
819. Bellevue. WA 98004. (206) 455-8080. 
$150. 

Hayden Applesoft Compiler 

The Hayden compiler is currently avail- 
able only in 3.2.1 format. Hayden indicates 
that a 3.3 version is coming and will be 
shipped free to users who have returned 
their warranty cards. 

Although the disk is not copy protected, 
the system is shipped with a special "pro- 
tection device" that must be installed in 
the game I/O socket. 

Hayden was not specific about charges 
for re-distribution of compiled code. The 
impression I got was that each request 
will be handled on an individual basis. 

Two extra programs are supplied with 
the system. The first is the only full color, 
low-res. single disk copy program I've ever 
seen. It's quite entertaining. Second is a 
program to "de-muffin" programs from 
DOS 3.3 to DOS 3.2. I expect that the 
second program will disappear on DOS 
3.3 versions. 



46 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



tiis compiler was the second fastest in 
compilation and registered favorable exe- 
cution speeds. On the other hand, each 
time you want to re-compile a program, 
you must re-boot! If you are already 
booted, there is no way to invoke the 
compiler without booting again. Also, when 
the compile is done, you must hit the 
Reset key to exit— a rather strange idea. 

The ability to pass data from compiled 
program to compiled program is limited. 
All numeric variables must be referenced 
in the respective programs in exactly the 
same order. If string variables are shared, 
then FRE() statements must be inserted 
into the programs at strategic points. 

Like the Microsoft compiler, this one 
also generates a set of runtime subroutines. 
These subroutines can either be included 
in the program or be declared EXTER- 
NAL. If they are external, then they must 
be BLOADed before execution. 

Speed Star 

The version of Speed Star that 1 tested 
was also a pre-released test version. All 
test results should be viewed in that light. 

Like the Hayden compiler, this one is 
protected by a device inserted into the 
game socket. According to Southwestern, 
the final version will allow you to plug 
your game paddles into the protection 
device, thus allowing both to be attached 
at the same time. 

This compiler is lightning fast. The test 
compiles were done almost instantaneously. 
Also, repeat compiles are quick because 
you don't have to reload the compiler 
each time. However, comparative execu- 
tion speed varied considerably from test 
to test. The compiler locates itself at 
location X'7200' and is invoked with the 
"8" key. 

The address at which Speed Star runs 
is HIMEM for a 32K system. Unfortunately, 
it still loads there on a 48K system. The 
extra 16K does not appear to be useable 
during the compile process, thus limiting 
the size of your program. 

One nice feature is the ability to include 
Ctl-C checking logic in the object program 
automatically. Also, you can have the 
system check subscripting ranges. These 
checks, of course, do not come free. They 
result in a decrease in storage and a slight 
speed degradation. 

There are many times when a significant 
speed increase can be accomplished just 
by having one or two Applesoft sub-routines 
converted to machine language and leaving 
the rest of the program interpretive. This 
was the only compiler that allowed inter- 
preter programs to call and pass variables 
to and receive variables from compiled 
programs. Although I didn't actually try 
this feature, it seemed fairly simple, based 
on the documentation. 

Southwestern Data Systems. P.O. Box 
582-S. Santee, CA 920071 (714) 562-3670. 
$85 (introductory price). 



Conclusions 

I ran one other test on all four of the 
compilers in which I tried to compile the 
menu program from The CCA Data Man- 
agement System. The program works per- 
fectly in interpretive mode. After compiling, 
I got the following results: 

Microsoft: It worked for a while. I was 
able to define the system configuration, 
but then it crashed into the monitor. 

Online: The screen went blank and then 
nothing. 

Hayden: The menu was displayed, but 
whenever I tried to enter a number for a 
valid function, the system beeped and 
rejected it. Then when I entered an invalid 
function, the program got an Applesoft 
error. 

Southwestern: The configuration portion 
ran. but instead of displaying the menu, 
the program terminated. 

Just as an educated guess, I suspect 
that the compilers are having trouble with 
the ONERR routines. 

1 recompiled with the Microsoft compiler 
and specified inclusion of the RESUME 
logic. The program worked much better 
and operated correctly with one minor 
exception. 

At about this time. Microsoft sent me 
some fixes to their compiler, and wonder 
of wonders, the problem was solved. The 
menu now worked perfectly. 

I was encouraged by this and tried 
compiling the SORT portion of the system. 
A dramatic success. The compiled program 
ran perfectly and was substantially faster 
than the interpretive program. I did have 
to modify the program to change the 
dynamically dimensioned arrays to statically 
dimensioned arrays. 

The above experience illustrates my 
concluding statements and conclusions: 

The larger and more complex a program 
is. the less likely it will compile successfully 
without modification (for example, dynamic- 
arrays). 

For one reason or another, off-the-shelf 
programs will probably not compile suc- 
cessfully without modification and effort. 

Recommendation 

Before I applied the patches to the 
Microsoft compiler. I was not ready to 
recommend any of the compilers. 

After running the fixed program, how- 
ever, the Microsoft compiler would be 
my recommendation. Although it is by 
far the slowest, the programs it compiles 
seem more likely to run successfully. It 
appears that once again, the tortoise has 
beaten the hares! 

If you have programs that are too large 
to compile, you may want to consider the 
Southwestern compiler. It is the only one 
to support the compilation of subroutines 
with full data transfer capabilities. As was 
evidenced with the CCA DMS main menu, 
however, you may have to fiddle with 
your program to get it to work. □ 



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47 



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NOVEMBER 1981 



49 



HEATH 




A Continuing 
Education Course 



LANGUAGE 
PROGRAMM I NG 



Greg Greene 




I have a friend by the name of Jack Brown. Jack is a 
software type, that is, he would rather work on problems in 
software than problems in hardware. "Nothing special about 
that." you may say. "after all. don't we all have the same 
affliction? Do we not all pursue the ultimate program? Do we 
not expound upon the virtues of Basic vs Pascal vs Fortran?" 



Each unit has quick 'self-tests' at 

appropriate places, and an exam 

at the end. 



Well yes we do. but Jack is not content to do things the 
"easy" way. Jack would rather do it in assembly language. His 
enthusiasm for bits and bytes knows no bounds and his never- 
ending zeal to gather converts to his cause brought me to the 
realization that there must be something to this mysterious 
way of programming. Therefore I set upon the path of 
knowledge in search of enlightenment. 

Grea CJrecnc. 207-H85 Craigflowei Rd.. Victoria, B.C. Canada V9A 2X4. 



It is one thing to seek knowledge, and quite another to gain 
it. In search of a course of action which would enable me to 
learn, I looked at several books on assembly language 
programming for the 8080 microprocessor which my H-8 
uses. I found there were quite a few books which explained 
the instruction set, but few which would enable me to learn 
how to program. What I needed was something that would 
give me experience in a controlled fashion so that I could 
actually do something, rather than just read it from a book. 
Alas, none of the books could penetrate my thick skull and 
deposit their knowledge therein. 

At this point I noticed that the Heath Company was putting 
out a home study course in assembly language programming 
to complement their course in Basic. At the same time I also 
heard from several friends who had purchased the course 
that it was not all that good. My friends complained that 
there were many errors in the printing, and that the course 
was not organized very well. Also, I was told, the programs 
presented would not run as they were written on the H-8. 

Therefore, I did not buy the course until a local store had it 
on sale and my continuing search for an alternative had 
proved fruitless. 

The first thing I noticed about "Assembly Language 
Programming, a Continuing Education Course" was that it 
was written in an easy, conversational style. Author Willard 
Nico assumes that the reader knows little of assembly language 
programming and starts from there. This, for me, was exactly 
the case. The author also takes the trouble to tell those who 
have had some experience why he takes this approach. Thus, 
I believe that even those with experience will not be put off 
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refreshing and a helpful brush-up on some points they may 
have been overlooking. The introduction clearly states, as all 
instructional material should, the objectives of the course 
and the method of achieving them. 

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CIRCLE 244 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Language Course, continued. 

There are ten sections, or units, in the 
course. They start with an explanation of 
what digital computers are. and what they 
can do. The course proceeds from the 
basics of input/output in the beginning 
units, to the completion of a program that 
emulates the instructions of the 8080 and 
shows how each affects the various registers 
and flags. 

This program is called Wise and is worth 
the price of the course. Each unit has 
quick "self-tests" at appropriate places, 
and an exam at the end. Also included is 
a separate workbook that acts as a test to 
see if you have absorbed the information, 
and little drills that require you to write 
sections of the program by yourself. This 
technique, together with the introduction 
of new instructions as they become useful 
to the program ensure that you progress 
in a controlled manner. Let's take a look 
at the units and see what they offer and 
how they offer it. 

First, let me note that there are two 
appendices, one is a copy of the Heath 
assembler book, which lists all the 
mnemonics and the instruction set. The 
other is a lesson on number sets. You will 
be directed to these at appropriate spots 
in the course. 

Unit one covers some common defini- 
tions which would be new to the novice 
computerist. These include such things as 
RAM, ROM, RWM, and a lesson on how 




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CIRCLE 299 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



to express numbers in binary or hex and 
convert between them and decimal. This 
unit also discusses the various registers 
and flags of the 8080. 

Unit two introduces you to programming, 
explaining what an assembler does, use of 
the IN, OUT, HLT, JMP, JZ, ANI and 
MOV instructions. This section shows how, 
in a typical 8-bit computer, IN and OUT 
operations are accomplished. These are 
the basic 'building blocks' of all the 
programs included in the course. 

Unit three introduces such terms as 
"assembler directives," "source code," 
"parity," and "stacks." The directives 
covered are ORG, EQU. END, DB, DS 
and '*.' New instructions introduced are 
INX. CPI, JNZ, MVI, DCR, CALL and 
RET. The section also provides a tour of 



/ think the best way to 

describe the feeling I 

had is to ask you to 

remember how It was 

when you got your first 

program— In any 

language— to run 

correctly. 



a typical memory map so you can figure 
out where to originate your first program. 
The program you are invited to try is 
called, "Type My Name Ten Times." You 
are led through the development of the 
program, and it is clearly explained why 
the particular instructions are used. 

At the end of the unit you are invited to 
try the program on your own computer. I 
did. and it wouldn't work. The author 
warns you this might happen, and explains 
why. I simply followed the directions of 
the workbook and presto! I had my first 
assembly language program. I think the 
best way to describe the feeling I had is to 
ask you to remember how it was when 
you got your first program— in any lan- 
guage—to run correctly. I have to admit 
that making the changes necessary to get 
it to run on the H-8 taught me a great 
deal, and that is what I wanted. 

Units four, five and six take you through 
another program. "All Base Conversion," 
which converts hex to octal, split-octal, 
decimal and binary. The author uses this 
program as an example of how to use new 
instructions and different techniques. Unit 
six wraps it up with methods for de-bugging 
and little tricks to make the program run 
quicker and use less space. Since the 

52 



conversion program uses different number 
systems, you learn them also. The author 
stresses throughout the course, that there 
are many ways to accomplish the same 
end and even if yours may take a different 
route, as long as it gets there it's OK. I 
found his constant urging to "try it alone" 
to be just what I needed. My All Base 
Conversion may not be as short as the 
author's, but it works! 

Units seven to ten, bring you to the 
Wise program and show you how to use 
it. Along the way you learn additional 
instructions and ways to give your programs 
that professional touch. I must say that 
despite the clear style and explanations 
given in the earlier units, I would have 
understood the various instructions better 
had I been able to use the Wise program 
at the start. But you have to walk before 
you can run, and in a course like this you 
can always start over if you want. Each 
time you do. things become a little clearer 
and you understand a little more. 

When you feel that you have it all down 
pat, you can take the final exam and mail 
it back to Heath. This is optional, but if 
you're like me, you'll want that certificate 
as a mark of your achievement. 

A word to the wise: in this course, as in 
all others, you get out of it only what you 
put in. So do not skip any of the questions 
on the self-tests or exams. If you cannot 
answer them, you have not yet absorbed 
the material. Go back and try again. If 
you are really stuck, the answers are all 
included, but if you have to peek at the 
answer, make a point of going back and 
ensuring that you really understand what's 
going on. Since each unit builds on the 
information in the previous ones, you will 
only get further behind if you try to go 
too fast. I had to go back many times on 
some of the parts, but I attribute this to 
the thickness of my skull, rather than to 
any fault of the course. 

Some of the criticisms cited above are 
valid. There are some mistakes in this 
book that should not be there. For instance, 
all of the answer choices for some questions 
are incorrect, and only the answer sheet 
has the right one. This is unforgivable in 
any course, as it creates confusion and 
resentment on the part of the student. 

In some cases, the workbook asks 
questions that are not covered until the 
next unit, a very aggravating habit. 

All of the programs, when adapted to 
the particular I/O of your computer, will 
work. Since you take part in the creation 
of the programs, you learn, and that's 
what the course is about. Having completed 
the course I now understand a lot more 
about how my computer works. Although 
I can in no way approximate the "Great 
Canadian Computer Program." I can see 
beyond Basic, Pascal and Fortran, and 
the future is bright indeed. $49. 

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49022. □ 

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TRS-80 Disk and Other Mysteries Book. 1 32 pp 22 50 

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NOVEMBER 1981 



CIRCLE 263 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





Home Financial Decisions 
for the Tl 99/4 



Irving Rowe 



Until a few weeks ago, 1 had no interest 
in computers or in programming. All I 
knew about computers was that when I 
got a bill from a store which contained an 
error, it was devilishly difficult to get it 
corrected. 

All that changed suddenly when I was 
given a TI 99/4 home computer as a 
surprise gift. Suddenly I burned with a 
fervor to utilize it to the hilt and to learn 
how to program it. 

When I looked through the Beginner's 
Basic manual which came with the 
machine. I felt sure that I would have no 
difficulty in learning the language, but it 
would take me some time to become fluent 
in it. What to do to get started sooner? 

I decided to obtain one of the TI Solid 
State Software Command Modules so that 
I could quickly use the computer. The 
Home Financial Decisions module seemed 
like a good one with which to start, since 
the calculations that it performed should 
be useful to everyone. 

When 1 plugged the module into the 
machine. I found that it took over complete 
control of the computer. This will probably 
not surprise any of the readers of this 
magazine, but at first I was a bit miffed 

Irvinu Rowe. 35 Riilue Drive. Port Wafhington. 

NY 1 IOM). 



that I could not use any of the Basic 
commands in combination with the module 
program. 

Nevertheless, I proceeded to investigate 
what the module could do. I found that 
Home Financial Decisions covers four 
major areas: Loans, Savings, Residence 
and Car. Each of these areas has from 



/ was not convinced 
that it would be easier 

to use than a 
hand-held calculator. 



four to six different programs, for a total 
of 21 individual programs. 

Some of the programs in the Residence 
and Car sections involve comparisons of 
different choices and permit analyses over 
different periods of time. In order to permit 
a fair comparison of these different con- 
ditions, all of the resulting figures are 

54 




automatically reduced by the module 
program to present value, the amount of 
money which, if invested today at a given 
rate of interest (either in a savings bank 
or other type of available investment) would 
equal the value of a financial transaction 
at the specified future time. 

I must admit that I approached the use 
of the Home Financial Decisions with a 
certain amount of skepticism. Since this 
was the first time I was about to use the 
computer, I was not sure how accurate 
the results would be, nor was I convinced 
that it would be easier to use than a hand- 
held calculator. Several years ago, in my 
pre-computer days, I had purchased an 
inexpensive hand calculator, the TI Money 
Manager, which is pre-programmed to 
calculate annuity and compound interest 

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LEVEL III 
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SINGLE/ 
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24 X 80 CHARACTERS 




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Decisions, continued... 

problems. I worked out numerical solutions 
for each of the 21 programs in the Home 
Financial Decisions module and then 
compared the results obtained by using 
the Money Manager. 

The first four programs in the Loan 
area of the module yield (a) the amount 
of money you can borrow at a given 
interest rate if you specify the size and 
number of monthly payments you are 
willing to make; (b) the size of monthly 
payments required to repay a given loan 
in a specified number of months; (c) 
conversely, the number of months required 
to pay off a loan if you indicate the size of 
each monthly payment; and (d) the size 
of the down payment which is needed for 
a particular purchase if you specify both 
the size and the number of monthly 
payments to be made. 

I found that I could do the same calcula- 
tions on my hand-held calculator almost 
as quickly as with the computer, since 
these are relatively simple compound 
interest problems. 

The fifth program in this area tells the 
user how much money is needed to pay 
off a loan early, before the specified number 
of payments has been made. This requires 
two separate operations on the Money 
Manager, so here the computer clearly 
has the advantage. Furthermore for each 
of these programs the computer gave the 
total amount of interest paid under the 
indicated conditions. This would have been 
another operation on the calculator. I 
obtained ti.^ same answers with both 
devices. 

The Savings area of the module solves 
four problems: (a) how much money will 
accumulate in a savings account, given 
the present balance in the account and a 
given number of regular deposits when 
the annual interest rate and rate of com- 
pounding interest is known; (b) how much 
must be deposited each year to accumulate 
a given amount of money in a given length 
of time; (c) how long it will take to reach 
a financial goal if the other factors are 
indicated; and (d) how much money must 
be deposited in a savings account to permit 
a regular series of withdrawals to be made 
before the account is exhausted. The last 
program is really an annuity calculation. 
As in the case of the Loan area, these 
saving programs are very useful, but I 
could solve the problems quite easily on 
the Money Manager calculator. 

The Residence section of the module 
gives analyses related to (a) buying a house; 
(b) the relative costs of buying house A 
versus house B; (c) the financial advantages 
of buying a house versus renting one; (d) 
the comparative cost of remaining in your 
present house versus buying a new one; 
(e) the comparative cost of remaining in 
your present house versus renting a house 
or apartment; and (f) the cost of refinancing 
the mortage on your present house. 




When I first performed one of these 
analyses and compared the results I 
obtained on the hand calculator, I found 
serious discrepancies. I soon discovered 
that the computer module performed a 
more sophisticated analysis and took more 
factors into account than I had considered. 
For example, the computer module con- 
sidered not only the cost of the mortgage, 
but also the cost of utilities, insurance and 
property taxes. It also takes into account 
the savings due to income tax deductions 
for mortgage interest payments and for 
property taxes. Futhermore it shows the 
effect of an assumed rate of inflation on 
the future market value of the house and 
it indicates the owner's equity in the house 
at any given time. 

The final section of the module deals 
with the purchase and cost of owning an 
automobile. As is the case for the Residence 
area, there are six separate programs: (a) 
the cost of buying a car (b) comparison of 
buying car A or car B; (c) a comparison 
of the cost of leasing versus purchasing a 
car; (d) a comparison of the cost of keeping 
your present car versus buying a new one; 



(e) a comparison of the cost of keeping 
your present car versus leasing a new one; 
and (f) the amount needed to pay off the 
loan early, and the total amount of interest 
paid up to that point. The last program is 
identical to the "Early Payoff in the Loan 
area of the module. 

These programs are about as compli- 
cated at those in the Residence group. 
However, here the programs consider 
depreciation instead of appreciation. The 
programs also factor in maintenance costs, 
insurance and the tax savings due to interest 
payments. The resale value of the auto- 
mobile is also considered. These factors 
cannot be predicted accurately, so to this 
extent, the results of these analyses are 
estimates rather than exact calculations. 

In summary, 1 believe the Home 
Financial Decisions module is very valuable 
if you are interested in the costs of owning 
or purchasing a house. It is perhaps even 
more valuable in considering the costs 
involved in purchasing or leasing an 
automobile, since this is likely to occur 
more often. If even a very small fraction 
of the cost of either of these large expendi- 
tures can be saved through these calcula- 
tions, it will more than pay the $29.95 
price of the module. The Loan and Savings 
program are also useful but they do not 
provide as clear-cut an advantage over a 
hand-held calculator, particularly one which 
has financial functions programmed in. It 
would be useful for a real estate office 
where the displays in the Residence section 
could be used to help customers choose 
between available houses. 

Texas Instruments, P.O. Box 5012, 
Dallas, TX 75222. □ 




<^~-?l 



"Hi. Frank Carters the name, data's my game' 



56 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



:uii 



WHY THE MICROSOFT 



« :l ;j »I :, M lUT'ir Tlo : i l *i :J » 



AN EVEN BETTER IDEA. 



/"•a^FfTTTI 



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Memory — you never seem to have quite 
enough of it. 

But if you're one of the thousands of Apple 
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new way to expand your memory dramatically. 

16K ON A PLUG-IN CARD. 

Microsoft's new RAMCard simply 
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bytes of dependable, buffered 
read/write storage. 

Together with the SoftCard. | 
the RAMCard gives you a 56k 
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the only way to get this much 
memory was to have an Apple 
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9 


= J 



Computer Air Combat 




SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Computer Air Combat 

Type: Strategic Air Combat Simulation 

System: 48K Apple 11+ or II with 

Applesoft in ROM. one disk 
drive 

Formal: Mixed graphics and text 
Language: Applesoft 
Summary: Great 
Price: $59.95 
Manufacturer: 

Strategic Simulations. Inc. 

450 San Antonio Rd. 

Suite 62 

Palo Alto. CA 94306 



Dale Archibald 



My regular Monday night wargaming 
opponent and I had finished playing a 
computer game about 10:00. Basking in 
the warm glow of victory for a change. I 
decided to unwrap my brand new copy of 
Computer Air Combat, from Strategic 
Simulations. Inc. (SSI). I jammed the floppy 
into the disk drive without even looking 
at the 18-page 8 1/2" by 11" instruction 
book, game selection card, map boards, 
aircraft data cards, or any of the other 
items in the box. After all, we were 

Dale Archibald. 1817 Third Ave. N.. Minneapolis. 
MN 55405. 



experienced computer gamers. Only begin- 
ners read instructions. 

The screen prompted us to select among 
multi-player Air Race, solitaire-only V-l 
Intercept and Night Fighter, or solitaire/ 
two-player Bomber Intercept, and Dogfight. 
Since it was late, we decided the V-l 
scenario would be best: fast and easy. 

We watched the screen and waited for 
the first V-l to fly into sight while the 
lone aircraft flew north forever. My friend 
left at 10:30 without seeing anything appear, 
so I grudgingly decided to thumb through 
the instruction book before I went off to 
bed. Then I unearthed the game selection 
card from the assortment of literature in 
the box. "Eureka." I should have cried. 

I finally got to bed about 1:30 a.m. 
after several unsuccessful V-l chases. As 
a writer about computers and games, I 
have to understand totally how they work, 
you see. Er. at any rate. I decided to take 
another little shot at the V-ls after break- 
fast. Just a few minutes, just to be able to 
write about the game. 

I quit to eat lunch, but didn't turn my 
Apple II off. In fact, I brought a sandwich 
to it (first time that's happened). I finally 
summoned the willpower to shut it down 
at dinnertime. 



It took me the better part of a week to 
get my mania under control. 

By now. you know I like it. of course. 
SSI and the game designers, Charles 
Merrow and Jack T. Avery, have come 
up with a real winner. 

Those of you who have played other 
SSI titles are familiar with the firm's 
attention to detail. Computer Bismarck, 
for example, was based on the Nazi pocket 
battleship Bismarck's attempt to smash 
through the British Home Fleet. Computer 
Ambush took a squad step-by-step through 
a bombed-out village in Occupied 
France. 

Computer Air Combat combines the 
best features of those games and adds 
many new twists of its own, particularly 
the third dimension of altitude. 

In Bismarck, the entire game was spent 
trying to find the enemy. The combat 
itself was secondary. Not so here. 

In Ambush, there were so many factors 
to consider that it took a long time for the 
computer to determine what happened. 
Not so here. 

The program uses the flight char- 
acteristics of 36 different WWII aircraft 
as a foundation. These range from the 
British Spitfire I to the American B-29 
Superfortress, the Japanese A6M2 Zero 
Sen (Zeke) to the German Me 262A-1 jet 
fighter. 

In the Bomber Intercept scenario, for 



58 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



TWO NEW GAMES FROM SSI FOR THE 

APPLE 
AND T HE 
TRS-80! 











TIGERS IN THE SNOW 



We know it hasn't been easy 
for you TRS-80® owners to see so 
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games from SSI pass you by. But 
then, it hasn't been easy for us to 
design games for a 16K cassette 
format good enough to meet our 
critical standards. 

After all. we've got a reputa- 
tion to protect, a reputation in 
strategy gaming for unsurpassed 
sophistication, innovatioa realism, 
and payability. 

Well, our designers have been 
hard at work, and we've not only 
met but surmounted the challenge. 
We're delighted to announce two 
historical wargames — deserving 
of the SSI label — for both the 
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and III: 48K disc for Apple II with 
Applesoft ROM card). 

Combining our extensive war- 
game- design experience and superior 
programming techniques, we've 
given a fresh new look and feel to 
these favorite classic battles. 

At $24.95 each for TRS-80 
cassette and $39.95 each for Apple 
disc these are extraordinary games 
at quite an ordinary price. 

So head on down to your 
local store and check them out 
today! 

VISA and M/C holders can 
order by calling 800-227-1617. 
ext 335 (toll free). In California, 
call 800-772-3545. ext. 335. 

To order by mail, send your 
check to: Strategic Simulations Inc. 
Dept CC6. 465 Fairchild Drive. 
Suite 108. Mountain View. 
California 94043. 

All our games carry a 14-day 
money- back guarantee. 




.-Vs part nt' our demanding standard* of excellence, «»• "••«• IllHXGll floppy discs. 



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Will allow the MODEL III to read disks from 
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• EXPANDED DIRECTORIES 

Directories can be expanded three times 
the normal number of available entries, 
even on DOS disks. This is extremely useful 
when using double density. 

• DYNAMICALLY MERGE IN BASIC 

To allow sections of BASIC programs to be 
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file during program execution. Also allows 
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Keys in MODEL I repeat when held down. 
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To send input and output from one device 
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The Disassembler will now write a source 
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Features to allow chain files to be written 
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60 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 












Air Combat, continued. 



instance, the player and opponent may 
choose a total of 16 aircraft of four types 
(interceptors against bombers and fighter 
escort) to be deployed. Dogfight matches 
fighter against fighter, again either ran- 
domly or with starting location, altitude, 
speed, etc., determined by the players. 
(Even a scramble from ground level is 
possible.) Yet when I matched five aircraft 
against the Apple's five, it took just a 
little over two minutes before it was time 
for me to move again. 

There are general commands for the 
total flight, and specific commands for 
the individual planes. Global Plot, for 
instance, shows all sighted ships, friendly 
and enemy, as if you were looking down 
from above. But if an enemy aircraft can't 
be spotted by one of your pilots, it won't 
show on the screen until it can be. 

The general command Position Report 
lists all information on sighted aircraft, 
including X and Y coordinates. You mark 
these on the map boards in grease pencil. 

Status Report describes the damage a 
friendly aircraft has sustained, and the 
amount of ammunition remaining. 

Movement shows a graphic plot from 
above of all aircraft 6.000 feet ahead. 
2.000 feet behind, and 7,000 feet to the 
sides of the subject aircraft, at the beginning 
of the move. Listed underneath is the 
speed, altitude, and other information about 
the plane. 

Tactical plot shows the same view after 
movement of all ships of both players. 

If an enemy craft is within firing range 
and at the right altitude, and if the nose 
of the ship is at the right angle and you 
have ammunition left, you can fire. Combat 
can be selected after the Tactical plot. 
You are asked if you want to Are at possible 
targets, given the distances, etc. 

Of course, there is a Quit and save 
game feature. 

Movement 

Moving aircraft to get them into battle 
is the most complex part of the game, and 
rightly so. Among other elements, move- 
ment depends upon the type of aircraft, 
speed, direction, altitude, bank and nose 
attitude. Both players' ships move at the 
same time, even though they enter their 
maneuver orders at different times. 

There are nine possible maneuvers: 

ST-Straight ahead 

RR-Roll Right (a selected 45-180 
degrees) 

RL-Roll Left (same selection) 

TR-Turn Right (45-degree direction 
change) 

TL-Turn Left (same change left) 

SR-Sideslip Right (move to right without 
changing heading) 

SL-Sideslip Left 

NU-Nose Up 

ND-Nose Down. 

NOVEMBER 1981 



Each maneuver requires a certain dis- 
tance change, depending upon type, speed, 
and altitude. 

Speed is reduced with every maneuver 
except ST. It can be altered by throttling 
back in level flight, climbing, or diving. 
Go into a climb at too slow a speed, and 
your ship will stall. When it recovers from 
its out-of-control dive, your direction and 
altitude will have changed. 




The roll maneuvers are perhaps the 
most important submaneuvers. (See Figure 
I.) These change the bank altitude of the 
individual aircraft, and that affects turns, 
sideslips, climbs and dives. 

Under the graphic during Movement 
mode are various listings, such as speed, 
altitude, present maneuver, etc.. and bank. 
A bank of LV signals that the craft is 
level. A description of Rl (right roll, one 
point) means the ship is at a 45-degree 
angle to the horizon. R2 signals the wings 
are straight up and down at 90 degrees. 
The IR designation means the ship is 
inverted 135 degrees from the horizon, to 
the right. When it's level, but upside down, 
the caption is IV. 

The ship continues through IL, L2, and 
LI back to LV again. On the screen, each 
position is symbolized by a different 
graphic. Asking for an ID of any aircraft 
on the screen elicits its nationality, type, 
speed, heading, altitude, bank attitude, 
etc. 

One last command is CK for Check 
capabilities. This gives a three-line summary 
of the capabilities of the aircraft you're 
flying, updated as you perform maneu- 
vers. 

Other factors in the game are Visibility. 
Combat Damage, and Ammunition 
Supply. 

Joel Billings, president of SSI, said the 
company plans to bring out a supple- 
mentary disk of other aircraft from other 
fronts. It will be possible to arrange some 
very exotic matchups when that comes 
on the market. 

Nevertheless, even with the present 
game, it will be difficult to exhaust the 
possibilities. Pilots can be aces, average, 
or inexperienced; matchups of combatants 



61 



can be changed; scenarios can be tailored 
to actual air battles, and so on. 

Weak spots? The instructions could be 
a bit clearer to emphasize certain key 
points. I'd also like to see illustrations on 
maneuvers. My friend would enjoy seeing 
action when moves are made, instead of 
just a listing of hits. But these are minor 
complaints. 

Overall. I consider this one of the finest 
computer games of its type I've yet played. 
It is expensive but well worth $59.95 to 
those who like this type of strategic, thought 
provoking pastime. Detailed and compara- 
tively fast-paced. Computer Air Combat 
is a marvelous game. □ 




"Thomas! We erase with the DEL Key. not our 
Pink Pearl!' 



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CIRCLE 169 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Raster Blaster 



flipping 

®wt 



Dale Archibald 



SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Raster Blaster 

Type: Pinball machine 

System: 48K Apple II or II Plus, single 
disk drive 

Format: Graphics 

Language: Machine 

Summary: Super graphics 

Price: $29.95 

Manufacturer: 

BudgeCo. 

428 Pela Ave. 

Piedmont, CA 94611 



Apple owners who aren't familiar with 
Bill Budge should make his acquaintance. 
He was one of the first— and one of the 
best— at using the color graphics of the 
Apple to their greatest advantage. Some 
of his past works include Tranquility Base 
for Stoneware, and Space Album and Game 
Trilogy for California Pacific. 

With Raster Blaster, Budge has added 
pinball wizardry to his repertoire. I didn't 
appreciate how good he was until I saw 
this game. The color, sound effects, and 
action are all superb. 

As many as four people can play on 
two difficulty levels. I've only played on 
the easy level, with ball-saving shields 
always in place. On hard, the six center 





targets have to be hit before the shields 
come on; then, they only last for one ball. 

There are two flippers operated by the 
game paddles, a force gauge to select 
how hard to shoot the ball, a tilt selector, 
four lane lights, three side targets, six 
center targets (small apples), four round 
center bumpers (large Apples), two side 
bumpers. Raster Blaster claws that grab a 
ball once you've hit all six center targets, 
and spinners. 

All these features combine to create an 
almost perfect pinball game. ..perfect 
enough to form calluses on your flipper- 
pushing thumbs. Lights flash, noises sound, 
and the ball flips, bumps, and rolls just 
right. 

Extra points are earned for completing 
all the lane lights, hitting all three side 
targets, hitting the six center targets and 
grabbing three balls in the claws (at which 
point all are dropped for four-ball play). 

The "almost perfect" has to do with 
the operation of the flippers. At times, a 
ball traveling down the channel toward 
the flipper will speed up without warning. 
Also, if a ball is caught on the flipper 
after rolling down the channel, it doesn't 
bounce away; it just keeps bouncing off 
the flipper. But these are minor flaws. 

I'm not much of a pinball player myself, 
but I can see where a person could save a 
lot of money with this program and a 
large color TV. For parties it's a natural 
awe-striker; the graphics are so impressive. 
It's also a great way to keep the kids away 
from those nasty folks down at the pinball 
parlor. Unless, of course, the kids invite 
them home to help. D 



Dale Archibald. 1817 Third Ave. N., Minneapolis. 
MN 55405. 





O 



o 



o 



o 



o 



o 



o 



o 



o 

8 



62 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




NEW... FOR APPLE II 

FROM PROMETHEUS 

VERSAcard 

1. Serial Input/Output Interface 

2. Parallel Output Interface 

3. Precision Clock/Calendar 

4. BSR Control 



ALL ON ONE CARD 

with true simultaneous operation 
. . .at a down-to-earth price! 

CHECK THESE FEATURES: True simultaneous operation! VERSAcard s 
unique hardware selection circuitry makes your Apple "think' that separate cards are 
installed. This allows VERSAcard interface ports to be compatible with existing software 
such as APPLE PASCAL, Microsoft Softcard' 21 , and most other Apple software. 



The Serial Input/Output port is RS-232C standard. Fea- 
tures include accurate crystal controlled baud rates, half/ 
full duplex operation, and interrupt capability. 

The versatile Parallel Output Interface is configured for 
the Centronics standard and is easily configured for other 
standards. Firmware is available to utilize the graphic fea- 
tures of popular printers such as the Epson. 

Precision Clock/Calendar. All standard real-time clock/ 
calendar functions. One second to 99 years time keeping. 
Battery back-up supplied. 

BSR Control. Add an ultrasonic transducer or the 
Prometheus Direct Connect Option and VERSAcard pro- 
vides you with BSR remote control. By utilizing the on- 



board real-time clock and the Prometheus Time and Event 
Schedular - you can remotely control various accessories 
in your home and office. 

VERSAcard is shipped complete with SOFTWARE for 
each function contained in an industry standard EPROM. 
Versatile device drivers permit connection to virtually any 
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CPS MultiFunction Can) 


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YES 


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software; 



Old Challenger 
Bridges 
New Waters 



Dynacomp Bridge Challenger 



Owen Linderholm 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Bridge 2.0 

Type: Bridge-playing game 

System: 8K Apple. Atari, Pet. 

TRS-80, CPM and Disk 

Drive or cassette 

Format: Disk/Cassette 

Language: Basic 

Summary: Reasonable bridge-playing 
program 

Price: $17.95 for cassette. 
$21.95 for diskette 
Manufacturer: 

Dynacomp, Inc. 

1427 Monroe Avenue 

Rochester, NY 14618 



In the December issue of the magazine 
we carried a review of the "only" two 
bridge playing programs or machines on 
the market. One other program that has 
been available for a year or so was 
inadvertently left out of the review, so it 
is presented here. The program is Bridge 
2.0 from Dynacomp; it costs $17.95 on 
cassette and $21.95 on diskette and is 



available for almost all the popular micro- 
computers, including Apple II, Atari, TRS- 
80. Commodore Pet and CP/M systems. 
The program itself is of a standard in 
between that of the two Bridge Challengers 
mentioned in the earlier article. It bids 
and plays three of the four hands, thus 
allowing only one human player. 

This program is not a Master player, 
nor is it especially fast and it will never 
replace the company of even one other 
human player, but it could be useful when 
you are alone and feel like practicing a 
few hands. The program should also prove 
useful in training beginning players since 
it will probably not lose its temper or 
scream about incompetent, idiotic part- 
ners. 

The program is written in Basic which 
means that the impatient card player will 
have to learn a little patience. In the 
actual play of the hand the delays are 
hardly noticeable, but during dealing and 
sorting the computer can hold up play for 
as long as twenty seconds. Bidding is 
somewhat limited since the computer only 
understands very basic bids. It takes an 
opening of a suit at the one level as showing 
13+ HCP and a strong suit, an opening of 
two of a suit as 22+ HCP and a strong 
suit, a INT opening as a balanced hand 
with 16-18 points. Responses are totally 
natural and mean exactly what one would 
expect. No conventions are used at all. so 
the partners have little information about 



one another's hands, although they usually 
end up in the correct contract. 

The program plays quite well, especially 
when it is defending against your contract. 
It plays less well when it has to defend 
against a contract. One of the best features 
of the program is the way it keeps track 
of the cards and deduces where voids are 
and who has the high cards in a certain 
suit. This means that it almost always 
knows when to pull trumps, ruff tricks 
and lead to its partner. Nevertheless the 
program only knows very straightforward 
tactics during play and cannot finesse or 
understand conventional leads. I also 
noticed it leading away from an ace on a 
few occasions. The program does seem 
to know how to make a squeeze, but only 
by using trumps and does so only on occa- 
sion. 

The program has several disadvantages 
not directly related to the way it plays 
bridge. You cannot set up hands to play 
yourself, so experimentation with inter- 
esting hands is practically impossible. It 
is possible to repeat a hand or a certain 
series of hands, but the method used to 
achieve this is very clumsy. There are no 
graphics in the program, only text. This 
makes the program less convenient than 
it could be. One unusual feature of the 
program is that when you end up as dummy, 
you play your partner's hand, which lets 
you practice a bit more than you otherwise 
might. 



64 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



BRIDGE 2. 
<C> 1981 BY DYMflCOMP.TNC. 



ENTER ANY POSITIVE NUMBERI12 

SHUFFLING 
DEALING 

SORTING 



YOUR HAND ■ SOUTH I : 
i: K6 
H: TS6S 
[•: AQJ32 
C : J8 

YOU ARE THE DEhLER, 

WHhT do you bid? 

SOUTH" ID 

west: 2C 

NORTH: PASS 

EhST: 2H 
SOUTH "FhSS 

ME ST: 3C 
NORTH: PASS 

EhST: 3H 
SOUTH ?PhSS 

WEST I 4H 
NORTH: PASS 

EmST: PhSS 
SOUTH-PhSS 



THE CONTRACT IS: 4H 
THE DECLARER IS: EhST 



REVIEW OF THE BIDDING: 



SOUTH 


WEST 


NORTH 


EAST 


ID 


2C 


PASS 


2H 


PhSS 


3C 


PASS 


3H 


FhSS 


4H 


FhSS 


PhSS 


PhSS 









PEhDY to PLAY?YES 



ROUND: 


1 






♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 






4H 


HE : 


THE 


V : 




SOUTH: 








;■ • 


1 o 






H: 


rsts 






D: 


ho.ii: 






C« 


js 


SOUTH 


PLAYS 


a s 




WEST 


PLAYS: 


5S 




NORTH 


PLAYS: 


2S 




EhST 


PLAYS: 


AS 




ROUND: 


-■ 






******** 






4H 


WE:0 


THEY! 


i.iEST: 








S: 


QJT 






H: 


73 






• D: 


7 






Ci 


AK T63 


-■ 






SOUTH: 








S: 


6 






H: 


T86S 






D: 


AQJ3 






C: 


J8 


EhST 


PLAYS: 


3S 




SOUTH 


PLAYS 


?ss 




I.IEST 


PLAYS: 


TS 




NORTH 


PLAYS: 


4S 




NOVEMBER 1981 







ROUNDI 8 


i 


******** 




4H ME : 1 


THEY:* 


WEST: 




S: O.T 




H: 




D: 7 




C: AKT 




SOUTH: 




i: 




HI 




D: AQJ32 




Ci J 


SOUTH PLAYS "hDS 


ERROR IN LEhD. TRY AGAIN. 


SOUTH PLAYS 


>AD 


i.iEST PLAYS: 


r*D 


NORTH PLAYS: 


JO 


EhST PLAYS: 


4[. 


POUND:'? 




♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦■ 




4H WE: 2 


THEY: 6 


WEST: 




S: OJ 




H: 




Di 




C: AKT 




SOUTH: 




HI 




D: QJ32 




Ci J 


SOUTH PLAYS 


?2D 


WEST PLAYS: 


TC 


NORTH PLAYS: 


KD 


EhST PLAYS: 


SD 



This shows you exactly how the com- 
puter plays a certain hand. In the listing is 
given an example of the way the computer 
deals and handles the bidding. A few of 
the rounds played are shown as well. As 
you can see the final contract was 4H by 
East which is too high since in another 
run of this hand I managed to set the 
contract by three tricks by leading the 
ace of diamonds followed by a low diamond 
which is ruffed in dummy. We were then 
allowed to take two spade tricks, one 
heart trick and two more diamond tricks. 
In this example I led the king of spades 
which was a very poor lead since it lost us 
the two spade tricks. Later my partner, 
the computer, lost us one of the diamond 
tricks by holding on to the king of diamonds 
and playing it when he had no way of 
getting back into my hand for the other 
diamond trick. This happened in rounds 
eight and nine shown in the listing. My 
computer partner. North, should have 
played the king on the ace. leaving me 
with two more diamond tricks. These 
mistakes meant that the computer made 
the contract which could have been set 
by at least two tricks. 

As you can see, the computer plays less 
well when trying to stop a contract but it 
does play an adequate game and one that 
beginners will find challenging. A person 
who takes bridge seriously would probably 
have little to gain from the program, but 
it represents a reasonable value to the 
casual player or to the beginner. □ 



CHOOSE... 

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CIRCLE 254 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



65 



DYNACOMP 



Quality software for*: 



ATARI 

PET 

APPLE II Plus 



TRS-80 (Level II)** 
NORTH STAR 
CP/M Disks/Diskettes 



CARD GAMES 



BRUM,* IRHiariebte for ail computer*. PrtttttIT HImmn Wl MO 

:i.r .erc.onof thitmottrjcmularofcarda^met Th.. program both IIDSmd PLAYS Mhet contractor 
dunticnt bridge Depending on tbt contract, your computet womkh .Wl either pie* th* ofTtnn OR. Mbm If 
you bad too r«gh. the connate* mil 4mM> your contract ' MIDGt 2 protidtt challenging tnitnunn.Ml for 
advanced pi***" mchm tactutnt Ltaraing tool for tht bridgt notice Sat the tofi.art ie*.e» la RO Soft../* 
f rmoue Rated fl by Creative t omput.ng 

HIARJsi ^A-aJtaWtforaRconaaitr*. WMlMWf— WJWi^M 

Anru<nMM«tM«naiMM«wip«i*'««nmnofthiipo|Ml«c«rtf S MM Heem.tatmk^iemedgame... -hich the 
WrpoatniMMWuktaNvhMntorthcvMnKX^An Play aRnatt t.ocrmyatrttr oppor*nt> *.ho are armed .i.h 
hard to-be*. PU..M ttrattgttt HEARTS ManiM hm tor iMrodociag th* MMaM lyou* taoant) to ton 
puter. See the toft*arr rettf* in W Softnarr t runout 

STID POKER lAlarianryl — - r-fTll IITIII 1lfiflMl.il 

Th-t>.iM<lm.« game*, .card gam* TVcoaaWwwwItlJiacarwoMrataiMMMdvouiaAd theconpu.enbe.on 
nhatyoutt* nwcompMi«TdonM>ichMiMrftMMir>k«t<tk«<MM« Hor-rt u tc-n«t.m*t N«(f»' AhoMtchnMln 
*^r^e>ddr*«pc>k«h*ii.ngprecii£eprograni Th.i rmckageuiU ruaona IRK ATARI Color, »aph*t. toond Stt 
rta f. in COMPUTE 

POMRPARn .A.**iaa*efotaR<ompnier*i Pftralll.HCaaaam ui WDtttHt 

POKER PARTY .» a dr*» poker .in ult im a bawd on tht Boo* POKER, by Otnald Jacob) Thn it tht mow com 

ptettenwee veruon amiable for m*rocomputrt. Tht pan* coautit of youfitif and m other (computet > player. 
i*t« pla.er. (you ».tl get io bao* ihmi h*. a difftrtm pcrtonai.it in tht fom of a varying propcrvtrt. io 
Muff or foU under preuur* Pratt** Ml POKER PARTY before going to that e*pcnt..e game tonight' Apr** 
Catwttt and dithttit .*r»on. require a >1 K lor Larger) Apple II 

(RIIMUUlTIS-RMhi rifWITR— 1 tllMnhmnt, 

Th.. ■ unaty th* btw cribbapr gam* atnlabt* li » an tt cedent program lor th* .ir.bbegt piatn in tearth of a 
•orthy opponent a. *ell a. for the aottc* ..thing io mnro** hu gam* Th* graph*, art .uperb aad timMi 
language routine* provide rapid tietattoa Sot tht toft*ere rt*ie» m to Software OMpJ 



THOUGHT PROVOKERS 

M*N\l.rMtMs|MIIAI(W(AM,NbrflVara*i(PMaa(j» Prtre SloMCanrnt 

tll.MDkm**** 
Thu program i< both an twttttnt leaching tool at *ctl at a tiimulatiag .ni*U*ctu*l Rant Rated upon wmtlar pamtt 
playtd ai graduate buvnttt kRoom. each plater or team control, a *ompon, ■bath manufacturer, thrtt prod*... 
Each player attempt, to outperform am taaapt m ert by aniMR attlmg prior*, product.on *olttmet. marketing and 
dttipn taptmlKwtt fit Tht moat MKCtaif«l Dm n tht ow ..ih iht hiphtt. uocb prxt -btit tht uamlatton end* 

r I K.HI SIMI I A TOR I A.atkaMe for a* conp^lrrv Prtc fTTf Inllnl ■!» DRnttit 

I -rai ^ k and ttteatoe mathentaiKal tiMulation of ipae-off. DipM and Undinp Tlr rrnpriitn utihrri aeirrt)aaawi 
tquaiioni and iht cnaracttnum of a real arrfotl You can practwe .ntttuntnt approachm and itetwjanon u*>np 
radiali and compaat haadMRi Tne noet nKaacad flter can alto perform loop*, half-roth and unOar acrobatic 
mantM<tri AhhouRh ttm proRran dott tut erapioy r*pn»-t ■< » ticitxif and »er> addKtivt Sat iht K>fi*art 
tt*** in t (iMPL IHiMi S Rum in l«K Atari 

VAlWZlAvnnnarfataalr.npittn) PrkeSl) Hf ananr II* •* naaeete 

VALDt/ it a comptrttr tmubMMa of Miptrtanfctr mvirbikw m tht Print* Wilban Sound ' V aider Narro«i rtRron 
of Alaua InchitX^mihttiMtulMionnaretJntKaradtattMitt}}* ■ I* element nap. portion* ofahrch may be 
».e-*d uting tbt wupt alpRanontrK radar dnpiay The motwn of the tnp unlf •* accurately modelled 
mathematically Tbt unulatttn alto toniain* a model for the tidal paittrnt m tht rtRKM. at *ell at other traffic 
loutROMR tanker* and dr.ft.np tctbttRti t hart yowr cowrar From (be Gulf of AJatka to V alder Harbor ' See (he toft 
■ are rttit* in RO Soffaart t rit >que 



Prtre: SUM I aaarite SUM IMtaerte 



■ A( M.4MMON 2.0 1 Alan. Nart. Mae and ( P Maalti 

Thit progran ttttt yowr batkpammon tkillt and »WI aho mprcne ytyyr pane A human c 

putet or apaintt another human Tne computer can cttn pny aaarntt ■itdf Enhcr tbt human or the o 

double or pener ate diet torn award prmtntM can be cr a w Id or tattd for replay RACKGAMMOS 2 piay* in ac 

iordanct *nh the offKial rule* of backRammon and it tur* to provide many faaoubttnR lamoni of backRamnon 

RBr) 

CHaXKEMXRlVil RRRRll Prtte liaMfam^teSMMDnbHN 

I h» n one ol the now chaUenpinp checker* proRranw avatrabte It baa 10 kr*th of pUy and alto.t iht uter to chanpc 
*killlt.eltatan. t.ntc Although proc^inp a *er> touch name ai le*el * I, t HI t KIRS < n„ practical!* unewatahtt 
at letch t and 10 

<MESsN1As||||,>.eihSl»pnRTR\^M|,| r*<: Sr>M(naabM SUM Dlrdtette 

TbM coenpetH aad *er, potttrful progran prottde* fit* rt*t<* of piay ll include* cattknp. en pattaeu capturet and 
the pronotion of pe»n* Addn mnailt . ibt board nay be prcttt before iht Man of piay. perroMtint the kmmim 
ol ■boo* pUy* To macirnm ettcution tpeed. the program kj . M nen m Mttenbty language Iby M)ITV> \Ul 
SPIt IAI ISIS ol California! I nil giapn«.» are employed in the TRS RO leruon. and two «>dth* of al 
ditplay are provided to accommodate htorth Star utert 

I EM I ANDf RIUK Apacle IMah tyayfy » 

Ptloi your 1 1 M I AMH R to a nfe landing on any of mm different turfacct tanging from unooth io treacntrotji 
The gam* paddle* arc uted to control craft atniudt and intuit Tht* it a real n 



EflRESI EIRE ! tAlaelrMlyt Pratt: tM M( aaettJ* SIR M Dbnette 

l cng eacelhrnt grapeiKt and wund effect* , tbt* uenolatron put* you m iht middle of a form Tire Y our yob it to direct 
optratton* to put out the ftrt >tult toengientaiing for cbangtt in mind, •eaihet and tertnn Not protecting caluabf* 
tiructuretcan rttuh in wan ling penaftrtt life lite >ariabee* art provtdtdto make fORI sf II Rl ' .try cu^pentcful 
and challenging So too game* ha>e the tame tettmg and there art » knelt of difficuliy 

MlMIM>EsjH.sA»AtAlart. Appnr and T RS-RR nney , tr*. SU Mi earn**. SM Mlibmert* 

A jhajraa pu/rlc on your computer' ( omplete the pur/le b» celeciing ..hi' p*cet ftc»m a table cnnuuing of ROdil 
fereni ihape* SOMISOl S llt.SAV. „ a .irtwo*o programming effort The grapbK* art *uperLati>r and the pw/te 
• ill challenge you nnh Rg three ie*el* of dif fKulty Voring it band upon iht number of guetttt taken and by iht *f 
fkwhy of tht board tet up see -e.«- .n 1 1 U iht ink t.AMIS 



MflNARf H<Alan»nt.i 

MONARt Hi*, latcnning tear 



i SIS M 



You dtttrrmnt tht amount of actaagt detottd to induwriai and agrnuhufal rrr, ho* nuch food to dttiributc to the 
populace and hem much thouM be tptni on pollution control You <iU find that all dtctwont intofte a coeaatronrrt 
and thai it n not eaty to naht tteryont happy 

l HUMPH (HAlartondy. Prk. Ill Mf tmttH SISMlm****. 

t HOMPI I (> i* raaRy too chailtnging garnet m one On* R umtlar to NIM. you mutt nit of f pan of a cookie, but 
acotd taking the iwrtoned portion Tht other game it the popular board gam* RIVERS! It lully u*** tht Alar. * 
grapbKt capabtbty. and it hard io beat Th,» package •.!! run on a l«K tywen 



•ATAMI. Mf. r*S 10, \OMtH\TA*. ( f M and IBM ,t, rguj igp peggj »i m 4imamt% and or 



DYNACOMP OFFERS THE FOLLOWING 

• Widest variety 

• Guaranteed quality 

• Fastest delivery 

• Friendly customer service 

• Free catalog 

• 24 hour order phone 



AND MORE. 



M^HIRER WiA.am.be* for a* compttteryi Prtrr 111 Mraaame SI) M 

The* n the clatiK Star net timulaiion. bat onh ttveral no* faaiurt* For tinman. ■"« Klingont no** thoot at iht 
Enttrpnit •ithout oarnng nhtkr alto attacking ttarbaat* m other gwadramt Tht Kbngont alto attack *>Mh both 
light and htaty cramrrt and not* nbtn vbot at" The muation ■* hectic nhtn tht Emerprite it btamaad by three hoaty 
trnb t ri and a ttarbtat S OS tt rartitnl' TV Khngont get t*tn' Sat tht toffare ttttt** in A N A L OC ROSolt 
•art Ctkmi.0* and Gam* Mercbandiwng 

■I AfKHOIEiAratakrantyi Prtn.SMMCamtH.lM MDbnetn 

TbM » an cutting graphical ii m ali i nn of the prormynt ia*ofvnl m t kmrly obter* >ng a btacb bony «n h a tpact probe 
Theobiact n to enter and maintain, for a rxttcrirmd tirne. an orb>t clot* to* trnall black hole Tht* it to be achwad 
t tmal ttrtw dteiroyt iht probe Control of iht craft it realm k all > 
■r acttftrnton Trw program employ! Hi 



SPAC E TILT i Annat nam A I art atnh I Prke SM W Ctatant SM M D 

tt* th* game panldhri to tilt tbt plant of tht TV ttrtta lo roll ' a ball mo a bolt in tht tttatn Sound wmpt 
-hen iht holt Rtti tnalltr and tmaller ■ A built m tnttr altottt you to m a nure your ah ill agnnn or her i in thit 
forming action game 



Mm INC. MAZE I Antmt pay* Atari emit . 
MOVING MAZE 



Prtre SMMf ataette SUM 
fron one udt of a man to tht oth 
being mod. f ied Tht obyacttrt it to cron tht mate 

-ithotii touching (or being hti by) a ami Scoring n by an eiapttd tint mdicnor. and thrtt leceh of play art 

proktded 

ALPHA E IC.HIER I Atari a**J ) PrVr SM M < maert. SIR M DkmM. 

T*o twafhtai granettct and action programt •■ one' Al PHA \ IGHTER reouiret »ou lodtttroy the aben Markhtp* 
patting through .our tactor of tht galaiy ALPHA RASE n in iht path of an alien UFO mtaawn. kit fit* CFO't get 
by and tht gam* ant* Roth garnet require tht jovtuch and att progtetutely nor* dtfficuh tht hinhn you kcort' 
ALPHA FIGHTER oil! run on IRK tyatrmt 

THE RIM.N Of THE EMPIRE I Atari tmft i Rakn, MM (|MM njajn rjtmteat 

Tht eaapree ha* developed a na— battle union ptotttttd by rotating rtnga of energy Each urn* >ou Matt through ibe 

h more protect. «r ring* Thu tacttmR gam* rim* 

IN mi lit RAIKRl (Atari a*«S> Prke SUM < aanet* S3RMIm>b*t*r 

Th,. i* a fa* paced graahKi Rant uh^h peace* you m the nnnttt of iht ■ Oreadttar hatmg iutt woten n« plant TV 
dro^. ha*e been alerted and are directed to detttoy you at alUotrt You mutt find and enter your ihm to etcape >nh 
tne plant E.*cle>ehof difficuky art pro*ided INTRUDER ALERT retjnrtta joynuck and trill ran on IRK tytttn* 

C.IANIMAIOMlAtarinmSl Prke SM MfanHtt IMMDbmen. 

Thit real t.m* attron game it guaranteed addxtue ! tar tht joythek io control your path through tlalon coartn con 
utt.ng of both opta and *tot*d gate* (hoot* from difftrtni k***lt of difTtcuRy. tact agatntt other piayari or aatagey 
take practtct rum aga.net tht clock GIANT SLALOM »ill raa on IRK tyuent 

IRIPI E RUM KADI I Atari nnr, I Pmrt SUMfantnr SUMtmmttt* 

TRIPIE RL(KKAt>Ei**taotothrecpu>*Tgrae>rtKtaiulioundactHmaamc It .. bated on the ctaaax »deoar*ade 
game »htch nduont ha*t tamyad L ung tbt Atari joy tiKkt, iht tmtact .. io d.rtct your blockading hat around iht 
tcretn fithout running into your opponenthl Although iht concept >i vmpie, tht conf aa ad giaphict aad tound 
effect lead to "hagh anairt" 

(.AMrsPAC RIlAtamaaetfaraRroenpaler*! Pew SIRMfaaattt* SU M Dkaktttt 

OAK0 PACK I c-ontaint iht ctaawc tonptiier game* of ILACKJACK. LUNAR LANDCR. t RAPS 
HORSIRAt I SWITCH and mora Thete game* have been combined into one large program for eate .a loading 
Thty are indittdnaRy acctttad by a contentrm menu Ihi* collection ■* north tht prict |uti for tht DYNACOMP »er 
won of Rl ACKJAt k. 

C. AMEJt PACK II I A* aMabt* for aN tomaaler*. PNtre SIR M ( aawMt SU M Ibahertr 

( ,*,WrS PACK Hi nctudtt the garnet CRA/Y EIGHTS, M)TH>. AIL 1 IK ( I V I HI »l MPI Sandothtrt At 
- \r (,AVtl M'V K I. all the gantet are load*dm on* r^ogram and *tr called F'.Mia menu You nill particularly en 
toy DVNACOMP'i >trwon of I RA/Y LIGHTS 
Why pay S' « or more per program -hen you can bay a DYNACOMP coRaction for ,uti SlO M* 

MfNINPRORE lAlariaavRNatlRMaroahl Pnk* 111 MCanetn SIS MDtaVtnt 

Th.. it an tnrtntry cbaR e a amg -lunar lander" program Tht uter mutt drop fron orhn to land at a predetermined 
target on the moon 't twrfact You control tht tbrutt and orttntnion of yottr craft plui dtrttt tht rait of drtcent and 
approach angle 

SPACE LANES iNartR Ma* atMyl r^ gu M fTm..t*t 

SPACE LANES it a umpk but tuning tpact uaaaaortatwn gnat •tttch mtoht* up io four awytri (incrndtng the 
computer I Th* obrnn it io fom and tipand tpact irantportat wn con pan in m a compel n i.e en. iroeantni Th* go. 
it to amatt meet nat *>enh than your o 
* tt* h > our ** tatt h | to* ' 



ADVENTURE 

CRANSTON MANOR AIIV E N TV RE (Naeth Star aad < P Moalyi Prk* S1IMI 

Ai latt' A comprehemii* Adttnturt game for North Star and C P M lyutmt t RANsltis manor AIJV| n 
Tl RL taktt you into myutnotn CRANSTON MANOR *here you attempt to gather fabtjlout treatutct lurking in 
iht manor arc **ild animal, and robot* *ho «iR not p*e up tht irtamirt* nithout a ftghi Tht number of room, it 
greater and tht Mtoctakad dettrtption. art nuch more elaNw.tr than Iht current popular ttrtti of Ad.enturr pro 
gram., making thit game the top m it* ciatt Play can be Mopped at any time and the ttwut .tared on drtbette 



SPEECH SYNTHESIS 



DYNAlOMPitn. 



Iihtneu andre*oluiionai* TYP1 N I Al h ,M t |NHcpee*h i.nihetirrt from V.-rat 

■■rnr tun ma t I TNT IO you* comptrltr't trrial .merit**, enter tett from the keyboard and heat the nordt tpoken INI i. 
the tautti to program tpaach tyatbtt.rtr on the market It utrt th* leatt anonw of memor, and protide* it* mott flet. 
i»herr' 

Pih.e UN ** (Pleate add S* i» for crMpmng and bandkng) 

TNT Software 

Tht foUontng DYNACOMP program, art **ai table lot u*t RRR INI 

STUD POKER (Aim. 24KI 
NOMINOIS JIGSAW I Alt' SgKl 
TEACHER S PEI I I Atari and North Mar) 
RRIDGE 2 (North Marl 
( HosiPlMHAter.. I4KI 

Pteate ^»rcii* t Nt 



ABOUT DYNACOMP 

DYNACOMP it a leading ditinbuior of tmalltyticm «ili»are »tih takt tpannmgihc tvorldfcurrtfiily in 
Cacru of 40 countrict) During the patl lot* year* »e have grraily enlarged iht DYNACOMP product 
line, but ha.r tnainiaintd and irnrtroved out high level of qualny and cuttomer tupport Tht achievement 
in quality it apparent from our many repeat cutlorttrrt and tht toflttart re* tent in tuch pubtKRliont at 
COMPL'TROSICS. »0 So f I* ait Crittqut and AN A I O C. Oui tuttcttrm tuppori it at clow Rt your 
phone It it al* ay t rnrndly The stall u highly (taincd and aJnay mlting to dtuutt producti or gnc 
ad t ice 



BUSINESS and UTILITIES 



STELLGl AID™ ICP <'M m*> 

SPELLOUARDtaari 



•elut of tour turn 



MmttlMfgM 

'ocnMiDum iW(>bi> 

STAR. MAGIC WAND. ELECTRIC PENCIL. TEXTEO EDITOR II and otktrii Wmua taiirtty m aermaaty language 
SPELLGLJARD™ rapuBy eetHtt ih« -ret 1a «Imiwm| tpelfang and Irarajranhical trron by comparing each -ord of tto 
(til attune! ■ dictionary letpaadebtti of m 10,000 of ito mom cmmdm Englrth *ordt W wd» appearing >n ito teat but not 
round m ito dtctionary an ' 'flagatd' ' for eaty •emeufkation tad correction Mom adrnini.trei..e waff familiar »nh »«d pro 
catnap eawpmtni -in to aWa lo um SPELLGL ARO™ m only a few mhniw 

MAM lISTrilAgdto.At^aauJNnelhNtardkrt^eedyi PrVr 1M jg 

Taw program hj unnawtJini' mi at afctlity to mow a mtt t aiaa. tumbet of tddr mr i oa oat dttktitt (owvw.no of 1 100 par dot- 
ette. more than 2100 for 'douktt donMy' lytieent'i IM many (ok am acMi alphabet* aad no code NniNj. Utol pruning 
(1.1. or) MSI. merging of filaiaiwlaurHa^tar-ordMoa^routiM-hKhrfir^rirmr^oiafmuallf l>m.ikt«(«itv<<>nt>r 
uatr defined coder Marl lm 1 1 mD even find end «Im dnpktat t eatnte A very valuator program' 

FOUM LETTER SYSTEM nl. 2 1 Atari, Nan* Mar aad App*r DtofciMoaoo »>, Prtr. tjg.eg 

FORM LETTER SYSTEM (FLSl - tto idaal program for creating end akoat fono lettart and adorn. tot> (i crjatama an 



NORTrT(N«*rtSttoo«*>l MnUtwrMM. 

SOR TIT h a general purport ronmg program written to RUB mimae.) laaaata t Ton program wtR ton n antt u tl tow War 
genereta d to NORTH STAR RASK.' FVtntary aodl optional tteoadary key* may to numeric or oo* lo rune character unruji 
SORT1T n merry mm with file* generated to OYNACOMP't MAIL LIST proa-am and » vary venal* m in capamktict for 
ad ottor RASIC data Mr toning 

PI RMIN Al USANCE IY9TEM I Atari and Nortfc Star enryl Prke IM to Dmhene 

PES m • omgw drtarttt. mttw-ar t enied tyaem carapoiat of to* diffaraw praarpaw Rtndti recording your rtpenret aad ia> 
deduciibtf item*. PES anH ton and totnenanat t t ptt m to payto. and di total information on tnpaadMurat to *ay of 2* aaar 
t t ftaed coder to month or to payee PPS •tU t**n proooco men rk ly bar grapat of row rtpeeteet to cattaoey' Tarn powerful 
package rtpu*rtt only oat *ak dm*. om wh I mtnttry <J4K Alan. )2K Nona Star) end •iH Mora a* lo too retard* par dMA 
land o*or HMO facorda par drta to aaafetaMj a ft* Maaaat caarajM to tto proararat) Voa can rat ord ckocfci atot caah aapaaan ao 



F AMILY IIIN.I.T I AppW o*ry I prtaa: SJ4 to OkAona 

FAMILY ■C'POCT » a *orr coa m Haa t ftoajanai racord k aapim propraw You •»« to aMt to aaop track of caah and cradu 
aapmdiiurat at •♦» a* incoaM on a dariy toau You can rotord laa Pada m M t Haaat aod caarMaMa doaatiorM FAMILY 
tUDGET aUo prondot a commmom racord of all cradu u awia rt iaai Yon tar. rruUr doily caah aad caarpr aotriei io any of II 
m ■*« a* to 1 payroR aad taa aaoaaau Data art m 



|STFIINK<Aiana«ry> 

Thar aofioart par* apt coMaia* a a»t*M*t*t* comociiob of p 
throat* a '*■ dwptt* aMdtra (raojwrad for aatl Mi oat atodt of optrattoa you «ay coaaott to a data atrvict It | . Tto 
SOURCE or MicroNti) aad «uKkly load data mk* at Mori ouotatrorM oaao tour d>Uttir for Later t»r»i*« Ttoi graaDy pa. 
ducti coaaott mat" aad ttoa tto atmca cnarat Vou atay aho racord ito coiplfi caataat* of a coaaaioaMa n oaa Moatoa 
AddttioaaMy. ataa/am antlta mi lAStC. FORTRAN, etc at) to tout of f l. at uttat tto toppon vtai tditor aad tOMt "ap- 
loadod" to aaottor coaapultr. atahiap ito Atari a tory Maart trrwMuyl E*on Atari RASIC proaraaM aaay to flaadtd 
Fanhtr. a coaaatottd Tut may to bwtii off -lint and uaad later at coatroUtap input for a t.rat akart tyutat That n. yon caa an 
up your Mtjuoact of iiatt-Uiart coatraaadi aad proaraaaa. and ito Atari *tU iraawaM itom a* aoadad. hatch proctHMt. All 
■an addr ap lo Mfittf both conaan imbc aad your imm 

IrXT lltlKWllitP Ml Prwt SiatoDtahtrtt UJaSDh* 

Tma n tto ttcoad ftVtaat *««» of DYNACOMP't popular TEXT EDITOR I andcoaiatat nwjay nr> faaiartt With TEXT 
EDITOR II you atay bwM itti fltti ta chunbt and awtrabk ttom for later dNplay Rlocki of itai may to appended, matrtad m 
dtktad Filet may to u*ad on dtik drtfcattt m r«ht jwMtfMd cantered formal to to later pnniad by tit tot TEXT EDITOR II 
or tto CP M ED facility Futtor. AH II IP M mot «ncludt*i IASIC and a n wabty lanpuapt proaraaM) may to read by tto 
editor aad aroctuod la fact, te.i fltn can to both aamt ED and later formatted mm, TEXT EDITOR II All . a ail. TEXT 
EDITOR II it aa it 



f f rmVjRF. mVI avajpj «"J ■; 



EDUCATION 



HtllM .1 POOGI: I Apa4r nah . AtX AppkeaoM at laieptr IAM( i 

Let HODGE PODGE toyourch.ld ■itotowier PrOMtac aay hty on your Appat nal 
nhty Ttoatoaram*tpraphKt.< 
from ogei i .-. to * HOOGE POOGE it a noa-ti 



IMHIKsruliA.i 

Thi. it ito Tmm of DYNACOMP't edwcattonal pachapn Prvmartly a 
provaytt tto younp Madaat »ah e onaaaa practice, kmtruord racopa 



MISCELLANEOUS 



CRi MALM Ala* no* I 



SOUTH STAB MNTYk ABE IXIHAM.I (NSSCt I IMA BY 

DYNACOMP an* drMr^utti ito 21 *«*■•* NSSE btoary Tnem diaettet o 
•abjt foe tto porthatt pntt Thty tnaaM to pan ol e*ory North St* 
n rtpardatf ito contontt of the NSSE coukimm 



AVAILABILITY 



DYNACOMP tof1. art it tupptod otth • 
tpatirmd. all protramt *>U run ormin IMC p 
atot on ATARI. PET. TRS »0 (Level II) and A 
•Itidttketie Addtionally.tr 
* M RASIC 



Mil E I Atari and North tot ammtllti aon> I Prtea -«*.« 

Thn handy propram aRo«i North Star and Atari data, nam io awtntain a tpecialired data tont of an flln and proarame in ito 
ttacb of mUtt nhtch ia>ari*Wy accumolattt DFILE it taty to an up and aat li •ill orpanue yout dtabt io provide tfnotnt 
hxatinp of ito dtwrad fat or program 

HMMTlNortb. star ooJ>. Prtra tW to 

Thtt n> a Ihratraoat propram »krch mmMaini m forma 



sHOPPIM.llMiAlartaadN-etlistarnahl 
SHOPPING LIST atom mletatatton on itamt you 
al the thmat you majht aaad. and than atopiay lot 
chanpme. aad Moratf data « vary aaay Rant «Mh laK 

IAXOrt1MI/EBlNa-^hN«toa«tyl PHtt: S*t •• Dbnett. 

Tto TAX OPTIMIZE R » an ran -io ute. menu onaawd toft.are paUapt •*"* providtt a coatoaMM ataam for anaryrayj 
■anowt ttKoaat tat ttrattpiet Tto propram it dewpnad to prowdt a omtk aad May data entry Income tat .t computed hi aO 
tat mtinodt (ratalar. nxomt avarapiai. majumtaa aad anwaaat ■■■■■am taa) Tto uttr may mm ladmiHy ototrvt ito UM 
eflaci of cr.iH.ai financial dacntortt TAX OPTIMIZER hat ban ihcffoupluy fWM ittttd in CPA offtcai and comet cetaptttt 
•iih ito current ta*. uMtt in in data filet 



t ammr III WD 
del. TEACHER S PI I 
-. in i paajajhaj 



Ntret •Mfamerai lUtolHahrttr 
i toner •bxh vary at tto patterat art 
tartnmini CRYSTALS hat beta 



Call or nntt DYNACOMP 



STATISTICS and ENGINEERING 

MM! Al FILTER I AtaHaMt fat pB r i a pt l . n l Prtr, 1» to C anartt. to) to rjajtomt 

DIGITAL FILTER it a tompretoatrve data practatmp propram •ktck ptrrmtt ito uatr to dttajn mi o-n fVhtr function or 
cfcpaat from a mm of filler formt Tto llktr formt art tutoapuently convtrtad mto non-ratarwvt coavolotion coefr>cMMt 

t ito tnapt of Ito Ireoutncy nam far functic 



t uaad m tto cakulaiion Tntrt f.hert mai oeMionalryalao to 
_ JaataraajtrJi flkert may to idactad Faaturet of DIGITAL 
Ml tlk^ludrptotnapofitodaiatoforrandarter Mite tag, m r^ m dnpiay of ttochotrn fUttr functhont Alvo.ncludad 
art «a*<tnim data nwrapt, rttrurval and adrttap procadurtt 

DATA SMOOTHFJI (Nto avamaMe tt Atari) prw, tit to t naartta St3 to D 

TW tpacial data amaotktng propram may to uaad to rapidly dtnvt utefui mformauaa from aotay buMnata 
data wtoch art apaalry tpatad Tto tofloart faoturat caotct m daprat and ranpt of IH, aa otR at ■mnwhad fwtt aad taeond 



.■ p 1 | -, .- djuj kjpaj j«i, ,^j „ 



EiH BOB ANAi ,/m,A*i 
Lat ihn propram ta ttimmi 
pkMimf ol tto mpot data aad 



Prme SO PI CaaattM SU t» DfatoMa 

t frapuency npattra of knatad durHtoa ttpnakt Tto propram foMurm aatomatK Kakap and 



M>*rr) pran: sit PS CaaaMte SUM Omtoeat 

ftnare pachapt •Inch may to uaad to evaluate tto iraaeftr runctMM of tyitemi tack at hi Ti am p*< fieri aad 
« their importer io putted input i TFA h a major a»«mfkatroa of FOURIER ANALYZER and contamt aa 
laatoiariat-arlaaaaa dacmtl varaat log freoutney plot aa *oU at data adtimp faaturet Whereat FOURIER ANAL VZER it dt 

aMaaiflt aat. TEA tt aa i n atati n a p leer Atmlatot for all catapattrt 



H ABMONIt AN Al Y /FB I A.amatoe for aR c 
HARMONIC ANAl YZER nat Irtaatd for tto 



Prtre 114 MCaaaMte Sit M IHakettr 
rati of raptttuva *a>tfora>a Faaturta mdudt data fat paaara- 
atotbat Oat particularly aooaa* fanaty m that ito utput data 
need not to rouatty tpatad or m order Tat ortpmal data it tortad aad a caatt ajtott mtarpola ti oa w uaad to create tto data file 

ttor for a combine d price of tto to 



BFt.BFvilllNIi*,. 
REGRESSION lata 
Feoiurti tncludr (try hajk accuracy, an a 



a aad curve ptottmp. a rtatrtttcai annlym lag ttandard d 



B F f .BE SMI IN II | P AB AE 1 1 I i A. . 
PARAFIT it daapaad i 
tma Tto uatr teatpty « 
katt Data aad raawkt raay to ■ 



Prtea lit to Cameeat 11) to Waheate 

d (prjaatMy nonknaartyl in ito fHimg func 

't(Atl). All), etc i at one or more RASK uaiement 

d pkMMd aa otib REGRESSION I tat REGRESSION I for p 



and PARAFIT for thoae compkc a ied functioaa 

MM 111 INF AB BFC.BFXAPON iMI.BdA' tmHll fat aR cimpaltrel PrlrrlWIK 

MLR n a prof tatroaai tot mart pachapt lor aaalynng data ton contmmag i*o or more Imaarly ■■ 
prrformmg ito bawc ngrt iwon cakulaiion. thn propram aho providtt aaay to utt data entry, uorapt. retrieval andaattmg 
functKMH In addition, ito uatr may iMerrogate ito totutton by lupptytng lahret for the independent vartaWtt Tto number of 
•ariaMti and data wet n limned only by tto avarlantr raernory 
REGRESSION I. Hand MLl Til (NEAR REGRESSION may to porchated together for SSI W (three tatartltilor St) « 



ANilY MA.olaaMefornJIcompolrril Pmr. Sto to I aamttr to) to n 

la (he pom ito ANOVA lanalyin of vanaactl ptocadure hat been h maad io tto large mamlramt compwert Now 
DYNACOMP hat brought tto pootr of thn method to tmall lyMtma For thoae corrvortoal oMk ANOVA. tto DYNACOMP 
aaftoart package includn the I oay. 1 <aay aad N oay proceduret Alio providtd art tto Yatet l" * facional towpnt For 
■ hotc unfamiliar *tih ANOVA. da not worry Tto accompanying dotumtaiMwa oat •ntten m a tutorial fawttoa (by a pro 
fetaorw the tubujet land tervet man eacelleni our eduction lo tto tutoaci Accompaaytag ANOVA it a t uppori program for 
building tto data bate Included are ttveral cMvtartM ftaturet mrt umtig data edging, deleting aad ipprnmng 

BANK « II NTIFH Nl SROLTINE.V YaApaat I (Nat I' tilkbi far Atari) 

DYNACOMP it ito tadaatvt dtonbaiot for tto toftwmr keyed to tto popular ten I4W( Snrnri/n- Snm-oor.net. l-omnw / 
by F Rucbdeechat ivee the RYTE McGran-Hik ad.ert.vemeni m RYTE mapanne, lanuary Itoli Tntat tutoeutiatt have 




Cotttcttoa PI (hapten 1 aad t Random a 

Price par collection SU to i mteite SU t) Dwketie 
All three co.lect.om arc avaaaMr for SM> to ithree cataettet) aad Sat M itkrae dtUetttt) 

Becautt tto teat it a vital port of ttodoiumentatwn. ItW Ve.ii/* Sutootornei. lonrme/iiavrnkmlclrom DYNACOMP 
lor Si* to phut T)t poiiape and handkng Sat rriMrn >n [> Dobto 

Prltt SEP to 1 aaamr Sit to Dameaw 

ral hanag raal coefficaniit There it no In 



lAei 

Ir. ■ MMlMRX I 

ttoatgettof ito polynomial and h 



a tto procedure it iterative, tto accuracy it atntrally »try aood No mituil gutaiti ate 



AC IIVFflBClTl ANAIYNlMAI APllASR AppetotMy) Prtt. %li to < aaerttr 11* to IlkWeMe 

A( AP it tto anakigarctjMdtaigntr'i amneriolOt.lt V!Ml I ATOR »ith Ai, AP you may analytttht rttpoaatof aaac- 
tivt or aaiMu t c omponent grew |« g . airantnioramphrwr. band paat fiker.etc I The circuit mat to probed at equal tttpt in 
fttguancy. aad ito rteuttiag comptet n e , real aad imag i nary I vokagtt at tack compoa r nt /unci art et amintd By plotting tto 
maga a unt of itoat vokapee. ito freoutney r r tponie of a fatte or aatpklMr may to c o mpletely dt u rmiat d •« h retptct io both 
ampk t ade aad phare En addi t ion, ACAP pnntt a ttatrMical analym of tto rangt of > on age rtapoat t a wktch retult from 
tolerance *artatMM in tto component i At. AP it aaay to learn and utt Simply detenbe tto circwM in itrmt of tto element! and 
their placement, and teetufa Cn-cuii detcriptioaa may he taved onto caaaeitcor dttketie io to recalled ai a laier time for taani- 
imm or tdnmg ACAP tkoald to pan of every morn dtttgarr't propram btoary 

IIH.H SIM I I AIOBlAppetoa4y;«SHBAMl Prtre SMM Caaartay SMW rJaatoMt 

Wnk I (K.lt SlMl I ATOR you may taady (en your corapaemtd daajtal mgK deauja »ith rtaptci to given tet ol mpott to 
determine no* •ek Ike ctreari "ill aptrate Tto etememt nhwh may to emulated mcludt multiple input AND. OR, NOR. 
I BOS, I XNOR and NAND awet. m *etl m mverieri. I K and D flu* flop., and one tnott The rtapmatt of tto ayattm m 
armtabli every ckxk cycle laputtmay to clothed wt mth varying clock tyett length* oivptacententi and oetait may to intro 
ductd io proto for abtckat aad race condt t iont At ito uaer't option, atimmgdtaaram for nay given ret of aodttatay to plot 
tad uarng HIRES graptoct Save your beaaatoMrdtng until tto ciront it checked by LOGIC SIMM ATOR 

sH.NIB INortk Stat artd < P M adto) PRRPJ SM to Dkmtaw 

LOOK MMGNERnantacttoionalCotBputtr Aided Daatpn KADI program Wnk m vou may convert a large and .ompti 
.tied digiiial truth laok (tto functional tpacifKatront mto aa op n miaad Roottaa laaac aauatnyn TK.t aguaiian may then to 
eaw/r convened into a circuit drwga tramp tutor NAND or AND^OR gattt OpttMionaRy. LOGIC DESK'.NER a compamd 
of t BASFC program wtoch taRt m a machine language routine to redact eaecution lime E cample Eora T vetteotrto 11' hae 
table, tto proceaarng twat w only iwoaHmiitt I (K.lt DESIGNER n t Marly a fan and powerful toot for buddin g dajttal eir 
ajRrj 



ORDERING INFORMATION 



lorrnatton If paying by VISA or Maratr Card, include all nomtoet aa card 

I tkjpMg aad Haadmag Ckargaa 

W'ahm North Amenca Add II 30 

OuMrde North America Add IO". (An Mad) 



Daduct irua, *ata « 



IIP MDtaht 

Add SI W io Ito Ltied drakMie prne f. 
MKroaofl MRASIC ot RASK tO 



each I' floppy drtk UBM toft a 



■ ordtn itackrdmg bookn ate ami Firti t Ian 



d t P M format) Proprama run under 



■taiiable «. I ( P M dit*. 



•t alao available on ) 
toft*art dealer Wratfor 



detailed daerrtpuaae of Iheat and Other program* from 



DYNACOMP, Inc. 

1427 Monroe Avenue 

Rochester, New York 14618 

24 hour order phone: (716)586-7579 recording 

Office phone (9AM-5PM EST): (716)442-8960 



CIRCLE 136 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



:::::: micro learningware :::::: : 




EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE 






3 For 2 Special 






For every two program purchased choose an 




additional program at no extra charge 






A ■ Apple C = Color Computer 




T = TRS-80 P = Pet 






MATH 






D AT p Place Value 


7tS 




U AT P Number Strings 


7 95 




D ATCP Math Drill 


7 95 




□ T P Division Drill 


7 85 




D AT Speed Dmi 


7 95 




□ ATCP Fractions 


7 95 




D ATCP Decimals 


7 95 




D ATCP Bagels Number Game 


7 95 




: ATCP Stones Mam Game 


7 95 




C ATCP Factors 


7 95 




C T Metric Blackjack 


7 95 




G T Metric Roedrunner 


7 95 




BUSINESS ED 






2 T Accounting Tutorial 1 


7 95 




D T Accounting Tutorial II 


7 95 




D AT P Depreciation 


7 95 




DAT P Loan Amortization 


7 95 




D AT P Bank Reconciliation 


7 95 




O AT P Stock Market Game 


795 




O AT Disk General Ledger 


7 95 




HISTORY A GEOGRAPHY 






D ATCP Revolutionary War Quiz 


795 




Q ATCP Regions of U S 


795 




D ATCP States t Capitals 


795 




O ATCP Presidents 


795 




O ATC Countries 


795 




SCIENCE 






O T Electronics lOHm s Lewi 


795 




D T Cuo the bell physics lab 


7 95 




D TC Valence drill 


7 95 




O TC Elements classification drill 


7 95 




D TC Chemical symbols 


795 




O TC Atomic Weight drill 


795 




a TC Atomic Number drill 


795 




GRAMMAR/ENGLISH 






D ATC Adjective recognition 


795 




D ATC Adverb recognition 


7 95 




D ATC Noun recognition 


7 95 




D ATC Vert) recognition 


795 




n ATC Pronoun recognition 


7 95 




D ATC Person, place, thing 


795 




D T Contractions 


7 95 




O T Posseseives 


795 




3 T Prefixes 


795 




O T Spelling rules, drills 


7 95 




D ATCP Spelling dnll 


795 




D TCP Word Scramble 


795 




Q T Subiecl Verb Agreement 


7 95 




MISCELLANEOUS 






D AT P Hangman word game 


7 95 




D TCP Change maker 


7 95 




D A Money counter 


7 95 




D A Reading Thermometers 


7 95 




GERMAN LANGUAGE 






O T Adverbs A Conjunction* 


7 95 




D T Personal Pronouns 


7 95 




J T Possessive Pronouns 


7 95 




] T Reflexive Pronouns 


7 95 




2 T Relative Pronouns 


7 95 




D T Separable Prefix with 






Strong Verb Parts 


7 95 




D T Sein and Haben 


7 95 




D T Nouns 


• 95 




O T Adjectives 


7 95 




D T Comparative and 






Superlative Prefixes 


7 95 




3 T Base Verbs 


7 95 




T Strong A irregular Verbs 


7 95 




Didn t find iP Send tor free catalog 






ORDERING INFORMATION 






Place a check mark next to the programs you 




would like lo order 






f.rvxt nl nrngram* S ♦ 1 krt n»ryihn 

» « 




Type of Machine (check one) 






D TRS-60 Model 1 or III cassette 






O TRS-80 Color Computer cassette 






n TRS-60 Model 1 disk 






D TRS-80 Model III disk 






O Apple 113 2 DOS disk 






D Apple II 3 3 DOS disk 






D Commodore cassette 






Terms (check one I 






D Master Card 






D Viss 






G Money Order 






C Check 






C COO 






D School Purchase Order 








Ship to 










NAUF 






AnnRFSS 




CITY STATE.ZIP 




MASTFHI-APnnrUIRA 








FXPIRFS 










Mail to 








Micro Learningware 






PO Box 2134 






North Mankato MN 56001 






15071 675-2705 








Crypto Machine 



George A. Miller 



creative computing 
SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Crypto Machine 

Type: Puzzle 

System: 48K Apple II. Disk Drive 

Formal: Disk 

Language: Applesoft 

Summary: Good for cryptogram 
addicts 

Price: $40 

Manufacturer: 

Shafer Software 

465 South Matilda Suite #202 

Sunnyvale, CA 94086 



Crypto Machine by Dan Shafer is not 
your gut wrenching, nail biting, edge-of- 
the-chair action game but rather a game 
of pure intellect in which 10 minutes is 
rated super fast. 

Crypto Machine is a mechanical aid 
for solving the cryptograms found below 
the crossword puzzles in your daily news- 
paper. The puzzle involves a sentence or 
saying which has been encrypted using a 
simple substitution cipher in which each 
letter used stands for another. If you think 
that T equals A, it will equal A throughout 
the puzzle. An example of such a puzzle 
is: 

PVSL HCGVSM FBWGCLC 
GLSTLGLT FBWVSC PBMBLH 

The Crypto Machine runs on an Apple 
II and will display a cryptogram on the 
screen. Below each letter is a dash. You 
can position the cursor under any letter 
and replace a dash with your guess of the 
substitution letter. The program will 
automatically make all equivalent substi- 
tutions. This allows you to change your 
mind and try many different solutions 
before homing in on the correct one. 

George A. Miller. 2426 Bush Street. San Francisco. 
CA 94115. 



Crypto Machine also has a library of 
sayings from which it can create its own 
random cryptograms. You may also add 
your own sayings to the library. There 
are five levels of difficulty, the hardest 
being given just 10 minutes to solve a 
cryptogram that has had all the words 
strung together and then split into five 
character groups to eliminate word length 
hints. (I can't imagine anyone ever being 
able to do level five!) 

There were some areas where this game 
could be improved. When I first played 
the game I could not figure how to move 
the cursor up and managed to lose it. 
After about five minutes of random key- 
strokes, the cursor magically appeared 
on the screen and I was able to continue 
where I left off (a left arrow hit at the left 
hand margin of the screen will cause the 
cursor to rise). 

Once I substituted a letter, I could 
change the letter but never go back to 
the dash. It would be nice if I could do 
this since once all the dashes are gone the 
computer asks if you are finished. 

It takes about eight seconds for the 
program to make a single letter substitution. 
This is too slow. My tolerance is about 
one second. 

Finally, the library contains just nine 
sayings. This could be greatly enriched. 
Of course you can add your own, but 
then you always remember what you have 
typed in. It seems much could have been 
added by including a library of about one 
thousand sayings. 

Finally. I must allow my own biases to 
enter into the review and state that I 
enjoy giving the difficult work to the 
computers and saving the simple stuff for 
myself. Here is a case where the computer 
is giving the hard work to the human. 
("Here. Buster, see if you can solve this in 
10 minutes.") A more interesting computer 
program might be one to solve cryptograms. 
Nonetheless. Crypto Machine will definitely 
be enjoyable for the confirmed cryptogram 
addict. D 



68 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



CIRCLE 185 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Play Copts £ Robbers 
In The Tombs Of Ancient Tqqpt 



Copyright 1981 By Slrius Soltware, Inc. 

CIRCLE 238 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Where your secret wea§. 
is the fourth dimension 



CIRCLE 238 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




A "bloody" good game lor the 

true-blue game freak Your mission in 

this exploratory operation is to deliver 

whole blood to Hemophilia, a city in 

the sky. and return to Anemia Base 

before the Gamma Goblins 

overcome you. A real heart stopper! 

Copyright 1981 By Sirius Software. Inc 



In the center of an orbiting space station 
you are protected only by a revolving 
force shield. Enemy forces are advanc- 
ing from all directions and begin to 
place killer satellites in orbit around 
your station. And then, look out for the 
meteors! 

Copyright 1981 By Sirius Soltware. Inc 



t>r toiiy nrtD Bcnrrr nao • ft product of sirius sorrwrtRe. inc 



CIRCLE 238 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




What say *veg out , s tom 



^^H 



1 Copyright 1981 By Slrlus Software. Inc 



CIRCLE 238 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






Phantoms Five simulates a tighter 
bomber mission in real time three 
dimensional color graphics While you 
try to make your bombing run you have 
to avoid being hit by anti-aircraft tire 
and tight oft enemy aircraft as well 

Copyright 1980 By Slrius Software Inc 



Hatch some fun with the Spiders, 

Wolves, Lips, and Fuzzballs Space 

Eggs will crack you up! Each package 

includes a multi-color T-shirt iron-on 

that says "I FRIED THE SPACE EGGS " 

Copyright 1981 By Sirlus Soltware, Inc 



CIRCLE 238 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



&\v 



[jgt -*° 






vH& 



$ 









This is the graphics editing package 
we based our business on. Includes 
the Higher Text Character Generator 
by Ron & Darrell Aldrich and over 20 
original and imaginative type styles 

Copyright 1980 By Sirius Software. Inc 



*** 



y%& 



■*• 



!fc: 



D2D0073 

A Product Of Sirius Software. 3nc. 



Pascal 

Graphics 

Editor 



The picteosional graphics editing 

package foi use within the Pascal 

environment 

Copynght 1981 By Sinus Soitware lnc 




CIRCl E 2 J8 ON READER SERVICE CARD 








3 Copyright 1981 By Sirius Software. Inc 

CIRCLE 238 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



STAR CRUISER 

CYBER STRIKE 



AUTOBAHN 



PULSAR II 



A two game pack featuring "High Noon" and "Duck 
Hunt" You'll love the bad guy that tails off the roof 
and the dogs fighting over the ducks Fun for the 
young and the young at heart 
Copyright 1980 By Slrlus Software. Inc 

Save yourself from the swooping aliensl This Is a fast 
action arcade style game that can be played from 
ages three and up. but beware, the difficulty in- 
creases with each new wave of aliens 
Copyright 1980 By Sirius Software, Inc. 

Interstellar challenge for the dedicated arcade gamer 
You are in command ol a light transport ship equip- 
ped with Hyperspace Drive, Antimatter Torpedoes. 
Local and Galactic Sensors. Meteor Shields, and 
an Instrument Panel which continually tabulates 
all information vital to your mission. You alone can 
prevent the clone take over of the allied settlement 
bases WARNING this game requires practice to 
play successfully. 
Copyright 1980 By Sirius Software. Inc 

Hair raising excitement at 120, 160, and 200 kilome- 
ters per hour! Drive through heavy traffic, oil slicks, 
narrow roads, and dark tunnels (with headlights) 
Watch out for the fire trucks! Only on the Autobahn 
can you drive this fast 
Copyright 1981 By Sirius Software, Inc. 

A unique two game series that provides scoring 
options for separate or combination game play To 
destroy the "Pulsar" Is no easy task It is surrounded 
by spinning shields that send out orbs of energy 
aimed directly at you "The Wormwall" places you in 
one ol the strangest mazes ever created The walls do 
not connect Openings only occur temporarily as 
moving colored segments in the walls cross. In addi- 
tion, there are munching mouthers In each level of 
the maze ready to gobble you up should you mis- 
judge the time and location an opening will occur 
Copyright 1981 By Slrlus Software, Inc 



Contact Your Local Computer Dealer For More Information • Dealer Inquiries Invited 



Sirius Software, Inc. 

2011 Arden Way #2, Sacramento, California 95825 



PROGRAMMING Copts e. Robbers was programmed by Alan Merrell 
and Eric Enopp Epoch was programmed by Larry Miller Orbltron 
was programmed by Eric Enopp Gamma Goblins was programmed 
by Tony and Benny Ngo EZ Draw was programmed by Naslr Gebelll 
Jerry W Jewell Pascal Graphics Editor was programmed by 
Ernie Brock Sneakers was programmed by Mark Turmell Gorgon, 
.toms Five. Space Eggs. Both Barrels. Star Cruiser Cyber Strike, 
Autobahn, and Pulsar II were programmed by Naslr 

COPYRIGHT INFORMATION All software mentioned In this advertise- 
ment are copyrighted products ol Slrlus Soltware. Inc All righ' 



served Apple and Applesoft are registered trademarks ol Apple 
Computer Inc Higher Text Is a copyrighted product ol Synergistic 
Software We use Control Data disks for highest quality 



SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS All software mentioned In this advertisement 
require an Apple II or II • with 48E with the lollowlng exceptions EZ 
Draw requires a 48E Apple with Applesolt In ROM (or a 64E Apple II or 
II • ) Pascal Graphics Editor requires an Apple II or II - with Language 



CIRCLE 238 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



-»W i . . W— 



i^ MI ■ nn 



Apple/UCSD 

Pascal 1 .1 : 

A User's Evaluation 




Ross M. Tonkens 

Having lived with Apple's newly updated 
version of UCSD Pascal (Pascal Ver. LI) 
for over a month, now, I feel a few 
observations are in order. 

First, let me say that the manuals alone 
are worth the $60 update cost, for those 
of us who have had to live with the infamous 
"White Book" for the last year and a half. 
Just the sight of a real index (spanning 
more than seven pages!) brought tears of 
joy to my eyes. 

In fact the system consists of over two 
manuals and four disks. I say "over two" 
manuals because there are two full-fledged 
reference manuals, one for the operating 
system, and one for Apple's implementation 
of UCSD Pascal. Both manuals are of the 
outstanding glossy quality to which we 
have become accustomed from Apple. I 
might add in passing that the graphic 
artwork gracing the covers of the manuals 
would sell briskly as poster art. In addition, 
three 9- to 16-page pamphlets are included. 
One describes differences between the 
old and new versions of Apple/UCSD 
Pascal; one is an addendum to the new 
operating system reference manual; and 
the third is an addendum to the new Pascal 
language reference manual. 

Perhaps the best features of the current 
update are found only in these addenda. 
Among them were EXEC files, chaining 
capability, built in upper and lower case 
text generation without hardware add ons, 
much faster compile times, new compiler 
options, and an explicit list of previous 
bugs, fixed in this new version. Also 
contained in one of these little pamphlets 
is, at last, a lucid description of how 
program segmentation is accomplished by 
the compiler which clears up many myster- 
ies left unresolved by even monk-like study 
of previous documentation. 

Ross M. Tonkens. M.D.. 6221 Wilshire. Suite 607. 
Los Angeles. CA 90048. 



This is all fine, but "how well does it 
wear?" as the saying goes. In short, "very 
well, indeed." All of the inconsistencies 
in how the operating system previously 
handled files with the special suffixes, ".text" 
and ".code" have been resolved. Combined 
with the addition of EXEC file capability, 
this has increased my productivity by at 
least 100%. 

Now the user can define a common 
sequence of operating system commands, 
for example, those steps taken to compile 
and link a UNIT and install it in a library, 
or the commands issued to compile, link, 
and run a program, and have the computer 
perform them automatically in sequence, 
rather like a job control language. Instead 
of having to watch the computer full time, 
I now simply call up an EXEC file and 
take a break while the boring processes 
of compilation, linking, and test running 
all take place unattended. 

EXEC files almost make up for my lack 
of a hard disk drive in terms of the increase 
in throughput achieved. About the only 
new problem the changes have created is 
temporary obsolescence of any memory- 
sensitive software, since the old memory 
map on which such software would have 
been based has been changed. This prob- 
lem should be only temporary, as the update 
will involve simply altering the CON- 
STANT declarations of any Pascal 1.0 
program which referenced memory directly 
once the new memory map is published 
by Apple. This brings me to my only 
complaint, namely that the new Pascal 
1.1 manual did not already contain this 
information. 

While the new Apple/UCSD Pascal Ver. 
1.1 still has its idiosyncrasies. Apple seems 
to have distilled out those problems which 
were truly intolerable, while adding num- 
erous conveniences which make it a truly 
serious software development system at 
last. 

Now if I could just save the money for 
that hard disk.... □ 



w ^ ™ ^ 



Lowest Pr,C M 

ComP« terS 

Jfeoo™. $789 

ATARI' List SI080 



Q *»va 



■^t 




ATARI® 400... $359 



ra seeks hp-85 




NOVEMBER 1981 



77 



HP-85 Accessories 

5 • • " Dual Matter Disc Drive List $2500 S21 25 

5 ' . Single Master Disc Ori»t List $1500 $1275 

HP 7225A Graphics Plotter List $2050 $1845 

HP 85 16K Memory Module List $395 $355 

HP 85 Application Pact Standard List $95 $»5 
Serial (RS232C) Interlace Module List $395 $355 

OPIO Interlace Module List $495 $445 

tip «3 ' '$2250 

YxewttrBJ $1895 

HP-4lCVwith five times 
more memory 
built in. 

List $325 

$249 

HP41C 

List $250 

$199 

HP-321 Scientific w Statistics 53.93 

HP-33C Scientific Programmable $79.95 
HP-34C Advanced Scientific 

Programmable 123.95 

HP-37E Business Calculator $49.95 







ersonal 
omputer 
ystems 



-303 



609 Butternut Street 
Syracuse. N.Y. 13208 

(315) 475-6800 

Prices de net include shipping by UPS. All 
prices and offers subject te change without 
notice. 



CIRCLE 280 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ZGRASS 

GRAPHICS 

LANGUAGE 





In a few short months, 

I am able to do things 

I never thought 

possible while 

programming in Basic. 



There is an aura of mystery surrounding any new language. 
Perhaps the names of the languages have something to do 
with it. That old familiar language. Basic, just sounds so easy! 
But. does "easy" come to mind when we first hear the names 
Pascal. Smalltalk. Forth or Zgrass? Probably not. Yet. once 
we get behind the names and esoteric jargon we find that, in 
fact, some of these strange sounding names hide languages 
that are quite easy to learn and. for many applications, far 
simpler than Basic to implement. 

Since most of us are. by nature, ruled by the laws of inertia 
we tend to resist the new in favor of the familiar. In my own 
case, it took a great deal of frustration with the limited ability 
of Basic to produce animated graphics in a reasonable amount 
of programming time to initiate a search for an alternative. 
As luck would have it, I stumbled onto Zgrass. a thoroughly 
enjoyable graphics language. 

My company. Communication Resource Management 
Systems, is a small video company involved in producing 
training materials for government and industry. When it became 
evident that we would have to know about computers if we 
were to remain competitive in video I began to shop around. 

Torti Meeks. 1 1004 Slillwaier Ave.. Kensinmon. MD 2079.S. 



Tom Meeks 



After careful search a system was selected and the business of 
learning Basic was begun. 

If my primary objective had been to write checkbook 
programs or play number games I might still be programming 
in Basic. However, my goal was to produce computer graphics 
to enhance the educational value of the video tapes we 
produce. Frankly. Basic was totally frustrating. 

The hardware was fully capable of everything we wanted: 
Basic just couldn't access that power in anything approaching 
a reasonable amount of time. Just when I had almost given up 
computer animation as a lost cause I read a report about 
SIGGRAPH'80 (Creative Computing, January '811 which 
mentioned a new computer featuring Zgrass. a language 
specifically designed for animation and video graphics. Taking 
a chance. I purchased one of the first Datamax UV-ls produced. 
The results have far exceeded any expectations I may have 
had. Zgrass is easier than Basic . . . and it works! 

Perhaps some perspective can be added to the last statement 
if I point out that when my Datamax UV-1 was delivered in 
February 1981. I had never even seen the Zgrass program, 
and the nearest Zgrass programmer was in Chicago, over 800 

78 CREATIVE COMPUTING 






High-Resolution Color Graphics 
for the Apple and Atari 



Graphics 
Breakthrough 




How many programs have you written 
that would benefit from animated high- 
resolution graphics? Probably several. It is 
this kind of dramatic graphics that distinguish 
outstanding programs from ordinary ones. 
But if you've ever agonized for hours or 
days just to get one image perfected, you re 
probably not anxious to do it again. Now 
there's a better way. 

New Graphics Entry System 

Today there is a new graphics system 
available that is not only amazingly user- 
oriented but surprisingly economical. Called 
VersaWriter, it starts with an ingeniously 
simple entry board consisting of a 1 4" X 1 2" 
high impact plastic bed with a tough clear 
plastic overlay sheet. The original drawing 
or diagram is fastened with masking tape to 
the plastic bed and then covered with the 
clear sheet. Instead of using a light pen or 
complicated electronic X-Y head, the Versa- 
Writer uses a double jointed arm attached 
to the top of the entry board at one end and 
a magnifying lens with crosshairs at the 
other end. The VersaWriter resembles a 
draftsman s pantograph on a smaller scale. 
At each joint in the arm of the VersaWriter 
is a potentiometer. A cable from these 
pontentiometers connects to the paddle input 
of the computer. No special interface 
electronics or board is needed. Since the 
arm of the VersaWriter bends only in one 
direction, each point on the plotting head 
corresponds to a unique set of resistances 
on the potentiometers. All that's needed 
now is software to translate these resistances 
into usable screen coordinates. 

Exceptionally powerful software 

It is in the software where VersaWriter 
really stands out. VersaWriter comes with 
two full disks of user-oriented software. First 
it has sets of "low level'' commands for 
entering, creating and copying drawings 
and diagrams. Secondly, it has extensive 
sets of application routines for moving, 
enlarging, rotating, coloring or animating 
drawings that the user has created. 



Graphics Systems 

Versa Writer $249.00 

Kurta Graphics Tablet 695.00 

Summagraphlcs Digitizer 745.00 

Houston Instruments Hi Pad 795.00 

Apple Graphics Tablet 795.00 



< W m m» H Q U M n a MaiifH o* Apo*» Ccwpm— » 



Of course the basic commands let you enter 
a drawing freehand or by tracing it. Want a 
wider brush stroke? Six widths are available. 
Drawings can be independently scaled in 
both the vertical and horizontal directions. 
An enclosed shape may be filled in with 
any of 1 06 colors. No, that is not a misprint- 
By the same technique that a printing press 
can create hundreds of colors from the 
three primary ones, so can VersaWriter. 




Here a shape (the letter A) is being 
scanned. After putting it ina shape table 
it maybe used in other programs. 




From the shape table, a shape (the letter 
A) may be enlarged, rotated, colored or 
moved about the screen. 

Create Animation for Other Programs 

The shapes you create with VersaWriter 
can be used and manipulated with ease in 
other programs. Up to 255 shapes can be 
entered into a shape table. These shapes 
may then be placed on the screen in any 
position or may be overlaid on a full or 
partial screen image. Animation is produced 
easily by moving about a portion of the 
image created by VersaWriter. For example, 
by alternating between two images of an 
airplane propeller it will appear to be spinning. 

Other VersaWriter software includes text- 
writer with which text can be added to 
graphics. Upper and lower case, choice of 
color, text size, direction and starting point 
all may be specified. 



The Area/Distance program lets you 
calculate distances (or perimeters) by enter- 
ing a scale and tracing a shape or map route 
with the drawing arm. Areas of figures, open 
and irregular, can be similarly calculated. 

The software also includes sets of elec- 
tronic and computer logic shapes. In addition, 
an entire disk of dramatic demonstration 
graphics is included. These twelve full-screen 
graphics run the gamut from a fully labeled 
cross section of a human skull to colored 
maps to animated cartoons to an electronic s 
schematic. 

Software Updates 

You may have read a review of VersaWriter 
that indicated that the color fill routine was 
slow. It was. But not any more. Several 
routines and improvements were added to 
the VersaWriter software since its intro- 
duction. An added feature, the Expansion 
Pac. is also now available. This third disk of 
software contains an area distance program, 
a microscope feature, and will save your 
graphics in the exact colors you prefer. It 
also includes shape tables for architecture, 
plumbing, electrical, circuit boards, land- 
scape, chemistry, games, and more; 350 
predefined shapes in all. 

At Peripherals Plus, we evaluated every 
graphics device. We wanted to handle the 
best one regardless of price. VersaWriter 
has the best performance bar none. Surpris- 
ingly, it also has the lowest price, just 
$299.00 for the Apple version. It requires 
an Apple II Applesoft in Rom (or an Apple 
II Plus), disk, and 48K memory. VersaWriter 
comes complete with two disks of software, 
a comprehensive instruction manual, and 
a 90-day limited warranty. The additional 
Expansion Pac is available for $39 95 

The Atari version, which varies slightly 
from the Apple version in number and types 
of functions performed, is available for 
$299.00. As new updates are developed 
for the Atari. Peripherals Plus will furnish 
them free to all customers— just send us 
the disk and we'll supply the updated 
material. We make this unique offer because 
it is in our best interest to have you make 
the best use of your computer. Were also 
convinced that if other people see your 
VersaWriter in use they'll want one too. 

Try VersaWriter for 30 days. If you are not 
completely satisfied we'll give you a prompt 
and courteous refund of the full price plus 
shipping both ways. 

To order, specify Apple or Atari version, 
send payment plus $3 00 shipping and han- 
dling to Peripherals Plus, 39 East Hanover 
Ave., Morris Plains. NJ 07950. (New Jersey 
residents please add 5% Sales tax ) Credit 
card customers should include card number 
and expiration date of Visa. MasterCard or 
American Express card. Credit card cus- 
tomers may also call toll-free 800-631-81 12 
(in NJ 201-540-0445). 

For spectacular graphics on your computer, 
order VersaWriter today. 

39 E. Hanover Ave , 

Morris Plains. NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631 -81 12 

(InNJ 201-540-0445) 

CIRCLE 23S ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Zgrass, continued. 

miles away. Yet, in a few short months, I am able to do things 
I never thought possible while programming in Basic -even 
with the generous help of scores of experts in the Washington 
D.C. area. 

First Impressions of a Basic Programmer 

My first contact with Zgrass came in the form of a video 
tape demonstrating Zgrass animation and video art. It's a 
good thing I had seen the tape, too, for it carried me through 
the initial shock of my first contact with the language itself. 
This shock only lasted for an hour or so, but it was severe! 
There were no line numbers, no FOR-NEXT loops and more 
than one program could be stored and run at the same time. 



number ten (a good safe start) and work our way to the end of 
the program with side trips in GOSUBs and GOTOs. Programs 
for the simplest animations can become enormous and complex 
with FOR-NEXT loops rested inside nested FOR-NEXT loops. 
Fine tuning is difficult and often results in bugs. 

Zgrass, on the other hand, is more modular in concept. 
Perhaps the difference can be best illustrated by our fictional 
space game. In Basic we would write one long program 
containing every element needed to play the game. Any 
changes would have to be squeezed into the spaces of the 
long existing lines. Since the program may be several hundred 
lines long, finding the particular lines that need to be changed 
can be difficult. 




My Basic programmer's head reeled! Build programs and 
routines without line numbers? Impossible! Produce graphics 
with no FOR-NEXT loops? Absolutely impossible! As for the 
multiple programs, I had already had more than my share of 
trouble trying to get one at a time to run. 

With the vision of the taped animation firmly fixed in my 
mind, I delved deeper into the language. Gradually it became 
evident that Zgrass was different. The commands and syntax 
seemed to make good sense. Common sense. This was in 
sharp contrast to the graphic statements with which I was 
familiar when plotting in Basic. 



Fundamental Conceptual Differences 

Now that I have had several months to explore Zgrass and 
implement it under the pressure of deadlines and the budget 
restraints of my clients, I am more than happy to share what I 
have already learned about this graphics tool. The concepts 
upon which this language is built deserve to be discussed 
before the actual coding structure is introduced. Animation, 
whether by brush or by computer, is dependent on timing for 
its dramatic effect. This means that the developmental phase 
must remain fluid so that fine tuning of the animation can be 
accomplished. 

For instance, it's very difficult to anticipate the effect of an 
explosion of a space ship in a game. It isn't until the explosion 
is seen, not once but over and over that the real effect can be 
felt. Not being able to easily isolate and experiment with 
individual elements of an animated graphic was one of the 
major frustrations I experienced while programming in Basic. 

Basic tends to be linear by nature. We begin at line 



This same game written in Zgrass would have an entirely 
different structure. Each element of the game would have its 
own program, called a macro. Each macro would be assigned 
a name — usually descriptive of its function — that may be 
used to call the macro when that particular element is needed. 
For instance, we might have a macro called BUILDSHIP 
which draws a spaceship. This macro could be called any 
time a new space ship is needed on the screen— at the beginning, 
after a crash, after an enemy victory, etc. In Basic, since only 
one program is in the memory at one time, we enter the 
command RUN whenever we want the program to execute. 
In Zgrass we simply enter the macro name to execute it. This 
can be done from the keyboard or as a statement in another 
macro. 

While this is deceptively similar to a standard Basic GOSUB 
statement there are some very important differences. The 
first is the ease with which BUILDSHIP is edited. The simple 
command EDIT BUILDSHIP brings only those lines used to 
build our spaceship to the full screen editor. 

Second, we can execute BUILDSHIP independent of all of 
the other elements in the space game. There is no need to run 
the entire game to check on changes. This allows us to focus 
our entire attention on the details and timing of each element 
of the game individually. 

Third, since Zgrass is modular, this same macro can be 
used in other games needing a space ship. In Basic, if we 
wanted to use a subroutine from one game in another, we 
would normally have to re-enter all the lines through the 
keyboard. Since Zgrass macros can be saved on tape or disk 
there is no need to re-enter the shipbuilding routine manually. 
Simply recall BUILDSHIP and it's ready to use. 



80 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Professional Software Introduces 
POWER 

by Brad Templeton 




i 




II 



POWER TO YOUR s s«- 9 * 
COMMODORE COMPUTER 



POWER produces a dramatic improvement in the 
ease of editing BASIC on Commodore's computers. 
POWER is a programmer's utility package (in a 4K 
ROM) that contains a series of new commands and 
utilities which are added to the Screen Editor and the 
BASIC Interpreter. Designed for the CBM BASIC 
user, POWER contains special editing, programming, 
and software debugging tools not found in any other 
microcomputer BASIC. POWER is easy to use and is 
sold complete with a full operator's manual written by 
Jim Butterfield. 

POWER'S special keyboard 'instant action' features 
and additional commands make up for, and go beyond 
the limitations of CBM BASIC. The added features 
include auto line numbering, tracing, single stepping 
through programs, line renumbering, and definition 
of keys as BASIC keywords. POWER even includes 



new "stick-on" keycap labels. The cursor movement 
keys are enhanced by the addition of auto-repeat and 
text searching functions are added to help ease pro- 
gram modification. Cursor UP and cursor DOWN 
produce previous and next lines of source code. 
COMPLETE BASIC program listings in memory can 
be displayed on the screen and scrolled in either direc- 
tion. POWER is a must for every serious CBM user. 

Call us today, for the name of the Professional 
Software dealer nearest you. 

Professional Software Inc. 

166 Crescent Road 

Need ham, MA 02194 

Tel: (61 7) 444-5224 Telex #951 579 



Zgrass, continued... 

This modular format is not the only conceptual difference 
between Basic and Zgrass. While Basic has evolved with the 
development of more powerful hardware, it isn't usually 
considered a user expandable language. On the other hand, 
Zgrass is definitely expandable. Most commands are contained 
in ROM. However, additional commands can be loaded into 
memory when needed, and entirely new commands can be 
created. As a matter of fact, in the few months since I 
purchased my Datamax. several new commands have been 
added to the Zgrass library. 

The difference that I most appreciate, however, is the 
concept that the user should have easy access to all of the 
capabilities of the hardware. It is clear from the articles in 
Creative Computing and other computer magazines that this 
is not a common philosophy. Zgrass seems to open the entire 
graphics repertoire of the computer for the user. If you have 



Whoever wrote the glossary appreciates the fact that there 
are people who want to use a computer but don't want to 
earn a mathematics degree to do so. The explanations are 
clear and concise. Often there are short programs that can be 
entered and run in a few minutes that graphically illustrate 
the logical operations. All of the entries are in alphabetical 
order which makes finding them a snap. 

The second booklet is a self-teaching guide. I had some 
troubles with this one— mostly due to my own impatience. 1 
would begin a lesson dutifully reading and working the examples 
until something would click inside my head — the old "Hey! 
That was great ... I wonder if . . ." and off I'd go on with 
some wild experimentation until I found myself stuck. 

Then grabbing the phone I'd make a plea for help, only to 
find that the answer was two or three pages further along in 
the book. After doing this two or three times (and receiving 
the same courteous "It's on page. . . reply I. it finally began to 




Additional commands can be 

loaded into memory when needed, 

and entirely new commands can 

be created. 



been disappointed by the performance of Basic compared to 
what you saw in the manufacturer's demonstration then you'll 
find Zgrass refreshing. 



Getting Started 

The quality of documentation is usually the first hint about 
the overall quality of any system. The documentation that 
arrived with my Zgrass computer system was packaged in 
two booklets. The first of these is the Zgrass Glossary of 
Buzzwords, Commands. Functions, Idiosyncrasies, Swap 
Commands, Swap Functions. Switches and Esoterica. The 
contents are just as thorough as the title. 

One of the drawbacks of working with a high level language 
is that it is possible to do things without ever understanding 
the basics of computer logic. Truth tables had never really 
seemed to be worth the effort to learn until I came across the 
explanations about OR. XOR. and AND in the Zgrass Glos- 
sary. 



dawn on me that patience really is a virtue. Once that point 
was reached the self-teaching guide worked fine. 

The System Supports the Graphics 

Simple graphics commands do not necessarily guarantee 
easy graphics generation and animation. Zgrass commands 
such as POINT. BOX. LINE and ELLIPSE (an expanded 
circle command) would certainly be useful in any language: 
but. Zgrass goes beyond these in providing the tools needed 
to produce sophisticated graphics easily. 

While a complete explanation of the Zgrass operating system 
is beyond the scope of this article. I just can't resist mentioning 
some of the features that make the job of the programmer or 
animator so much more enjoyable. 

There are four features that I especially appreciate: the 
full-screen editor, the sophisticated cassette tape interface, 
the program flow control commands and the priority execution 
controls that allow for truly interactive program control. 

Perhaps nothing relieves the tedious aspects of programming 
better than a good full screen editor. Zgrass supports, through 
the EDIT command, a full screen editor that comes remarkably 
close to being a true word processor. The cursor can be 
located using keyboard commands or a joystick. Lines can be 
altered, deleted, duplicated or moved. Obviously, this speeds 
up the process of building or modifying a macro. 

At first glance, it may seem out of place to bring up a 
cassette tape internee in a discussion devoted to an easy 
graphics language. But. the key word is easy. Anything that 
takes the hassle out of programming deserves to be recognized. 
The Zgrass tape handling system certainly qualifies. 

One of the frustrations encountered when using cassette 
tape with most of the popular micros is that once the computer 









82 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



1 fli!. 




Lynn Busby, president of the Computer Station, as seen by the Dithertizer II. 



Dithering Developed at Bell Labs and 
MIT. dithering was originally an approach 
to picture transmission. Compared to other 
methods, dithering is fast and accurate 

The Dithertizer II was designed for the 
Apple computer by David K. Hudson, a 
researcher at MIT. Design goals were high 
accuracy, fast scanning, maximum reliability 
and an economical price. 

High Quality Images 

The resolution is of the Dithertizer is the 
maximum the Apple can handle in the high- 
resolution mode. i.e.. 280 x 192 (53.760) 
pixels. 

To produce an image, a video camera is 
focused on the subject. Peripherals Plus 
furnishes a Sanyo VC161C-X camera, a 
laboratory/industrial unit with an f 1 .6 lens 
This camera has a focus range of 18 (for 
extreme close ups) to infinity (for distant 
subjects). 

The camera scans an entire frame in 1 /60th 
of a second. Two frames are scanned, of 
course, in 1 /30th of a second. By adjusting 
the blackness control (with Paddle 0) to any 
one of 255 levels you can determine the 
threshold of gray between the two frames 

A 1 /30th second, two-frame scan has two 
levels of gray and produces a high-contrast 
but quite recognizable image 

Pictures or Contours 

Using the Contour software routines and 
contrast control (Paddle 1 ). it is possible to 
subtract one image from another. If the 
blackness thresholds of the two images are 
close, say 125 and 127. the resulting image 
will show just the outlines or highlights of 
an object 

Another possibility is to reduce the contrast 
to zero which results in a nearly blank screen 
except for movement in the area scanned 



This type of movement detector is much 
faster (1 30th second) and more precise 
than other much more expensve systems 
It is currently being used to detect and record 
movement of laboratory animals. It is also 
used in security installations. 

The Dithering software routines use the 
contrast control to divide an image into gray 
tones. As mentioned above, two levels 
(usually white and black) result in a high 
contrast image. Four gray levels provide 
additional definition while sixteen levels 
produce a highly detailed image in just over 
1 /4th of a second. Extremely high detail is 
possible using the highest 64-gray level 
setting At this level, an image is produced 
in 64 60ths of a second or just over one 
second. The quality of this image is close to 
that of a halftone photograph found in a 
newspaper or magazine. 

Using Dithered Images 

What can one do with a dithered image? 
Upon completion it can be stored automatic- 
ally in either page 1 or 2 of the high-resolution 
graphics area of the Apple Hence, it can be 
printed out on practically any printer. To 
print it on an Apple Silentype printer or 
equivalent requires no additional software 

To take advantage of the automatic print 
routines in the Dithertizer itself does require 
additional software tailored to a specific 
printer. Software packages are available at 
$44 95 each for the following printers: IDS 
440. 445. 460. and 560: IP225: Anadex 
DP9500and DP9501; Spinwriter 55 10 and 
5520. 

Individual images or series of images may 
also be incorporated in other programs in 
the same way that other hi-res graphics are 
used Using VersaWriter software, for exam- 
ple, text may be added to images. An image 
may be shown on the screen while a disk is 



You and your Apple can have 
a new view of the world. 



Dithertizer! 



loading or while the computer is completing 
a time-consuming calculation in another 
program. 

With the proper software, the Dithertizer 
can be used to perform image enhancement, 
to identify features, detect motion, track a 
moving target or create a detailed picture 
for display The possibilities are limited only 
by your imagination. 

Quality Construction 

The dithertizer is manufactured to exacting 
specifications by Computer Station It consists 
of the Dithertizer II board which plugs into 
Slot 7 in the Apple 1 1 . a cable which connects 
between the Dithertizer and motherboard 
and a 10 foot cable to the camera. The 
system requires a 48K Apple disk system 

The software package consists of three 
routines on disk: Dither to build a gray 
scale picture. Contour to produce an edge 
scan using image subtraction, and Dscan 
to store a binary image in either page 1 or 2 
of the high-resolution graphics area 

Peripherals Plus also includes a Sanyo 
VC 1 6 1 0X video camera with external hori- 
zontal and vertical sync input. 

The components of the packge— hardware, 
software and camera— are warranteed by 
the manufacturers against defects in material 
and workmanship for 90 days. In addition. 
Peripherals Plus guarantees that if you are 
not completely satisfied you may return the 
system for a prompt and courteous refund . 



Order Today 

The entire Dithertizer system consisting 
of the Dithertizer board. Sanyo camera, 
cables and software costs only $650 plus 
$6 shipping and handling in the continental 
United States. Customers in other loctions 
should write for shipping rates Price for 
the board and software alone is $300 while 
the camera alone is $410. To order your 
system, send payment or Visa. MasterCard 
or American Express card number and 
expiration date to the adress below Credit 
card customers may also call orders to our 
toll-free number. 

Don t put it off Remember, your system 
is backed by both manufacturer warranties 
and a complete moneyback guarantee of 
satisfaction from Peripherals Plus. 

Give your Apple a new view of the world 
with a Dithertizer Order today 

39 East Hanover Avenue 

Morris Plains. NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631 -811 2 

(InNJ 201-540-0445) 



CIRCLE 239 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Zgrass, continued... 

has been instructed to load tape you have no idea what's 
happening— all you can do is sit and wait— and hope. Zgrass 
eliminates this problem beautifully by including a file directory 
system with the PUTT APE and GETTAPE commands. The 
syntax for PUTTAPE is: 

PUTTAPENUMBER,FILENAME,DESCRIPTION 
PUTTAPE 2JT-YlNGSAUCERSHOOTER4Creates a slingshot 
forCRASHNSMASH] 

The NUMBER tells how many times the file should be put 
on the tape, the FILENAME (which can be any length) is the 
file to be copied and the DESCRIPTION is anything that 
helps you identify the file. 

GETTAPE FLYINGSAUCERSHOOTER would initiate a 
search through the tape for the proper file, printing out the 
directory information of all the files it passes. The directory 
for our example would look like this: 

STR NAME:FLYINGSAUCERSHOOTER LEN:324 NOTE: 

Creates slingshot for CRASHNMASH 

This directory information plus status messages like BAD 
DATA and BAD-AUTORETRY save a tremendous amount 
of programming time. Furthermore, the tape interface is 
extremely tolerant of random user tape searches. We are 
constantly skipping back and forth through the tapes with 
multiple files, using the directories to tell us where we are. 
The poor man's external random access memory! 



follow because subroutines are actually small independent 
macros which have names\ In spite of my initial fears. I have 
found the Zgrass systems for program flow control to be far 
better than the old FOR-NEXT loops I left behind. 

The fourth feature that I appreciate is the ability to run 
more than one program at a time and assign priority levels to 
them. If we use .F after a macro name we are saying that this 
macro has the highest or FOREGROUND priority. If we use 
.B we are saying that the macro has BACKGROUND priority. 
It is the BACKGROUND mode that I find most useful. The 
keyboard remains active while macros are running in the 
background mode and can even be used to modify the programs 
as they run. Ever wanted to try out different colors on that 
hyperspace explosion? You can in Zgrass. Simply run the 
explosion macro in the background mode and experiment 
with colors while the explosion repeats indefinitely. This is 
another example of the superior fine-tuning abilities of 
Zgrass. 

When I first purchased the Datamax UV-I, I was looking 
for a machine with simple graphics commands. Now I realize 
that just having simple graphics primitives is not enough. The 
power of Zgrass begins with the fundamental concepts which 
underlie the language control structure and moves from there 
to the commands dedicated to graphics manipulation. The 
reason that I have placed so much emphasis on these features 
is that, while I am amazed at the power of some of the 
graphics commands in Zgrass, I doubt that a linear language 
with these same commands would be as flexible or easy to 
use. 




The simplicity of the commands used to control program 
flow in Zgrass, while not actual graphics commands, are a 
third feature of the the overall operating system that contributes 
directly to making the job of creating graphics easy. 

The most commonly used program flow control features 
used in Basic are line numbers, GOTO, GOSUB and the ever 
popular FOR-NEXT loop. As mentioned earlier, Zgrass is 
conspicuous for the absence of most of these features in 
normal use. Line numbers and GOTO statements can be used 
by the programmer, but other means of controlling the flow 
of the program are so easy and efficient that I have not used a 
single line number or GOTO statement the entire time I have 
used the Zgrass language. 

The SKIP command is the major program flow control 
statement. SKIP -2 would tell the computer to go back two 
lines of code, SKIP 6 tells the computer to go forward six 
lines. Most often these skips are used in conjunction with an 
IF statement. The IF statement in Zgrass is far more versatile 
than it is in Basic. Consider the following comparisons: 

BASIC: 1910 IF A > 10 THEN 1860 

ZGRASS: IF (A=A-5) » 10.SKIP -5 

BASIC: 340 IF A < 10 THEN GOSUB 5000 
ZGRASS: IF (A=A-5) < 10.BUILDSHIP 



Notice that the Basic IF statement is simply a testing step. 
The process of arriving at the variable A is performed outside 
of the IF statement, usually in a FOR-NEXT loop. 

In Zgrass the IF statement is used not only for testing 
conditions, but for performing the actual calculations to test. 
I hope it is also evident that Zgrass programs are easier to 



Graphics Manipulation Features 

The function of the graphics primitives POINT. LINE, 
BOX and ELLIPSE are self explanatory and not so different 
from some found in newer expanded Basic interpreters. Other 
commands used to scroll screen areas, create windows and 
fill bordered areas with solid colors are also fairly common. 
There are, however, some provisions for manipulating colors, 
special commands for manipulating picture elements and 
remarkable picture arrays called "snaps." 

Dr. Tom DeFanti. the originator of Zgrass. borrowed a 
concept from box camera days and allows us to save individual 
pictures from the screen with the SNAP command (short for 
snapshot). Suppose we wanted to create a little creature to be 
used in a game. With Zgrass you would simply draw it on the 
screen and "snap" it off. The SNAP command saves the 
creature and the area around it in a box called a "snap array." 
The SNAP syntax and an example are: 

SNAPSnapname.Xcenter.Ycenter.Xsize.Ysize 
SNAP ALIEN 1.0,0. 15,25 

To retrieve our creature from memory and display it on the 
screen we use the Display command. Its syntax and an example 
are: 

DISPLAY Snapname.Xcenter.Ycenter. Display mode 
DISPLAY ALIEN 1,50,25,0 

The SNAP and DISPLAY combinations are the keys to the 
rapid animation possible with Zgrass. This macro sends an 
alien with moving legs across the screen. 

CRAWLYCREATURE=|A=-190 
DISPLAY ALIEN 1,A.0,0 
DISPLAY ALIEN2.A+ 1.0,0 
IF(A=A+2)«190,SKIP-2| 






84 






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Zgrass, continued.. 

ALIEN2 would be created by displaying ALIEN 1 , making 
the changes to the leg positions and "snapping" it off again 
with the snapname ALIEN2. By alternating between ALIEN 1 
and ALIEN2 and moving the display center slightly each time 
a snap is displayed, we create the appearance that the creature 
is really crawling. Small snaps can be displayed so fast that 
you may have to use a timing loop to keep them from being a 
blur. 

Snaps are great. They are fast and easy— no PEEKing or 
POKEing— just draw and SNAP! Furthermore, they can be 
manipulated to create a variety of effects. For instance, the 
PATTERN command lets us fill a bordered area with a 
pattern of repeated snaps. This is great for fabric design. I 
have used it to build large brick walls from a small snap of a 
few bricks. Snaps are central to Zgrass. Each of our three 
examples relies on snaps as its central graphic element. 

Figure 1 is a still representation of an animation showing 
the space shuttle landing. On videotape the lander would 
descend, land and roll to a stop. Note the dust which is a snap 
also. 

Figure 2 demonstrates how snaps can be manipulated. 
Note the various sizes of the dollars. The SCALE command 
can be used to stretch, squeeze and reverse snaps both 
horizontally and vertically. 




Figure 2. This picture demonstrates a snap being displayed 
many times on the screen. The SCALE command is used to 
vary the size of the snap. By Jane Veeder. 






The DISPLAY command is greatly enhanced by the rich 
color manipulation alternatives provided. These include a 
complete color filtering system, as well as. automatic OR, 
AND and XOR. I never really understood these logical 
operations before working in Zgrass; they seemed far too 
complicated to be bothered with. Now, I couldn't get along 
without them. Not only are they useful for dramatic effect, 
but they save programming time. If we were to program a 
football game only one team would have to be drawn. The 
other would be a duplication of the first using the XOR mode 
■ and color filters. 

The weather map in Figure 3 demonstrates how the color 
filters can be used. The color filters trim away unwanted col- 
ors when snaps are displayed. Notice that the snaps at the 
bottom of the screen (sun, clouds, etc.) each have a colored 
border area. Obviously, that border would be unacceptable 
on the map so the special display mode color filters are used 
to eliminate it. By the way, this picture (and Figure 1) illustrate 
user-defined typefonts made possible in this versatile 
language. 




r 

61 

A 
A 


A 
A 


S 
A 

r 


i it 




Mfrl 111 IS (text 



Figure 1. Video animation of the Space Shuttle landing by 
Jane Veeder. 



Figure 3. This picture shows a menu-driven program to place 
weather symbols on a map. This program makes use of the 
special color filters provided by Zgrass. By Copper Gilroth. 



Conclusions 

The ability to draw points, lines, boxes, and even circles in 
color doesn't guarantee fast, easy animated graphics. Now 
that I have had the opportunity to work with Zgrass and 
compare it with Basic, I realize that the underlying concepts 
and language structure are the most important elements for 
truly easy graphics generation. Zgrass has been a pleasure to 
use. It is faster and far easier than Basic to learn and implement. 
Best of all, it gives me access to graphics power that had 
always seemed elusive before. 

For me, the bottom line is cost-effective animation for 
professional video production. For others, it may be faster 
paced and more realistic games or more effective computer 
aided instruction. If your application involves graphics— 
particularly real-time animation — then Zgrass deserves a good 
hard look. D 



86 



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Among the software to cross this desk 
recently are several new games for the 
Apple II. They are all worth covering, 
though each might appeal to a different 
section of the Apple community. 



A Shoe in the Works 

On-Line Systems has done it again with 
Sabotage, a highly captivating game that 
will put blisters on anyone's paddle finger. 
The player has a small cannon at the 
bottom of the screen. Aiming and firing 
can be controlled either through a paddle 
or the keyboard. The player attempts to 
defend his cannon against helicopters that 
drop parachutists, and against planes that 
drop bombs. If enough saboteurs reach 



creative corapnfcintf 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Sabotage 

Type: Arcade Game 

System: 48K Apple, Disk Drive 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine Language 

Summary: Excellent game 

Price: $24.95 

Manufacturer: 

On-Line Systems 

36575 Mudge Ranch Rd. 

Coarsegold, CA 93644 



the ground, they destroy the cannon in a 
very amusing manner. If a bomb lands, 
the cannon is blown to pieces. The player 
has the option of using steerable shells 
which curve as the cannon is rotated. 
With paddle control, a stream of shells 
can be fired by holding the button down. 
If the game sounds too easy, add the 
fact that each shot costs a point. The 
player can hose the helicopters with a 
stream of shells, but that strategy won't 
contribute much to his score. Once sabo- 
teurs reach the ground, they can't be shot. 
But there is a way to get rid of them. If 
the parachute is shot away from an attacker 
in the air. he will fall to the ground with a 
splat. A saboteur unfortunate enough to 
be beneath the plummetting paratrooper 
will be eradicated. The game starts out at 
an easy pace with just one or two helicop- 
ters on the screen at any time. After a 
while, the planes appear. When the heli- 




copters return, they drop more saboteurs. 
The shrapnel from struck helicopters can 
wipe out other helicopters or paratroopers, 
and it's possible, in this way, to get two or 
three helicopters with one shot. 

The game keeps track of high score 
during individual runs, but doesn't store 
the high score on disk. Sabotage is a very 
good game with fine graphics and high 
replayability. 

On the Circuit 

International Gran Prix Racing is every- 
thing an Apple game should be, and more. 
Written by Richard Orban. who created 
Three Mile Island, it is one of the few 
driving games that successfully solves the 
paddle problem. Namely, how can a player 
shift, accelerate, decelerate, and steer 
without getting hopelessly tangled in a 
jumble of paddles and keys? The solution 
in Gran Prix is absolutely elegant. The 
player uses only one paddle. The paddle 
controls steering. If the button is held, 
the car accelerates. If the button is quickly 
released and pressed, the car will shift to 
the next gear, assuming high enough engine 
revs have been reached. Releasing the 
button causes the car to decelerate. During 
deceleration, a press and release of the 
button is used for downshifting. If the 
player desires, he can switch to automatic 
transmission. There is even a cruise con- 
trol. 



creative compafctitg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: International Gran Prix 

Type: Road race game 

System: 48K Apple. Disk Drive. Paddles 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine Language 

Summary: Best road race on the market 

Price: $30 

Manufacturer: 

Riverbank Software. Inc. 
Smith's Landing Road 
P.O. Box 128 
Denton. MD 21629 



Sabotage. 



All this merely scratches the surface of 
an excellent game. The program is basically 
a road race game, similar to the arcade 
game 280-ZAP, where the screen displays 
roadposts flashing by the car. The icing 
on the cake comes in the form of five 
Gran Prix courses. At the start of the 
game, the player selects a course, then 
chooses the number of laps he wants to 
drive (from 1 to 10). Next, the amount of 
fuel is selected, followed by the skill level. 



NOVEMBER 1981 




Apple Games, continued. 




International Gran Prix. 

There are eight levels. At the easiest, the 
car barely drifts: in middle levels, it skids: 
at the top level, the road turns to Teflon. 

The dashboard display includes speed- 
ometer, tachometer, a timer for current 
lap and total time, and indicators showing 
the relation of the tires to the posts. 
Whenever the car moves dangerously close 
to the posts, a clicking warns the driver. 
Collisions are accompanied by a weird 
sound that seems to defy the limitations 
of the Apple speaker. The player's best 
lap time and total time for any course and 
skill level are stored and displayed by the 
game. All the curves have names, and 
these names are displayed on the screen 
when the car approaches. 

Beyond great graphics and superb design, 
the game also simulates driving with nearly 
total realism. Whatever algorithms the 
author used, he did a good job. The car 
handles very accurately. It can accelerate 
through curves, go into controlled skids, 
and fishtale if the player oversteers. Gran 
Prix is a winner. 

That Familiar Glow 

Fighting its way through the plethora 
of Missile Command clones. Norad. from 
Western MicroData. emerges as a new 



twist on the theme. The player has a hi- 
res map of the good old USA. dotted with 
ten cities and ten missile bases. Each base 
has a number. Press that number on the 
keyboard and a missile leaves the base. 
The arrow keys control the horizontal 
motion of the missile. The space bar 
detonates the missile. If it is detonated 
close to an incoming warhead, all is well. 
If not. the warhead hits a city or a base. 
Cities hit twice are destroyed. Bases are 
wiped out with one hit. At intervals 
throughout the game, the cities are rebuilt, 
and any eradicated bases near a surviving 
city are replaced. The surviving cities also 
stock the silos with extra missiles. Silos 
start with ten missiles. The player receives 
bonus points for unused missiles. 



creative comparing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Norad 

Type: Arcade Game 

System: 48K Apple. Disk Drive 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine Language 

Summary: Defend the U.S.A. against 

missiles 
Price: S27..SO 

Manufacturer: 

Western MicroData 

Enterprises. Ltd. 

P.O. Box G33, 

Postal Station G 

Calgary. Alberta. Canada T3A 2G 1 



game. If Atari Star Raiders appeals to 
you. this is as good a version as is likely to 
be produced for the Apple. 



NQRVD 



i -an b ii 
l ox e i 

?!- 'l K«JE 



Norad. 

There are three skill levels. Higher levels 
start with faster attacks, and throw more 
waves of attack at the player. On each 
level, the player wins if he survives a 
specific number of waves. At a certain 
point, the player is also given an MX 
missile site which can be moved across 
the map. The lowest skill level is good for 
learning the game. The highest level is 
very tough. 

Raiders of the Lost Star 

Strongly resembling a certain Atari 
classic. Space Raiders is a search-and- 
destroy game. Using a joystick or keys, 
the player moves through galactic quad- 
rants, blasting enemy ships. The strong 
point of the game is the motion of the 
stars. The field moves toward the player 
and shifts realistically when he turns. The 
question is whether to compare it to the 
Atari version, or to view it as a game in 
itself. By comparison, it just doesn't offer 
the same graphics or sound. What works 
for the Atari won't necessarily work on 
the Apple, and vice versa. As a game, it is 
interesting, but rather repetitive. Only one 
ship attacks at a time. Basically, the player 
goes into a sector, destroys all the enemy 
ships, goes into the next sector, and so 
on. The player can also dix'k at a starbase 
when he needs more energy. The target 
has to be in the center of the crosshairs to 
be hit. adding a bit of difficulty to the 



creative compatlRf} 
SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Space Raiders 

Type: Space Fight 

System: 48K Apple, Disk Drive 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine Language 

Summary: Apple version of Star Raiders 

Price: $29.95 

Manufacturer: 

United Software of America 

730 3rd Ave. 

New York. NY 10017 



Treking On 

Rainbow has made improvements to , 
Stellar Trek (reviewed Oct.. 1980). proj 
ducing Super Stellar Trek. The game offer 
a hi-res. real-time fight against Klingon«| 
and other baddies. The most obvious 
improvement is the elimination of constanl 
disk access. In the original version, the[ 
program went to the disk after ever 
command. Now. the routines remain ir 
RAM. speeding up play and lowering disk 
wear. The first time a user plays the game | 
he is asked to name all the officers. Fron 
then on. this information is used to adc 
color to the game, with reports coming tc 
the bridge from the officers. 



creative compatlRg 
SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Super Stellar Trek 
Type: Spacefight simulation 

System: 48K Apple. Applesoft. Disk 

Drive 
Format: Disk 
Language: Basic 
Summary: Good Trek game 
Price: $39.93 

Manufacturer: 

Rainbow Computing. Inc. 
19517 Business Center Dr. 
Northridge.CA 91324 



Overall play is in the basic StarTre 
format: the player has a limited amouij 
of time in which to find and destroy tr 
Klingons. using photon torpedos anl 
phasers. Extensive commands are availabl 
for such exotic actions as mining dilithiui 
crystals. Those who enjoy Trek garni! 
will like this one. 



90 



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Riverbank Software Inc. 



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by RICHARD ORBAN 

author of THREE MILE ISLAND* 



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Apple Games, continued... 

Ashes to Apples 

An arcade game dealing with a certain 
mythical bird has found its way to the 
Apple in the form of Falcons. The game 
seems fairly easy for the first ten seconds 
or so. Several rows of ships move above 
the player, firing down at his base. This 
part is reminiscent of Invaders. Then a 
few ships break formation and swoop down. 
Now it seems a bit like Galaxian. The 
similarity vanishes as the attacking ships 
begin to fly in strange patterns, moving 
below the screen and attacking the player 
from below. A transformation suddenly 
occurs. The ship changes to a falcon and 
flies evasive patterns. It's worth more points 
now. but harder to hit. If the player clears 
the field, he gets another with a different 
formation. After this second field is cleared, 
the hard part begins. Small blue dots appear 
on the screen, weaving back and forth. 



creative comparing 
SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Falcons 

Type: Arcade Game 

System: 48K Apple II or Apple III. 
Disk Drive 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine Language 

Summary: Superb and challenging game 

Price: $29.95 

Manufacturer: 

Picadilly Software 

89 Summit Ave. 

Summit. NJ 07901 



They start to grow, becoming large dots, 
then huge falcons. They swoop at the 
player, moving at high speed. If hit straight 
on. the falcon is destroyed. If only winged, 
it returns. If the player gets through this 
field without losing his allotment of three 
ships, he gets a second field of dots that 
grow into falcons. Survivors are given a 
chance to destroy the mother ship. Make 
that MOTHER SHIP. The thing is huge. 




To destroy it. the player first has to blast 
a hole through the bottom. Next, a hole 
has to be made in a revolving rim. Once 
there is a clear path for a shot to the 
inside, the ship can be destroyed. But the 
mother ship shoots back. And groups of 
small ships hover above it. swooping down 
on the player. If the player destroys the 
mother ship, the game cycles back through 
the five levels again. 

Beside firing, the player has the option 
of using shields. A shield lasts for about 
four seconds, then can't be used again for 
about five seconds. Shields are great for 
destroying swooping falcons since the birds 
are killed on contact with the force field. 
The game can be played with keys, paddles, 
or a joystick. There was one rough edge 
noticeable when fighting the mother ship. 
Occasionally, one of the attackers wouldn't 
be entirely erased from the screen when 
destroyed. But this barely detracts from 
the appeal of the game. Falcons is tough, 
fun and very well done. 

Killer Robots, Drones, and Low-Life Storm 
Troopers 

Mission Escape arrived here two days 
ago and has already taken control of the 
staff. They've been lining up to play this 
one. It is a cross between the arcade 
game. Berzerk, and some high-adrenalin 
contest that might be thought of as death 
chess. The player starts at one of four 
doors to a room containing robots, drones, 
and storm troopers. His object is to get to 
the specified exit, and thus, to the next 
level. The storm troopers fire lasers that 
do damage to the player's armor. The 
drones also fire lasers but, if shot, explode 
with enough force to destroy anything 
adjacent to them. The robots fire missiles 
that always kill with one shot. Against 
this arsenal, the player has three weapons. 
He can fire a laser, fire a burst of three 
laser shots, or fire a missile. The missiles 
and rapid-fire bursts are limited, single 
laser shots are unlimited. 



Attacking the mother ship in Falcons. 



creative compatlRg 
SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Mission Escape 

Type: Strategy and Action Game 

System: 48K Apple, Applesoft, Disk 
Drive 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine Language 

Summary: Highly replayable game 

Price: $24.95 

Manufacturer: 

CE Software 
801 73rd. St. 
Des Moines, I A 50312 




Mission Escape. 

The player and the enemy alternate 
turns. The player has ten seconds to issue 
up to three orders. Movement and firing 
are controlled from the keyboard. While 
some keyboard-controlled games are unex- 
citing. Mission Escape is definitely not 
dull. Despite the alternation of turns, there 
is a real-time feel to it. As an extra touch, 
the top five scores are kept on the disk. 
Mission Escape is highly recommended. 

It Isn't Raining Rain 

Finally, in an attempt to make up for 
not reviewing it sooner, one more game 
deserves mention in this roundup. Alien 
Rain pits the player against a swarm of 
hovering, swooping attackers. They start 
out placidly enough, just moving back 
and forth across the top of the screen, 
letting the player pick them off with his 
ship. Then one or more of the critters 
comes swooping down, flying a drunken 
path and raining missiles. Attackers that 
make it to the bottom wrap around to 
rejoin the formation at the top. There are 
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ship. 



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CIRCLE 322 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




9l Tourist's Guide 
to tlje Cybernetic 

Tower of Babel 



George Blank 



The whole earth had one language and 
few words... Then (men) said. "Come, let 
us build ourselves a city, and a tower with 
its top in the heavens... "And the Lord 
came down to see the city and the tower, 
which the sons of men had built. And the 
Lord said. "They are one people, and 
they have all one language; and this is 
only the beginning of what they will do; 
and nothing that they propose to do will 
now be impossible for them. Come, let us 
go down and confuse their language, that 
they may not understand one another's 
speech. "So the Lord scattered them abroad 
from there over the face of all the earth, 
and they left off building the city. Therefore 
its name was called Babel (confusion), 
because there the Lord confused the 
language of all the earth. (Genesis: Chapter 
11.) 

According to this Bible story, mankind 
was given different languages to prevent 
us from joining together and developing 
enough power to rival God. Perhaps we 
have developed the many computer lan- 
guages to keep the computers from joining 
together and developing enough power 
to rival mankind? It is virtually certain 
that a single good computer language that 
could be used in any computer without 
modification would vastly extend the range 
of what we now do with computers. 

There have been many attempts to 
construct a universal computer language, 
and 1 suspect that anyone who has devel- 
oped a good language could be tempted 
to wish that it could be universally available. 
However, it is doubtful that there will 
ever be an ideal computer language. 



Every language has its own design 
objectives, which usually means that the 
particular language is ideal for some 
purposes and inappropriate for others. 
As a result, most present languages have 
passionate advocates and equally vehement 
enemies. Basic, as the most widely used 
computer language today, probably has 
the largest and most passionate groups of 
defenders and detractors. 

The reason there is no such thing as 
the best computer language is that there 
is no possible way to agree on what the 
best language should do. Some languages 
are ideal for the program developer. For 
example. APL allows rapid and easy 
development of an application program. 
Other languages are easy to maintain. 
The structure of Pascal makes it easy for 
a programmer to understand what is going 
on in any particular module, and to make 
changes as necessary. Basic is popular 
because it is widely available, can be used 
in a computer with limited memory, and 
is not difficult to learn. Therefore manu- 
facturers build it into their computers and 
programmers write application programs 
in it. The very characteristics that make 
some languages ideal for certain applica- 
tions make them unsuited for other uses. 

One way to gain understanding of the 
strengths and weaknesses of different 
languages is to write the same program in 
several different languages. To a certain 
extent, this is unfair, as any conceivable 
problem would be well suited to some 
languages and poorly suited to others. No 
one problem is likely to demonstrate the 
real strengths of even two different lan- 
guages. 



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CIRCLE 101 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Tower of Babel, continued... 

I have prepared a series of programs to 
illustrate the differences among popular 
languages in three areas: console input, 
console output, and common arithmetic. 
No attempt has been made to polish the 
programs. In fact, in some of these cases, 
the program shown is only my second or 
third program in that language. Except 
for the Logo and Lisp examples, developed 
on an Apple II. and the Cobol program 
which was written by Eric Wolcott of 
Creative Computing Software, the pro- 
grams were developed and tested on a 
Model I TRS-80 microcomputer. 

The Problem 

Prompt the user and accept two num- 
bers. Display the numbers on the console, 
calculate the average of the two numbers, 
and display that as well. 

Basic 

A Basic language solution to the problem 
is shown as Listing 1. Basic actually has 
many advantages as a language for a 
microcomputer. It is relatively compact, 
so it does not require much memory. There 
is now a single computer chip, the Z-8. 
which has Basic built right in. Because 
Basic uses standard English words like 
"PRINT." it is not difficult to learn or to 
understand. Many special features are 
available for graphics and file handling. It 
is easy to connect Basic to machine lan- 
guage subroutines which do things for 
which Basic is not well suited. As an 
interpreted language, it is easy to develop 
programs and test modules while one is 
writing them. At the same time, compilers 
are available to increase the speed and 
security of programs written in Basic. 

The most popular version of Basic for 
microcomputers is Microsoft Basic, which 
is now available for the Pet/CBM. Apple. 

Listing I. Basic program to average two 
numbers. 

10 CLS 

20 INPUT "Type a number and press ENTER"; A 

30 INPUT "Give me another number"; B 

40 PRINT 

50 PRINT "Your numbers are "; A; " and "; B 

60 PRINT 

70 PRINT The average is "; (A + B) / 2 

80 PRINT 



TRS-80. Atari, and other popular com- 
puters. Microsoft Basic is actually a family 
of similar languages, ranging from a rather 
limited version for the Pet to a sophisticated 
version with many extra features for Atari 
and CP/M based computers. Applesoft 
and TRS-80 Level II and Disk Basic fall 
in between. 

There are also several Basic compilers 
available. Some of them, such as the Basic 
Compiler from Microsoft, compile com- 
pletely to machine code. However, most 
compiled languages require a set of copy- 
righted routines, called a run-time package, 
in order to work. While these are usually 
compiled right into the program, they do 
pose a problem for someone wishing to 
sell compiled programs. The company that 
owns the copyright on the run-time package 
usually wants a royalty on each copy 
sold. 

I used Accel II. a partial compiler that 
does not require a license fee for the run- 
time package, to compile a text processing 
program I wrote to insert typesetting 
control codes into my articles. The original 
was too slow, taking 18 minutes and 20 
seconds to process a sample file. After 
compiling the program with Accel II. it 
processed the same file in 1 minute and 
58 seconds. 

Pascal 

Pascal is often touted as the language 
that will replace Basic. The major advan- 
tage of Pascal is its modular structure. It 
practically forces the programmer into 
good programming habits, which tend to 
pay off in programs that are easier to 
debug and modify. Pascal also allows 
recursive programming, allowing a sub- 
routine to call itself. Another advantage 
is the ability to use local variables, elimi- 
nating conflicts between variables so fam- 



Listing 2. Pascal program to average two 
numbers. 

PROGRAM AVERAGE (INPUT, OUTPUT) J 
VAR ONE, TWO : REAL; 

BEGIN 

WRITELN( 'Type a number and press RETURN'); 

READLN(ONE) ; 

WRITELN( 'Give me another number'); 

READLN(TWO) ; 

WRITELN; 

WRITELN( 'Your numbers are ',0NE,' and '.TWO); 

WRITELN; 

WRITELN('The average is • , (ONE + TWO)/2.0); 
END. 



iliar to Basic programmers. A Pascal solu- 
tion to our programming problem is shown 
as Listing 2. 

The only popular Pascal that really rivals 
its Basic competitor in features is Apple 
Pascal. It has excellent graphics features, 
text enhancements, and input/output rou- 
tines. Unfortunately, it also adds at least 
$500 to the cost of an Apple II Plus. I 
have three different versions of Pascal 
for the TRS-80. The UCSD Pascal from 
FMG Corporation is a complete develop- 
ment system that requires three disk drives. 
It has been withdrawn from sale, but FMG 
does offer Pascal/MT. a version that com- 
piles to machine code, for CP/M systems, 
including TRS-80 CP/M. 

Radio Shack sells their Tiny Pascal, at 
the other end of the spectrum. Two ver- 
sions are included, one each for 16K and 
32K of memory. Both are cassette based. 
Tiny Pascal is more of a toy than anything 
else. I found difficulty in following several 
Pascal textbooks due to the limitations 
and non-standard functions of the language. 
However, it is a good way for the person 
with only a 16K TRS-80 to experiment 
with Pascal. 

In between the other two TRS-80 Pascal 
versions is Pascal 80 from Ramware. It 
has a reasonably complete Pascal syntax 
with several useful extensions. Accuracy 
of 14 digits on real numbers makes it 
quite useful for serious applications. The 
editor is easy to use and the compiler is 
fast. While both of the other versions give 
very specific numerical error messages. I 
hate to look up the codes and prefer the 
more limited set of English messages (with 
an arrow pointing to the probable error) 
in Pascal 80. The manual is limited to 14 
small pages, but the language is close 
enough to standard Pascal to use standard 
textbooks. After trying out all three ver- 
sions. I found myself using Pascal 80 
exclusively. It only requires a single disk 
system, and is very tightly coded to con- 
serve memory, leaving about 24K in my 
48K system. 

APL 

My favorite second language is APL 
80, a version of APL by Phelps Gates, the 
author of Pascal 80. APL is a marvelously 
simple and compact language, as shown 
by the program in Listing 3. It is an 
interpreted language, not a compiled lan- 
guage like Pascal. The line numbers are 
generated by the language, so all the 
programmer has to do to write a message 
on the screen is enclose the text in single 
quotes. The functions are almost all single 
characters, although some may look 
strange. For example, the box in lines 2 
and 4 is called a "Quad," and tells APL to 
get an input from the console. The back 
arrow tells APL to assign the number 
input to a variable. ONE in line 2 and 



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CIRCLE 106 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Tower of Babel, continued. 



Listing 3. A PL program to average two 
numbers. 



0: 
1: 
2: 
3: 
4: 
5: 
6: 
7: 



AVERAGE ;A jB 

Type a number and press RETURN' 
ONE * D 

Give me another number' 
TWO * 
■ 

Your numbers are:' 
ONE ;TOO 

The average is ';(ONE +TWO ) % 2 



Listing 4. Forth program to average two 
numbers. 

: AVERAGE CR 

." Type a number and press RETURN " UN CR 

." Give me another number " UN CR 

." Your numbers are " OVER OVER . . CR 

." The average is * + 2 / . ; 



Listing 5. Fortran program to average two 
numbers. 

00100 C AVERAGE TWO NUMBERS 

00200 REAL ONE, TWO, AVG 

00300 WRITE(S,S) 

00400 5 FORMATC TYPE A NUMBER AND PRESS ENTER ') 

00500 READ(4,10) ONE 

00fi00 10 FORMAT(F7.0) 

00700 WRITE(5,15) 

00600 15 FORMAT! ' GIVE ME ANOTHER NUMBER •) 

00900 READ(4,10) TWO 

01000 WRITE(5,20) ONE, TWO 

01100 20 FORMATC YOUR NUMBERS ARE',F7.0,' AND ',F7, 

01200 AVG- (ONE + TWOJ/2 

01300 WRITE(5,25) AVG 

01400 25 FORMATC THE AVERAGE IS '.F9.1) 

01500 END 

Listing 6. Cobol program to average two 
numbers. 

ID DIVISION. 
PROGRAM-ID. AVERAGE. 
AUTHOR. Eric F. Wolcott. 
INSTALLATION. Creative Computing. 
DATE-WRITTEN. 8/9/81. 
DATE-COMPILED. 
* 

REMARKS: This program will read in two numbers A t B, and 
determine their average. It will print out the 
two numbers and their average. 

* 

ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. 
CONFIGURATION SECTION. 
SOURCE-COMPUTER. TRS-80. 

OBJECT-COMPUTER. TRS-80. 

INPUT-OUTPUT SECTION. 
FILE-CONTROL. 
DATA DIVISION. 
FILE SECTION. 
* 

WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. 

01 A PIC S9(9)V9(5) COMP-3 VALUE 0. 

01 B PIC S9(9)V9(5) COMP-3 VALUE 0. 

01 AVERAGE PIC S9(9)V9(5) COMP-3 VALUE 0. 

01 DISPLAY-A PIC , , .9(5) VALUE 0. 

01 DISPLAY-B PIC , , .9(5) VALUE 0. 

01 DISPLAY-AVERAGE PIC , , .9(5) VALUE 0. 

* 

PROCEDURE DIVISION. 

* 

DISPLAY "Type a number and press RETURN" UPON CONSOLE. 

ACCEPT A FROM CONSOLE. 

DISPLAY "Give me another number" UPON CONSOLE. 

ACCEPT B FROM CONSOLE. 

MOVE A TO DISPLAY-A. 

MOVE B TO DISPLAY-B. 

DISPLAY "Your numbers are " UPON CONSOLE. 

DISPLAY DISPLAY-A " and " DISPLAY-B UPON CONSOLE. 

COMPUTE AVERAGE - (A+B)/2. 

MOVE AVERAGE TO DISPLAY-AVERAGE. 

DISPLAY The average is " DISPLAY-AVERAGE UPON CONSOLE. 

GOBACK. 



P) 




TWO in line 4. APL does not restrict the 
length of variable names, and every char- 
acter is significant. 

If Pascal encourages good programming 
habits. APL encourages bad ones, especially 
the writing of incomprehensible code. I 
constantly find myself writing quick and 
dirty code in APL. partly because it is so 
easy and partly because every program 
statement must be complete on one screen 
line. APL is so easy to learn that APL 80 
comes with a self teaching course in the 
language on the diskette. Since the TRS- 
80 does not allow the standard APL char- 
acter set, APL 80 substitutes lower case 
characters, a compromise that purists find 
intolerable, and which can lead to confusion 
when following the textbooks. 

Forth 

Many computer languages turn their 
advocates into passionate missionaries for 
the cause, but few seem as fervent as the 
Forth fanatics. Ted Nelson, our former 
editor, is an enthusiastic user of Forth on 
his Atari. I do not have a version of the 
language, and have only experimented 
with it briefly under the tutelage of Dick 
Miller, who with his wife Jill is the author 
of MMS Forth for the TRS-80. 1 liked the 
language when I used it. and if the man- 
datory licensing fee didn't make it so 
impractical for program development, 
probably would be a convert myself. Jill 
Miller wrote the program in Listing 4. 

Forth compiles itself as it goes along 
into commands which can in turn form 
the building blocks for subsequent com- 
mands. This makes it rather easy to develop 
powerful routines which are easily trans- 
portable from one program to another. 
Forth is not far removed from machine 
language, and is therefore very fast. 

Fortran 

Fortran is a very fast compiled language 
normally used for batch processing of large 
quantities of data. It is probably not suitable 
for the interactive use common with micro- 
computers. The extensive and cumbersome 
formatting that can be seen in Listing 5 
does allow the Fortran compiler to create 
memory-efficient final code, but it creates 
a great deal of work for the programmer. 

Fortran also suffers from age. A quarter 
of a century ago it was a major step forward 
in simplifying the solving of mathematical 
problems. However, the vast majority of 
research into languages has come since 
the development of Fortran, and many 
advances in language design cannot be 
added onto Fortran. 

Cobol 

Upon first glance at Listing 6, Cobol 
appears to be a complex joke. In a small 
computer, it probably is. The long key- 
words and complex introduction eat up 
too much memory for a microcomputer. 



98 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



ATARI SOFTWARE 

PIRACY: 
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| A Warnef Communications Company 
©1981. ATARI INC 



CIRCLE 287 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Tower of Babel, continued. 



average [ 

int one, two 

pi "Type a number and press RETURN 

one ■ gn 

pi "Give me another number " 

two ■ gn 

pi • " 

pi "Your numbers are"; 

pn "one; 

pi " and "; 

pn two 

pi " " 

pi "The average Is "; 

pn ((one + two) /2) 



1 



Listing 7. Tiny C program to average two 
numbers. 



and are usually unnecessary in most appli- 
cations suitable for small computers. How- 
ever, Cobol is a good language for a major 
business application. The thorough docu- 
mentation and easy readability are an asset 



in a complex program. While we were 
promised a version of Radio Shack's new 
Cobol, it did not come in time to allow us 
to test this program, so the sample program 
has not been run in a microcomputer. 



TlnyC 

Our example in Listing 7 really does 
not capture the flavor of C, as all input 
and output in the language is done with 
functions, not native commands. C is a 
versatile general purpose programming 
language that was developed at Bell Tele- 
phone Laboratories. AT&T is one of the 
world's largest users of computers, and 
they even manufacture some of the com- 
puters they use. They have developed a 
microprocessor specifically for the C lan- 
guage. C is popular in both universities 
and industry, and the powerful computer 
operating system UNIX was written in C. 

Logo 

Logo is similar to C in its structure and 
environment. Both, build on understandings 
gained with Basic, are well structured, 
and use the same environment for both 
programming and execution. Logo is an 
interactive, procedural language like Forth 
and APL. which encourages the building 
of complex functions by combining simple 





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limited subset of Basic - about 20 keywords in- 
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RETURN. END, STOP. USR(X). PEEK, POKE. 
-.-.'. I. f . V^S.Variable names A-Z.and Integer 
Numbers fforn 0-64 K. 

TINY COMPILER is written in Basic. It can 
be modified and augmented by the user. It comes 
with a 20 page manual. 
TINY COMPILER - $19.95 on tape or disk 

THE AARDVARK JOURNAL 
FOR OSI USERS - This is a bi-monthly 
tutorial journal running only articles about OSI 
systems. Every issue contains programs custom- 
ized for OSI, tutorials on how to use and modify 
the system, and reviews of OSI related products. 
In the last two years we have run articles like 
these! 

II A tutorial on Machine Code for BASIC 
programmers. 

2) Complete listings of two word processors 
for BASIC IN ROM machines. 

3) Moving the Directory off track 12. 

41 Listings for 20 game programs for the OSI. 

5) How to write high speed BASIC - and 
lots more — 

Vol. 1 (1980) 6 back issues - $9.00 
Vol. 2 (1981) 2 back issues and subscription for 
4 additional issues - $9.00. 



ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE - This program 
will handle up to 420 open accounts. It will age 
accounts, print invoices (including payment 
reminders) and give account totals. It can add 
automatic interest charges and warnings on late 
accounts, and can automatically provide and cal- 
culate volume discounts. 

24K and 0S65D required, dual disks recom- 
mended. Specify system. 
Accounts Receivable. $99.95 

• • * SPECIAL DEAL - NO LESS! 

A complete business package for OSI small 
systems - (CI. C2, C4 or C8). Includes MAXI- 
PROS, GENERAL LEDGER, INVENTORY, 
PAYROLL AND ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE - 
ALL THE PROGRAMS THE SMALL BUSI- 
NESS MAN NEEDS. $299.95 

P.S. We're so confident of the quality of these 
programs that the documentation contains the 
programmer's home phone number! 

SUPERDISK II 

This disk contains a new BEXEC* that boots 
up with a numbered directory and which allows 
creation, deletion and renaming of files without 
calling other programs. It also contains a slight 
modification to BASIC to allow 14 character 
file names. 

The disk contains a disk manager that con- 
tains a disk packer, a hex/dec calculator and 
several other utilities. 

It also has a full screen editor (in machine 
code on C2P/C4)) that makes corrections a snap. 
We'll also toss in renumbering and program 
search programs — and sell the whole thing for — 
SUPERDISK II $29.95 ( 5 1/4") $34.95 (8"). 



ANDFUN, 
TOO! 




BOOKKEEPING THE EASY WAY 
-WITH BUSINESS I 

Our business package 1 is a set of programs 
designed for the small businessman who does not 
have and does not need a full time accountant 
on his payroll. 

This package is built around a GENERAL 
LEDGER program which records all transactions 
and which provides monthly, quarterly, annual, 
and year-to-date PROFIT AND LOSS statements. 
GENERAL LEDGER also provides for cash 
account balancing, provides a BALANCE SHEET 
and has modules for DEPRECIATION and 
LOAN ACCOUNT computation. 
GENERAL LEDGER (and MODULES) $129.95. 

PAYROLL is designed to interface with the 
GENERAL LEDGER. It will handle annual 
records on 30 employees with as many as 6 
deductions per employee. 
PAYROLL- $49.95. 

INVENTORY is also designed to interface with 
the general ledger. This one will provide instant 
information on suppliers, initial cost and current 
value of your inventory. It also keeps track of the 
order points and date of last shipment. 
INVENTORY - $59.95. 

GAMES FOR ALL SYSTEMS 
GALAXIAN - 4K - One of the fastest and finest 
arcade games ever written for the OSI, this one 
features rows of hard-hitting evasive dogfighting 
aliens thirsty for your blood. For those who 
loved (and tired of) Alien Invaders. Specify 
system - A bargain at $9.95 

NEW -NEW- NEW 

LABYRINTH - 8K - This has a display back- 
ground similar to MINOS as the action takes 
place in a realistic maze seen from ground level. 
This is, however, a real time monster hunt as you 
track down and shoot mobile monsters on foot. 
Checking out and testing this one was the most 
fun I've had in years! - $13.95. 

NIGHT RIDER - You've seen similar games in 
the arcades. You see a winding twisting road 
ahead as you try to make time and stay on the 
road. NIGHT RIDER uses machine code to gen- 
erate excellent high speed graphics • by the same 
author as MINOS. 
NIGHT RIDER - $12.95 cassette only 

THIEF - Another machine code goody for the 
C1P cassette only. You must use mobile cannon 
to protect the valuable jewels in the middle of 
the screen from increasingly nasty and trigger 
happy thiefs. Fast action and fun for one or two 
players. THIEF $13.95 on CI cassette only! 

SUPPORT ROMS FOR BASIC IN ROM MA 
CHINES - C1S/C2S. This ROM adds line edit 
functions, software selectable scroll windows, 
bell support, choice of OSI or standard keyboard 
routines, two callable screen clears, and software 
support for 32-64 characters per line video. 
Has one character command to switch model 
2 C1P from 24 to 48 character line. When in- 
stalled in C2 or C4 (C2S) requires installation 
of additional chip. C1P requires only a jumper 
change. - $39.95 

C1E/C2E similar to above but with extended 
machine code monitor. — $59.95 



OSI 



Please specify system on all orders 

This is only a partial listing of what we have to offer. We now offer over 100 programs, data sheets, ROMS, and boards 
for OSI systems. Our $1.00 catalog lists it all and contains free program listings and programming hints to boot. 

AARDVARK TECHNICAL SERVICES, LTD. 

2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 

(313)669-3110 



% 
OSI 



NOVEMBER 1981 



CIRCLE 102 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

101 



Tower of Babel, continued. 



TO TYPEIN 

OUTPUT FIRST REQUEST 
END 

TO AVERAGE 

PRINT " 

PRINT [TYPE A NUMBER AND PRESS RETURN) 

MAKE "ONE TYPEIN 

PRINT (GIVE ME ANOTHER NUMBER) 

MAKE "TWO TYPEIN 

PRINT " 

PRINT [YOUR NUMBERS ARE] 

PRINT SENTENCE ( :ONE (AND) :TWO ) 

PRINT " 

PRINT [THE AVERAGE IS] 

PRINT ( :ONE +:TWO ) / 2 

PRINT " 
END 

Listing 8. M.I. T. Apple II Logo program 
to average two numbers. 



procedures into larger ones. Although Logo 
is a powerful and flexible general purpose 
language, it has been successfully used in 
teaching programming concepts to even 
young children. Logo is currently available 
for the TI 99/4. and will shortly be available 
for the Apple II. 



Our example in Listing 8 is somewhat 
awkward and unrepresentative of Logo, 
as the use of holding variables is somewhat 
foreign to the language. A more typical 
Logo program to average two numbers is 
this one. taken from a forthcoming book 
by Hal Abelson of M.I.T.: 



TO PAVER AGE :X :Y 

PRINT (:X :Y)/2 
END 

In a normal Logo environment, the user 
would enter something like: 
PAVERAGE 100 150 
and the computer would reply: 
125 

This style of operation is also typical in 
APL. where the program: 
0: PAVERAGE ;A ,B 
1:(A + B)/2 
would function in exactly the same way. 

lisp 

As Listing 9 shows, Lisp is not very well 
suited to handling numbers. The strength 
of the language lies in its ability to redefine 
itself dynamically, treating all present 
contents of memory including the "pro- 
gram." as data. Normally, self-modifying 
code is a programmer's nightmare, but 
this feature is probably ideally suited to 
creating a relational data base because 
Lisp can examine and relate the data it is 
working on to other data. Lisp is popular 



Sources of 
Computer Languages 
for Popular Computers 



( 1 1 Apple Computer 
10260 Bandley Drive 
Cupertino. CA 95014 
(408) 996-1010 
Fortran. Pilot 

(2) Atari. Inc. 
1272 Borregas Ave. 
Sunnyvale. CA 94086 
(408) 745-2000 

Microsoft Basic. Pilot ROM cartridge 

(3) Codeworks 
Box 550 

Goleta. CA93116 
Codeworks C (CP/M) 

14) Datasoft 

19519 Business Center Dr. 

Northridge. CA 91343 

(800)423-5916 

Lisp 1.7 (Apple II). InterLisp 2.0 (Atari) 

(5i Eastern House Software 

3239 Linda Dr. 

Winston-Salem NC 27106 

(919)671-2296 

Tiny C (Pet/CBM) Cassette 550, Manual 

$50 

(6) FMG Corp. 

P.O. Box 16020 

Ft. Worth. TX 76133 

Pascal MT (CP/M), Pascal, Mt (TRS-80 

CP/M) 



(7) Allen Gelder Software 
Box 11721 Main Post Office 
San Francisco. CA 94101 

Accel cassette. Accel II disk (TRS-80) 

(8) Heath Company 
Benton Harbor. MI 49022 
(8001 253-0570 

Microsoft Basic. Basic Compiler. Fortran. 
Cobol 

(9) Muse 

330 N. Charles Street 
Baltimore. MD 21201 
(301)659-7212 
Appilot II (Apple) 

( 10) Programma International 
50 Essex St. 

Rochelle Park. NJ 07662 
(800) 631-0856 
Forth (Apple) 

(11) Lifeboat Associates 
1651 Third Ave. 

New York, NY 10028 

(212)860-0360 

APL V80. JRT Pascal. BDS C (CPM) 

(12) Microsoft 

400 108th Ave. N.E. Suite 200 

Bellevue. WA 98004 

Fortran. Cobol. Basic Compiler (TRS-80, 

Apple Softcard, CP/M) 

Softeard (Apple) 

( 13) Pegasys Systems 
4005 Chestnut St. 
Philadelphia. PA 19104 
(800) 5230725 

P-Lisp (Apple) 



114) Quality Software 
6660 Reseda Blvd. Suite 105 
Reseda. CA 91335 
(213)344-6599 
Forth (Atari I 

(15) Ramware 

6 South Street 

Milford.NH 03055 

(800) 258-1790 

Pascal 80. APL 80 (TRS-80) 

116) Radio Shack 
1 Tandy Center 
Ft. Worth. TX 67102 
Tiny Pascal. Fortran, Cobol. Basic Com- 
piler 

(17)Softape 
10432 Burbank Blvd. 
N. Hollywood. CA 91601 
Forth II (Apple I 

(18) Tiny C Associates 

P.O. Box 269 

Holmdel. NJ 07733 

(201)671-2296 

Tiny C Manual $50. Media $50 

(Apple II. TRS-80. Heath H8/89. Northstar, 

KIM) 

1 19) MicroFocuj 
58. Acacia Road 
St John's Wood 
London. UK 
CIS Cobol (CP/M) 

(20) MMS 

61 Lake Shore Rd. 

Natick. MA 01760 

(617)653-6136 

MMS FORTH TRS-80 



102 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



(DEFINEO GETNUM 
(LAMBDA NIL 

(P^OG (NUf») 
LOOP 

(SETO NUM( READ) ) 
(COND ((EO (# NUM) NIL) 

(PRINT 'NOT-A-NUMBER) 
(GO LOOP) ) 
(T (RETURN NUM) )))) 
(DEFINEO AVG 

(LAMBDA NIL 

(PRINT ' (ENTER TWO NUMBERS)) 
(PRINT 

(/ 

(+ (GETNUM) (GETNUM) ) 
2)))) 

Listing 9. Lisp program to average two 
numbers. 



T: TYPE A NUMBER AND PRESS RETURN 

A: I 

T: GIVE ME ANOTHER NUMBER 

A: J 

T: YOUR NUMBERS ARE II AND I J 

C: I+J 

C: ZJ 

C: J*2 

C: ZK 

*NUM 

C: I-J 

C: K+l 

J(I>J) :NUM 

J(I-J) :NUM 

T: THE AVERAGE IS IK 

E: 

Listing 10. Pilot program to average two 
numbers. 



in artificial intelligence research because 
the redefinition allows the program to be 
set up to learn from experience. 

Pilot 

Last, and in my personal bias, certainly 
the least among languages is Pilot. Pilot 
was designed for educational use. and 
seems to assume that a language for teach- 
ers must be extremely simple. As a former 
teacher. I do not like the implication that 
teachers are not capable of learning better 
languages. I am also predjudiced against 
the use of the computer for drill and 



practice, and Pilot is primarily useful for 
exactly that. The commands are single 
letters like T for type and M for match, 
followed by a colon and the operator. 
Instead of variables. Pilot has "counters." 
The version of Pilot I used for Listing 10. 
no longer available and mercifully for- 
gotten, did not even have division, so I 
had to divide by repeated subtraction, 
using a counter to determine how many 
times 2 could be subtracted from my total. 
Apple Pilot, the best current microcom- 
puter Pilot of which I am aware, is much 
more complete. 



Conclusion 

This trip through ten languages has been 
conducted for tourists. It is not an attempt 
to provide a detailed description of the 
different languages. The sample problem 
was chosen to illustrate three important 
functions in an interactive microcomputer 
environment; console input, console out- 
put, and simple calculations. There are 
many other considerations to choosing a 
programming language for a particular 
task. The reader is encouraged to choose 
the languages which stimulate interest and 
study them further. Q 



SAVE $$ 



DISCOUNT PRICES 




fltcippkz computer 




16K APPLE II 


1049.00 


400 16K 


349.00 


32K APPLE II 


1074.00 


800 16K 


759.00 


48K APPLE II 


1099.00 


410 Recorder 


64.00 


DISKW/CONTROLLER 


499.00 


815 Disk 


1199.00 


DISK ONLY 


445.00 


810 Disk 


489.00 


APPLESOFT CARD 


139.00 


822 Printer 


359.00 


INTEGER CARD 


139.00 


825 Printer 


779.00 


PASCAL SYSTEM 


399.00 


830 Modem 


159.00 


SILENTYPE PRINTER 


349.00 


850 Interface Module 


179.00 


HAYES MICROMODEM 


295.00 


CX853 RAM 


85.00 


Z-80 SOFTCARD 


295.00 


CX70 Light Pen 


64.00 


VIDEX80COL. BRD. 


295.00 


CX30 Paddle 


18.00 


16K RAM BOARD 


169.00 


CX40 Joystick 


18.00 


RAM MEMORY 




VERBATIM DISKETTES 


FOR TRS-80, APPLE II 




Box of 10 5'/4" 


29.50 


16KSET4116s(200NS) 


24.95 


Box of 10 8" 


39.50 




North Star Computers 

HR2-2D-32K 2795.00 

HR2-20-48K 2956 00 

HR2-2D-64K 3145.00 

HR2-2Q-32K 2975.00 

HR2-2Q-48K 3165.00 

HR2-2Q-64K 3360.00 

HRAM 32K 469.00 

HRAM48K 662.00 

HRAM 64K 849.00 

HDS-18 HARD DISK 4025.00 

MDS-DRV-D 495.00 

MDS-DRV-Q 665.00 

ADC-1-0 740.00 

ADC-2-D 995.00 

ADC-1-Q 795.00 

ADC-2-Q 1285.00 



SAVE $$ 



PRINTERS 

EPSON MX-70 399.00 

EPSON MX-80 499.00 

EPSON MX-80 FT 599.00 

GRAFTRAX 90.00 

INTERFACE (APPLE) 75.00 

CABLE 22.50 

CENTRONICS 737-1 795.00 

CENTRONICS 737-3 855.00 

IDS445G 815.00 

IDS460G 1195.00 

IDS560G 1450.00 

NEC 5510 W/TRACTORS 2650.00 
NEC 5520 KSR W/TRAC. 2995.00 



QUME 5/45 SPRINT 
FORMS TRACTOR 



2675.00 
195.00 

STARWRITER W/TRAC. 1695.00 
STARWRITER W/O 

TRACTOR 1500.00 

General Information: 

We carry a large selection of hard- 
ware and software by other com- 
panies. Send for our catalog. 
We are an authorized repair center for 
APPLE. ATARI. NORTH STAR. AND 
EPSON. 



PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. MARYLAND RESIDENTS ADD 5% SALES TAX 



FREDERICK 
COMPUTER 

PRODUCTS, INC. 



5726 INDUSTRY LANE 
FREDERICK, MD. 21701 



Store Hours: 

MON. THRU THURS. 9:30 AM— 9:00 PM 
FRI. AND SAT. 9:30 AM— 5:00 PM 



TO ORDER CALL: (301) 6948884 



NOVEMBER 1981 



CIRCLE 178 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

103 



The Choice 



SUPRBRAIN 




SAVE 
Superbrain 64K Double Density $ 2549 28% 
Superbrain 64K Quad Density $ 2895 28% 




ATARI "800 16K 



A 

ATARI 



$739 

SAVE 32% 



Atari 400 16K 

Atari 820 Printer 

Atari 810 Disk Drive 

Atari 410 Program Recorder 

Atari 16K RAM Module 

Atari 850 Interface 

Atari Star Raiders 



$325 
$249 
$449 
$ 59 
$ 85 
$159 
$ 29 



Note: Up to 4 weeks delivery on drives 



NO 

SALES 

TAX 

* SUPER BUYS 



SOFTWARE 



for Apple II/II + 




Apple: SAVE 

Language/ Pascal System $379 25% 

DOS 3.3 $ 49 20% 

Apple Writer $ 59 21% 

The Controller $495 21% 

Apple Pilot $119 27% 

DOS Tool Kit $ 59 22% 

Apple Fortran $149 25% 

Apple Plot $ 49 30% 

Tax Planner $ 99 33% 

Dow Jones News & Quotes $ 69 28% 

Dow Jones Portfolio Eval. $ 45 10% 
Personal Software: 

Visicalc3.3 $159 25% 

Visiplot $139 28% 

Visitrend/Visiplot $199 31% 

Visidex $159 30% 

Visiterm $119 27% 

Desktop Plan II $ 159 21 % 

CCA Data Base Mgt. $ 79 20% 

Zork $ 29 27% 

Muse, Super Text II $109 27% 

Info. Unlim.,Easywriter $199 13% 

Hayden, Sargon II (chess) $ 29 22% 

PFS, Filing /Data Base $ 69 28% 

Stoneware, DB Master (new version) $179 22% 

Softech, Stockf ile (inventory) $ 299 35% 

Microsoft (on disks): 

Typing Tutor $ 15 30% 

Fortran 80 $149 25% 

A.L.D.S. $110 10% 

BASIC Compiler $ 299 25% 

Olympic Decathalon $ 19 24% 

Cobol 80 $ 559 25% 

Wordstar $199 24% 

Epson, MX 80 Graphics Dump $ 7 30% 
Insoft 

* ALD System II $110 10% 

* TransFORTH II $110 10% 

* Accounting Software $365 66% 
A full professional quality integrated 
GL, A/R, A/P, Payroll package. Hot- 
line support available. Send for free 
sample printouts. 

Peachtree, Inventory CALL CALL 

Broderbund, Payroll CALL CALL 
• Central Point Software: NEW! 

Copy II Plus Will copy most copy protected 
software for your backup in 45 seconds! $39.95 

Technical Hotline (503)772-3803 

(CUSTOMERS ONLY-PLEASE HAVE 
INVOICE # OR PACKING SLIP #) 

Oregon Order Desk (503)773*3803 
Repair Department (503)772*4401 




TOLL FREE (800)547-1289 

NATIONAL ORDER DESK Xwy/v//**/"/ XalfVJw/ 

Computer Exchange 

National Sales Dept. of CUSTOM COMPUTER W 



259 Barnett Rd., Unit 3, Medford, OR. 97501 

CIRCLE 141 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



roiessionais 



HARDWARE 



for Apple 11/11* 
SAVE 



Disk II and 3.3 Controller 


$499 


23% 


Disk II only 


$429 


18% 


Micro-Sci 5" Drives for Apple II: 






* A70, 286K, 5" Drive 


$499 


20% 


* A40, 160K, 5" Drive 


$369 


18% 


Controller Card 






with utility diskette 


$ 79 


21% 


Apple, Language/ Pascal System 


$379 


25% 


M&R, RF Modulator 


$ 25 


27% 


MONITORS: 






* ATI: 9" B&W 


$139 


CALL 


12" Color 


CALL 


CALL 


SANYO: 9" B&W 


$159 


32% 


12" B&W 


$249 


33% 


12" Green 


$299 


25% 


NEC 12" Color 


$429 


30% 


12" Green 


$225 


21% 


DISKETTES, 5", box of 10: 






Apple 


$ 44 


21% 


Maxell 


$ 39 


33% 


Memorex 


$ 25 


45% 


Apple, Game Paddle 


$ 30 


20% 


GSC Videostick, Joystick 


$ 35 


20% 


Keyboard Company: Joystick II 


$ 39 


22% 


Numeric Keypad 


$119 


21% 


ABT, Keypad B, 10 key 


$ 99 


21% 


SSM AIO, Serial /Para. Interface 


$159 


20% 


CCS: Serial Interface Card 


$129 


35% 


Parallel Interface Card 


$ 99 


37% 


Apple, IEEE-488Card 


$339 


25% 


Apple, Clock /Calendar Card 


$239 


15% 


80 Column Video Cards: 






Apple, Smarterm 


$299 


17% 


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$249 


18% 


Ask about other Videx accessories 




PRINTERS: 






Apple, Silentype w/ Interface 


$329 


17% 


Centronics, 737 


$759 


26% 


Apple, Centronics 737 Interface 


$169 


33% 


* Epson: 






MX 80 


CALL 


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MX 80 FT 


CALL 


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MX 100W/Graphics 


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MX 80/100 Interface 


CALL 


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MX 80 friction feed adapter 


CALL 


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MX 80 graphics chip 


CALL 


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$695 


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$249 


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$175 


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$179 


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Mirror 


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We are an authorized 
dealer and repair 
center and will repair 
all Apple equipment 
regardless of where 
you purchased it, in 
or out of warranty. 
Normally our turn- 
around time on 
repairs is 24 hours. 
Call before sending 
equipment. 




Apple 11+ 




SAVE 


16K 


$1029 


23% 


48K 


$1079 


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$1249 


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23% 



All are 1981 models with Apple RAM. 64K unit is 48K unit with Microsoft 
16K RAM board. 64K units include Applesoft and Integer BASIC'S when 
used with DISK II. The Apple II no longer comes with game paddles. 
Paddles are extra - CALL. 



APPLE /// 

128K $ 3299 

Disk $ 479 

Info Analyst Pack $ 399 



SAVE 
13% 
20% 



Above prices for mail orders only. Our store showroom is 259 Barnett Rd., 
Unit 2, Medford, OR. Store prices, which include software service, differ 
from mail order prices. No mail order sales at store. CALL ORDER DESK. 

ORDERING INFORMATION: 

Minimum order $100. Money Orders, Cashier Checks or Bank Wire 
welcomed. Visa and MC orders add 3%. Personal or company checks 
are accepted (allow 20 days to clear). Add 3% for shipping, handling and 
insurance. UPS ground is standard. Add 6% total for UPS Blue or 10% 
total for foreign orders or US Parcel Post. Include your telephone number. 
No COD ' s. Prices are subject to change without notice. Order desk hours 
are 9 to 6 PDT, 10 to 3 Saturdays. 

REFERENCES: 

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Interstate Bank (503) 776-5620. We belong to the Chamber of Commerce. 
(503) 772-6293. 



• STAR INDICATES SPECIAL VALUE 



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259 Barnett Rd., Unit 3, Medford, OR. 97501 

CIRCLE 141 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



bvws* 



*f± 




A Structured Spatial Language 



George Arthur Miller 

Languages are used to communicate 
ideas. Until the advent of computers most 
languages were "natural." such as English 
or French. Pre-computer examples of 
"artificial" languages are musical notation 
and mathemetical symbology. 

Readers of Creative Computing are. no 
doubt, familiar with one or more popular 
computer languages such as Basic or Pascal 
which are used to communicate procedures 
or algorithms to a computer. Boxes is a 
simple language used to communicate how 
a particular space is to be segmented. 
Although Boxes can be extended to three 
dimensions or more, we shall describe 



only the two dimensional version. 

The motivation for developing Boxes 
came from the need to build a general 
purpose output routine for a computer 
calendar. We have a machine which can 
print text and lines. We wanted the text 
and lines arranged on a page to look like 
a standard monthly calendar with Monday. 
Tuesday, etc. along the top and little boxes 
for each day. We also wanted a weekly 
calendar and a daily schedule of activities. 
Knowing we couldn't please everyone with 
just one format we designed Boxes to 
allow us to describe quickly any layout of 
lines and text on a page. 



Sue 



John 



Harry 



There are other languages, such as 
Xerox's FDL. which accomplish the same 
goal. What makes Boxes unique is the 
relative nature of its descriptions. Instead 
of describing a line or box in page coordi- 
nates, each box is described in relation to 
another box. 

Consider a page of blank paper. This 
page can be divided into two horizontal 
boxes. The bottom box can be divided 
into three vertical boxes, and so on. The 
entire page can be progressively segmented 
into smaller and smaller boxes until we 
arrive at an atomic box. An atomic box 
cannot be further segmented and has two 
characteristics, a border and text. 

An atomic box can have any combina- 
tion of its top. bottom or sides drawn. In 
addition, the box can contain written text. 
A non-atomic box can be segmented 
horizontally or vertically by any number 
of subboxes in any proportion of heights 
or widths. For example, how would we 
describe the figure in Figure 1? 

The page is divided horizontally into 
two boxes. The top box is six times as 
high as the bottom box. The box is further 
segmented into three boxes of equal width, 
each containing a person's name. This is 
the English description of the page layout. 
The same description in the Boxes language 
is: 

H 6,1 
[IF 

V 1,1,1 
[SuelK 
| John | F 
[Harry IF 

Notice there are two non-atomic boxes 
and four atomic boxes. The atomic boxes 
are easy to recognize since they have 
square brackets around the text and are 
followed by the letter "F." The non-atomic 
boxes start with either a horizontal or 
vertical segmentation. The numbers fol- 



Figure I. 



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CA 44115. 



106 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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NOVEMBER 1981 



107 



CIRCLE 262 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Boxes, continued. 

lowing the H or V indicate not only into 
how many boxes the non-atomic box is to 
be segmented but also in what proportion. 
So. the "H 6,1" says "divide me horizontally 
into two boxes with the top box taking 
6/7th of the available space and the bottom 
box taking l/7th of the available space." 
Spaces and indentation are ignored by 
the computer (except within the square 
brackets) and are included only to make 
it easier to read. The letter "F" at the end 
of each box indicates the full border is to 
be drawn around the atomic box. A zero 
means no border is to be drawn. Any 



V 2,7 
H 5,1,2 
H 2,2,1,1,1, 
V 3,1,3 



3,1,3 
2,1,1, 
2,5 
2.1,1, 



1,2 



V 4,3 



|)0 |)D |)0 

HO [)B |]0 

l)B [)0 [|B 

1)8 I IF ||4 |)F 

118 [)E 

1)8 HE I 10 |)8 



1)2 



l)E 1)0 

Listing I. 



Figure 2. 



combination of sides around the box can 
be drawn by following the square brackets 
with some hexadecimal digit 0-F. Assume 
the following assignments of values: 

I 



To draw just the top and bottom of a 
box we would use the hexadecimal digit 5 
(1 + 4). Using just this hexadecimal 
notation, any orthogonal design can be 
created. Consider the Boxes program in 
Listing 1. 

The output from this program is shown 
in Figure 2. 

This same program produces a similar, 
but fatter figure when printed on a wider 
page. The relative nature of Boxes is 
demonstrated in Figure 3. 

At this point it might be helpful to go 
through the construction of a box diagram 
step by step. Prior to the execution of any 
Boxes instructions, there is a single, 
undivided rectangular box. No subdivisions, 
borders, or text have been specified: 





Figure 3. 























































The first instruction will be a vertical 
subdivision, with a 1:1 ratio of the size of 
the resulting subboxes: 

Vl.l 




The shaded box designates the next 
focus of attention. Next, we horizontally 
segment the shaded box with the top box 
twice as large as the bottom: 

H2.1 




No longer wanting to subdivide the 
shaded box. we specify the border for the 
box (this is the first atomic box). The 
hexadecimal digit D ( 1 +8+4) will produce 
the border consisting of the top. bottom 
and left walls as follows: | |D 




108 



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109 



CIRCLE 146 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Boxes, continued... 

Having completed the first atomic box. 
the focus of attention switches to the box 
immediately below. It may be further 
subdivided if so desired, but instead we 
choose to consider it an atomic box also, 
and draw the right wall only: 1 12 






Continuing in a similar fashion, the 
diagram is completed when the final atomic 
box is outlined: 




H 1.2 







ggpggggp 






Combining these steps, the Boxes pro- 
gram. 



l 

2,1 
|]» 
112 
1.2 

lie 

116 



produces the following result: 



lie 



The only thing left to describe is what 
can go inside the square brackets of an 
atomic box. Actually any sort of other 
language can be used here. For example: 
a graphics language describing pie charts 
and bar graphics might be used. For our 
purposes a simple word processing language 
was chosen. 

Text placed in the square brackets is 
printed in the atomic box as written, it is 
left justified and word wrapped until the 
box is filled. There are three special 
characters which influence the way the 
text is written within the box: ":" and "*" 
and "> ." 

The semicolon is used to indicate a 
required carriage return. For example 
one: (wo | will come out in two lines within 
a box. 

The asterisk. "*." is a special character 
which acts as padding of spaces. The 
asterisk will insert enough spaces to push 




surrounding strings to the edge of the 
box. For example |one*two| will come 
out as one line in a box with "one" all the 
way to the left and "two" all the way to 
the right: 




More than one asterisk can appear on 
any line. When this happens, an equal 
amount of space is allocated to each 
asterisk. In addition, when a line has only 
an asterisk and nothing more the padding 
will be vertical rather than horizontal. 
For example |*;*one*| will produce a box 
with "one" centered on the bottom: 




The " >" is used for simple indentation 
with an atomic box. Any text following a 
" >" will word wrap back to the column 
in which the ">" appears. The ">" (as 
well as the semicolon and asterisk) will 
not be printed. For example: 

| Step 1 : > Sketch out a rough draft of 
... your boxes on a piece of paper;:... 

Step 2: > Identify all of the atomic 
boxes | 

will print as: 



Slop I : Sketch oul a rough 
draft of your boxes 
on a piece of paper 



Step 2: Identify all of 
atomic boxes 



the 



110 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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CIRCLE 109 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



taxes, continue 



Julv. 1 OS I 




Monday 



Tuesday 



Wednesday 



Thursday 



Friday 



Saturday 



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While water 
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1 1 Personal 
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Session 
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17 



22 



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2« 



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I I Start 
Planning Process 



31 












Figure 4. Sample Calendar Produced Using 



112 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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CIRCLE 11 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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Boxes, continued... 

Notice the use of the ellipses. "...*'. They can be used to 
break up a long line of text in an atomic box description. The 
ellipsis and all following blanks will be ignored by the program. 
This is important since all other blanks in the text of an 
atomic box are otherwise accepted like any other character. 

As mentioned at the beginning, the motivation for creating 
Boxes was to have an easy-to-use language to produce calendars. 
On page 1 12 is an example of such a calendar (Figure 4). You 
may be somewhat startled at the complexity of the Boxes 
program (Listing 2) in the following example. This program 
was written by the Calendar program using Boxes as an 
intermediate language for forms creation. □ 



h 1.7 
1 

I 



v 5,8 
I 



26,46.21 

110 
;*July. 1981*;*)0 

M T W T F S S ■■ ; . . . 
1 2 3 4 5*;... 

6 7 8 9 10 11 12*;. .. 
13 14 15 16 17 18 19*;... 
20 21 22 23 24 25 26*; . . . 
27 28 29 30 31 *)0 

8,8,8,8 
11.11,11,11.11.3,3 

I ••■; Monday ;'•'■■ )0 

|*;Tuesday;*]0 

j* .Wednesday;* ]0 

|*;Thursday;*)0 

|*;Frlday;*J0 

|*;Saturday;*)0 

|*;Sunday;*)0 
22,11,11,11,3,3 

1)0 

. '. ) Vacation - White water rafting on the Klamath river|F 

.1) Personal Choice Day - RaftingJF 

.1) 4th of July Holiday - RaftingJF 
|*4; ]F 
1*5 i)F 
11,11,11,11,11,3,3 
| 6;2:>30 Mi-"- ing with Mr. Smith, AuditorJF 
j*7;4:>30 Labor Relations classJF 
[*8; ]F 

•00 Monthly 10S Staff Meet ing;2 : >00 Meet with 
Sick Pflaum]F 
|*]0;9:XX) Tech Session ;2:>00 Meeting with Svend;... 

7:>30 Dinner at Keith and Brett »JF 
|*11;7:>00 Dinner at Stacy's)F 
1*12; IF 
11,11,11,11,11,3,3 
[*13;3:>30 APR demo on COOLS - See Steve for place;*;... 

1) reminder - call Vincent for tour of his officc)F 
|*14;10:>45 Tech Council Meeting - asked to attend by Frank )F 
|*15;]F 

;1) STAK D aa ion»tratloo|F 
1*17; IF 
1*18; |F 
|*19;|F 
11,11,11,11.11.3,3 
|*20;9:>00 Strategic Planning Workshop at the Holiday lnn|F 
j*21;9: -00 Strategic PI. inning Workshop at the Holiday InnJF 
1*22; |F 
|*23; )F 
|*:'4;|F 
1*25; )F 
|*2t>;]F 
11.11,11,11,11,6 
1*27; IF 

|*28; )F 

1*29; )F 

|*30;*;1) Start 1982 Planning Process]!' 

1*31; )F 

1)0 



Listing 2: A Program Written in Boxes to 
Produce a Calendar. 



36460 114 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



IRCLE 305 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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CIRCLE 222 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



IO 



OE 



An eclectic interview with Art Luehrmann, 
writer, philosopher, and renaissance m an 
of the computer age. 

Pascal, Ada and 
Computer Literacy! 

David H.Ahl 



In 1<)M, when I took over the Educa- 
tional Products Group at Digital Equipment 
Corp. and first started to give serious 
thought to instructional uses of computers. 
Dr. Arthur Luehrmann at Dartmouth was 
one of the people to whom I turned. Art 
had developed a series of interactive 
graphics programs for st udent use in physics 
at a time when most other people were 
still thinking punched cards and batch 
processing. Two years later when other 
people had graduated to Teletypes. Art 
had developed a graphics football game 
which depicted the playing field in per- 
spective. 

In 1078. Art left Dartmouth to head up 
the computer program at Lawrence Hall 
of Science. In 1980, he and his wife Martha 
struck out on their own with a new venture. 
Computer Literacy. " 

Over the years. Art has written many 
provocative articles. Probably his most 
quoted piece is. "Should the Computer 
Teach the Student or Vice Versa?" done 
for the 1972 Spring Joint Computer Con- 
ference. It was reprinted in Creative 
Computing and now appears in The Best 
of Creative Computing-Volume 2. 

/ recently had a chance to talk with Art 
at his home in Berkeley. This is an edited 
transcript of the conversation which ranges 
from Pascal to Ada to future computers 
to artificial intelligence to computer 
literacy. Want a glimpse of the future? 
Read on. 



D.A.: There is a growing interest in Pascal 
today. People are buying Pascal language 
cards, but perhaps some don't really 
understand the reason of another language. 
Why Pascal/ 

A.L.: That's a good question. Your remark 
about people having bought the language 




i 



system and not knowing why is probably 
very accurate. My guess is that 40-50% of 
the people who bought the language system 
still don't know how to work Pascal because 
of the inadequate documentation that came 
out with the product the first time 
around. 

However, my feeling about languages 
is not purist. I don't think there are good 
languages and bad languages; I don't think 
that's a good way to think about languages. 

Computer languages came into being 
like natural languages. After all. they are 
human inventions. They have a culture 
that grows along with them of people 
who speak that language, do their writing 
in it and think in it. New languages come 
along and have a different kind of shape 
and thrust and there will be groups of 
people who think in that new language. 
Deep down, they are not all that different 
from one another. A linguist wouldn't waste 
ten minutes on a computer language. They 
have about 30. 40. 50. or 100 words at the 
most in their vocabulary and there are 
probably eight or nine sentences you can 
say that are legal. They are boring. A 
person who works around computers 
probably knows three or four languages. 
If he wants to learn a new one. it takes 
about a week. It's not like learning Russian. 
The differences between computer lan- 
guages. I feel, are very much overrated. 

Pascal and Basic are much more alike 
than they are different. LISP and Basic- 
lie 



are certainly more different than Basic 
and Pascal. There's a place for all of 
them. I don't think it is right to say that 
some languages are good and some are 
bad : and that as soon as we get the perfect 
language everything will be wonderful. 
They each are great at some things and 
bad at other things. 



The differences in 

computer languages, I 

feel, are very much 

overrated. 



Basic is good. I think, not because of 
the language, but because of the way it is 
implemented. It is accessible. Anyone, 
within five minutes at most, can do some- 
thing in Basic. One can write a program 
that generates output and maybe does 
some processing along the way. On the 
other hand, writing a Pascal program in 
the first five minutes is virtually impossible. 
It's not because Pascal is hard: the programs 
are equally easy or hard, but the imple- 
mentation is such that when you are using 
Pascal you have to know you are entering 
the editor; you have to know that you 
have to leave the editor in a certain way 
to be sure that what you wrote gets saved: 

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CIRCLE 103 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Luehrmann, continued... 

you have know to type RUN to run the 
program and when you get your error 
messages, you must know to go back to 
the editor. 

In most implementations of Basic you 
are always in the editor except when you 
are running. The editor understands words 
like RUN and LIST and understands the 
syntax of Basic. It is a kind of peculiar 
editing. It's not really an editor, but a 
kind of mixture. In a Basic environment 
many things go on under the cover of 
which you are not aware as a beginner 
programmer. You are able to write a few 
things, get some answers and write some 
more and make your changes quickly. 

Basic is particularly easy to get into 
and Pascal is hard. It has nothing to do 
with the language. The languages are really 
structurally very similar. 



If you can write a 

program that fits on the 

screen of your 

computer, there is 

absolutely no reason to 

do it in Pascal. 



D.A.: Why would someone want to use 
Pascal? 

A.L.: For a short, quick and dirty program, 
they shouldn't use Pascal. If they are trying 
to get an answer and they can do it. my 
rule of thumb is: if you can write a program 
that fits on the screen of your computer, 
there is absolutely no reason to do it in 
Pascal. It doesn't make any sense. If, on 
the other hand, your program is going to 
grow into four or five or ten screen fulls, 
probably Pascal is a good choice among 
languages because you can read what you 
wrote. You can follow the logic more 
clearly. If you come back a month later 
and try to make a little change in a Basic- 
program that is 100-200 lines long, you 
have to read it really carefully, and watch 
all the GOTOs and all the line number 
references. You can't just pick out a block 
of 10 lines and say "Gee, I know how that 
works. I can make a change because I 
know with confidence how that section 
works." In a structured language like Pascal, 
you can indeed read a block without 
looking at the context at all. You can say. 
"I know exactly how these ten lines work, 
and if I make this change, in high confi- 
dence I know that it won't have side 
effects." That's the big thing. I think that's 
the bottom line. 

118 



I0E30J 



D.A.: You've been comparing Pascal with 
Basic but isn't it more closely related to 
Algol? 

A.L.: It derives from Algol. You can see 
all kinds of Algol-like ideas in Pascal. 
That's its closest relative. Basic is derived 
from Algol too. When Kemeny and Kurtz 
put Basic together they were very much 
influenced by Algol 60. More so than 
Fortran. Fortran had some real problems 
that Basic was supposed to resolve; the 
formatting of outputting is the most obvious 
one. The Basic FOR loop is more like the 
Algol FOR than it is like the Fortran 
FOR. In Fortran, the FOR loop gets 
executed once no matter what. (Or it did 
until recently.) The Basic FOR loop was 
devised so that it didn't do that. Unfortu- 
nately the people at Microsoft never 
seemed to get that point. They made their 
Basic FOR loop into somethng that is like 
the old buggy Fortran FOR loop, the one 
that makes you go through it whether or 
not you are supposed to. 
D.A.: What do you think the future of 
languages is going to be? Will there be 
many new ones? 

A.L.: There probably will. I also think 
that languages are getting more complex 
as people realize the variety of different 
things that computers can do. I think it 
will probably take a different kind of a 
language to handle parallel processing. 
What we are seeing right now is languages 
that are really designed to do one thing 
after another. That's been reasonable 
because the processor has been an expen- 
sive part, but today you can buy a 6502 
for about $7 or $8. Imagine a computer 
that has 100 or even 1000 of those. What 
kind of language does it take to define a 
task that might be carried out by any of 
100 processors at the same time; or at a 
time you may not even know about or 
specify. What kind of language does it 
take to do that? It's very different from 
languages that are basically sequential. 
D.A.: Do you think it will be more like 
some of the things that Carnegie-Mellon 
is doing in which, if a processor is unable 
to do a job. it calls on another and another. 
etc.? Or more like Smalltalk? 
A.L.: I don't know. Smalltalk assumes 
that there is only one processor, but 
conceptually there are a bunch of different 
actors. The language is closer to the kind 
of computer system that is likely to be 
around for the next ten years than the 
computer system that the Smalltalk 
researchers are designing. There probably 
will be a more appropriate language 
development than sequential languages. 
My own notion is that as multiple pro- 
cessors become possible and feasible 
economically that one will have to start 
to think of internal computer management 
systems similarly to corporate managment 

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Luehrmann, continued... 

systems. You must allow a certain amount 
of autonomy and lack of information down 
below to get the job done. Then you look 
once in a while to see if the job got done 
and once in a while you fire a processor, 
because it's just not doing the job. That's 
a silly idea, but it's probably not that silly 
after all. If you tried to analyze what it 
would take to have truly centralized control 
of a computer system that had 1000 
processors and just start counting the 
number of wires that would go from each 
processor to all the rest you realize that 
you couldn't build a computer like that. 
You are forced into autonomy, letting 
processors run by themselves, and checking 
up on them once in a while. You are also 
forced into the lack of being absolutely 
sure that the job ever gets done. What 
large company really knows if the job 
they are doing is really getting done? It 
drives the mathmetician crazy because 
he can't prove anything except in a 
statistical sense. 

The complexity issue is a major one 
today. There are scores of problems that 
you just can't solve in any absolute sense 
because of the inherent complexity at 
hand. But on the other hand, you can get 
by pretty well with solutions about which 
you can establish proof. I think to make 
really smart computer systems, we are 
going to have to tolerate much more 
uncertainty in terms of proof than we 
have previously considered. That flies in 
the face of all tradition in the proof of a 
algorithm and proof of correctness that 
has given us such nice structured languages 
like Pascal. 

D.A.: It flies in the face of all the computer 
scientists too. and the fundamental design 
of computers which aren't designed for 
the partial or imprecise solution. 

A.L.: On the other hand, without compu- 
ters we have had to get by with people 
and their decisions. We can't prove any- 
thing about how people arrive at decisions 
and by and large they have done pretty 
well. Our model of intelligence is the human 
being. Artificial intelligence is trying to 
make computers as good as people. It 
may be to get there the designs will have 
to relax a bit and permit error. That may 
be the only way to get to true intelligence. 
True intelligence sees things that aren't 
really there and that creates theories. 
Theory is always more than the fact. Any 
scientific theory claims things to be true 
that are far in excess of the number of 
experiments that have been carried out. 
Having that theory is already a leap of 
the imagination and if computers are going 
to be truly intelligent, we are going to 
have to permit them to go beyond that 
which is provable and let them do the 
kind of inductive thinking that people do. 
Seeing a pattern is inductive, the pattern 



isn't really there, it's an imposition on the 
data. It organizes it in a certain way. 
D.A.: Do you think computers can see 
such patterns? You're saying. "Okay, we'll 
design computer programs that come up 
with unproved and uncertain results and 
therefore they will have the same inductive 
reasoning powers that humans do." That's 
quite a leap. 

A.L.: Yes. and it's dangerous. We want 
to be able to pull the plug if we don't like 
what the computer comes up with. The 
inductive leap isn't all that different from 
seeing things that aren't there. It's true, 
nevertheless, that the way people make 
advances is by jumping way ahead of things 
that they can prove deductively. Suddenly 
seeing there's another way to organize 
the known facts. Saying. "Let's make that 
a law. Let's see how far we can go with 



People should always 

worry about any 

systems that pretend to 

be more Important than 

they are. 



this new theory." Then it goes for a while 
until another theory is proposed. The 
theory is always bigger than the facts. 
That is quite the opposite of what we do 
with computers. We want computers to 
be rigorous logicians, deductive, deductive, 
deductive. We want to be able to prove 
everything from the first principles. Com- 
puters do things very differently from the 
way people do. A truly intelligent, auto- 
matic system is going to have to be allowed 
a lot more freedom. 

D.A.: Do you think people will allow it 
enough freedom to make a decision that 
really counts, or will we think of computers 
as dolphins, something that we try to 
understand, or more likely, will we think 




o 



>-<0 



<r> 



of them as slaves? After all. we've built 
them and they must do our bidding. 
A.L.: It depends on the quality of the 
theories they - computers - come up with. 
If they are better than the ones people 
come up with, we might have a little more 
respect for the computer. That's still far 
down the road, and I can't imagine that 
actually coming into being for a long time. 
People should always worry about any 
systems (machine systems, government 
systems, etc.) that pretend to be more 
important than they are. You have to be 
ready to pull the plug on all of these and 
not trust them all the time because they 
may be wrong. When we permit computers 
to be wrong, we have to also be prepared 
to be very critical and pull the plug. 
D.A.: Earlier today we were talking about 
the Ada language. I believe that this is a 
case where it may not be good to let the 
computer be wrong by choice: where being 
wrong because the program wasn't 
debugged or because the language itself 
wasn't totally correct is not at all desirable. 
Furthermore. DoD plans to use Ada to 
control all of our weapons systems, a 
herculean task. But no matter how huge 
the programming job. I also would rather 
not see a computer leaping to intuitive 
case of launching a missile. I would side 
with that point of view, 
theories of how best to deploy these 
weapons. 

A.L.: That's a very good example. If you 
launch a missile you want it to go and 
explode where it was programmed to go 
and not some other place. That's a supreme 
case that cries out for provability. In a 
case of launching a missle. I would side 
with that point of view. 

On the other hand, much of what 
happens in life is not subject to those 
same laws of provability. We. in fact, live 
with systems that are not subject to that 
same criteria and we suffer for it. We 
have major wars every few decades and 
lots of people die because we don't have 
that same confidence and provability in 
the social systems we live with. On the 
other hand there are productive systems 
that plant food and harvest crops, etc. 
D.A.: I would hardly say that those 
systems, mechanical or whatever, are 
responsible for wars. 
A.L.: I agree. However. I maintain that 
the non-computer systems that we live 
with such as government, law. education 
and those many other complex systems 
work for the most part. With the number 
of people in the universe, it's hard to 
imagine how any centralized control system 
would work any better than these decen- 
tralized systems. Nevertheless, every so 
often they go crazy and awful things happen 
like war. It's that kind of tension that I 
see between systems that are semi- 
autonomous and once in a while go crazy 
and about which it is hard to establish 



120 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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prcx)f versus systems that are top-down, 
totally logical, and terribly complex. The 
more tight the organization is the more 
complex the system is. It may just grind 
to a halt because we can never get all the 
information around all the actors in a 
coordinated way. I think complexity forces 
autonomy. The more complex things are 
the more it is necessary to divide the 
system up into autonomous units just to 
be able to cut the wires and let them run 
independently (sometimes in conflict). 
There has to be a way to resolve conflict 
as soon as you have autonomy. 
D.A.: This sort of brings you full circle 
back to Pascal. 

A.L.: Yes. Pascal is a kind of exercise in 
a purist notion of top-down— logical and 
with tremendous clarity. Yet you must 
wonder whether it can handle truly com- 
plex problems. 

D.A.: Thinking of Ada again. I find it 
amazing that the Department of Defense 
would switch their gargantuan computer 
effort into an entirely new language. 



Kids should have a 

good command of their 

native language and a 

command of one or 

more computer 

languages. 



A.L.: Yes. but they did the same with 
Cobol. They defined it from the ground 
up. Classified it and suddenly it came into 
being. The thing is that people have very 
little experience with real-time program- 
ming environments. I think that is probably 
what worried Hoare.* People were attempt- 
ing to specify a language without having 
had prior experience with it. To nail things 
down in a standards document that are 
not related to everyone's common experi- 
ence is risky. The standards should come 
after you know what you are doing. You 
discover your errors and find standards 
are needed. But to use a standards docu- 
ment to invent a new thing is a chancey 
proposition. 

D.A.: With your new venture in Computer 
Literacy, do you have some thoughts on 
what children should learn first? I don*t 

•Turing Award winner Prof. C.A.R. Hoare 
says, "For none of the evidence we have 
so far can inspire confidence that this 
language — Ada — has avoided any of the 
problems that have afflicted other complex 
language projects of the past." 



necessarily mean a language. In the future, 
kids will be growing up and dealing with 
machines, computers, and technology in 
general. What should they do to learn to 
use it efficiently as well as to just cope? 
A.L.: First of all. they should learn how 
to write and express their ideas in a form 
that a computer can carry out. That is 
the essential thing. Kids should have a 
good command of their native language. 
English or whatever, and a command of 
one or more computer languages. Which 
one or ones is not terribly important. To 
be able to express an idea in the form of 
an algorithm is the main ideal. It's a new 
idea and didn't really exist in the practical 
sense before the computer. To me the 
notion of computer literacy is a fairly 
simple one; it is modelled after literacy in 
your own language. It's the ability to be 







able to express an idea and not just know 
some trivial words about computers. 
Computer literacy is the ability to read 
and write. Write for the computer and 
read what other people have written for 
the computer and criticize those ideas 
and prove them. In other words, to express 
a thought in the form of a computer 
program. 

D.A.: When should kids start to get into 
this? 

A.L.: As soon as they are ready. I think 
kids are clearly developmentally ready by 
the time they get into seventh or eighth 
grade. Some kids are ready before that. 
But surely by seventh or eighth grade 
kids can handle the levels of abstraction 
necessary to deal with a computer. To 
put that in perspective, the levels of 
abstraction are. when dealing with a 
computer, lower than the levels of abstrac- 
tion needed to do algebra. If anything. 



computing ought to be a prerequisite to 
algebra. However, in many schools, algebra 
is a prerequisite to computing. I feel a kid 
develops the primitive ideas of algebra 
much better after working with a computer 
than the other way around. 
D.A.: Do you think our Computers for 
Kids books ( 1st to 4th grade) are starting 
too early? 

A.L.: No. I think it is a good idea for kids 
to know as much as possible as soon as 
possible. They're going to ask questions 
and want to know what computers are. 
They will see them everywhere. But I 
think that mastering a vocabulary about 
computers isn't terribly important. It's 
hearsay knowledge; it's not knowledge of 
the thing itself. Whenever I think about 
computers I think about learning how to 
ride a bicycle. It's different but there are 
some deep similarities in that a kid who is 
in the first grade can't ride a bicycle but 
he has bicycle knowledge because he sees 
other kids riding bicycles and he needs a 
vocabulary to describe that. "That is a 



I think that English 

teachers would be 

much better teachers of 

computers than math 

teachers. 



bicycle. See Johnny ride the bicycle. See 
Johnny fall off the bicycle." They know 
those words: that's important. But they 
can't ride the bicycle yet. They're not 
bicycle-literate. They have hearsay know- 
ledge about bicycles. They become bicycle 
literate when they can get on the bicycle 
and ride around. That's what we want 
kids to do with computers. Get on the 
thing and ride it around. Make it do things 
for them. 

D.A.: How do you see computers versus 
calculators? 

A.L.: Totally different. Calculators are a 
math instrument for arithmetic. Computers 
do billions of other things. We make a big 
mistake if we use computers to teach 
math. Computers are really ways to express 
ideas. Computing is more like English or 
like a natural language than it is like 
math. I think English teachers would be 
much better teachers of computers than 
math teachers. They would ask the kids 
to rewrite; they'd say "Gee, Johnny that 
stinks. That computer may understand 
what you wrote, but I don't understand it. 
Rewrite it. make it clear." It's really not 
math. Math almost could be left out of 
computing. A good introduction course 
in computing probably wouldn't even 



122 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



deal with math problems until very late in 
the sequence. 

D.A.: Should there be computers in the 
ideal classroom? Should kids have them 
available in their study periods or homes? 
When should kids use computers? 
A.L.: I think there should be a computer 
course that should be part of schooling. 
At a certain time in a kids life, he would 
take computing. The same way he takes 
math, English, science, social studies, etc. 
He should certainly have an intensive 
exposure in a computing course. I see 
that as a preliminary experience to com- 
puter uses in a lot of other courses. Once 
the kids have that knowledge and once 
they know how to use the computer to 
solve problems, then the other courses in 
the curriculum should take advantage of 
this. Much as a history course takes 
advantage of a kid's ability to write. For 
the same reason a science teacher ought 
to give a programming problem to a kid 
to teach him to express an idea in science 
as another way to get that idea across. I 
see a structured use of computers in a 
computer course and a less formal use in 
other courses. The kids are going to have 
computers at home because they are cheap. 
The kids may be doing their homework 



at home on the computer for their classes 
at school. 

D.A.: About school computers, some 
people have said, "Everybody should have 
their own." Other people have come out 
very strongly in favor of teams of two or 
three kids on a computer where they get 
problems to solve and can help each other 
solve them. What do you think? 
A.L.: I've seen it work well both ways. 
The number sharing one machine can be 
limiting. You can get about three people 
at a machine; one at the keyboard, one 
on the left, one on the right. If there's a 
fourth, forget it. That person is out. Even 
with three, socially, there is usually an 
odd man out. Two seems to work reason- 
ably well. I think that is an effective way 
of dealing with a limited amount of 
equipment. But when you get down to it. 



W 



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the kid who is moving ahead pretty well, 
moves ahead even faster, if it's one-on- 
one. But the kid who is not quite with it 
may drift behind. I think we need more 
experience in this area to be sure. Some- 
where between one and two seems to be 
the right number, three is tolerable, and 
four is impossible. 

D.A.: What are you going to do with 
Computer Literacy as a company or an 
organization? 

A.I,.: Specifically, we want to produce 
curriculum materials to teach computing 
as a regular school subject. That is our 
problem right now. The top item on our 
agenda is to create a course which intro- 
duces computing as a regular subject in 
the school— probably around the high- 
school or junior high-school level. The 
thing is that computers have come on the 
scene faster than the generations go and 
there are many older folks who are dis- 
covering they can do their jobs better if 
they know more about computers and 
their applications. We are also working 
with adults in their professional activities 
to teach them about computers and their 
aplications. 

D.A.: Everyone at Creative Computing 
and I personally wish you the best! Q 



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NOVEMBER 1981 



123 




Like cleaning the leaves from the gutters, 
learning Pascal was something I kept 
planning to do and kept putting off. When 
the boss put three Pascal books on my 
desk, along with a request for a review. I 
knew the time had come. Two of the 
books were specifically for Apple Pascal 
while the third took a more general 
approach but leaned toward the Apple. 
The problem with covering three books 
is that while I could read the first as a 
rank beginner, there would be no way 
short of self-induced amnesia to view the 
next two in the same light. With this 
Heisenbergian dilemma in mind. I randomly 
selected Apple Pascal— A Hands-On 
Approach (Arthur Luehrmann and Herbert 
Packham. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 
New York. 430pp.. S14.95) and began a 
journey through what some claim is the 
language of the future. 

Getting Started 

After a brief introduction, the authors 
guide the reader through the process of 
booting the language from disk. The book 
is aimed at users with a single drive, but 
contains an appendix covering any differ- 
ences encountered in a dual-drive system. 
It soon became obvious that the authors 
are doing more than teaching a language: 
they are patiently showing the novice how 
to use the Apple Pascal system. It definitely 
is a hands-on approach. The reader is 
shown not only the correct procedures, 
but also various ways to crash the system. 
The authors suggest various steps to try. 
allowing the user to lose a file or hang the 
system. Once all is lost, they explain what 
happened and what steps are required to 
get back into the system. This better- 
now-than-later approach is good. Rather 
than just cautioning against something, 
they let you make the mistake. Pavlov 
would approve. 



Within the first few chapters, the reader 
is entering programs into the system and 
learning to use the powerful editing features 
of Apple Pascal. The early programs are 
simple examples of how to put text on the 
screen. While later examples grow in 
complexity, none is so long as to discourage 
the slow typist. In many cases, the authors 
first present a short program and then 
give several modifications or additions 
that can be entered through the Pascal 
Editor. Each chapter ends with a summary 
of what was covered, followed by a short 
quiz, giving the reader a chance to make 
sure he hasn't been lost along the way. 

Throughout the book, the authors make 
almost no mention of Basic, working on 
the assumption that Pascal is the reader's 
first language. This approach seems to 
work. 

After introducing a few elementary 
Pascal commands, there is a chapter on 
generating music using routines from the 
Applestuff library. Applestuff contains 
procedures dealing with sound, paddles, 
and other Apple-specific features. More 
commands are introduced, appearing in 
logical order as they are needed to expand 
or improve the sample programs. Another 
highlight of the book is the illustrations, 
which show exactly what appears on the 
screen. In this way, the reader knows 
whether he has followed the example cor- 
rectly. 

After the music section, the book moves 
into one of the major features of Pascal — 
defining procedures. A procedure is a set 
of commands that can be called from 
other parts of the program (or even 
referenced recursively). While the concept 
is similar to Basic subroutines, there are 
differences. The next chapter introduces 
functions, which are the other main building 
blocks of Pascal programs. After that, the 
book goes strictly Apple again with a 
section on graphics. 

At no time do the authors throw too 
much at the reader. Everything appears 
when it is needed, and everything is clearly 
explained. The above covers the first seven 
chapters. There are seven more, covering 



branching, string variables, while loops, 
data types and sets, arrays, records and 
files, and many other features of Pascal. 
The final chapter tackles the tough topic 
of recursion. 

By choice, the authors did not cover 
the GOTO statement. In some circles, 
this statement is frowned upon. A few 
other portions of the language aren't 
touched, but nothing crucial is missing. I 
am impressed with the book, and feel it 
gives an excellent introduction to the Apple 
Pascal System. While it does not encompass 
every single aspect of the language, it 
contains eveything the beginner needs. 

Next up was Pascal Primer (David Fox 
and Mitchell Waite. Howard W. Sams & 
Co.. Inc.. Indianapolis. IN. 206pp.. $16.95). 
The book has much to offer in the way of 
eye appeal. It is sprinkled liberally with 
cartoons and all listings are highlighted in 
orange. The topic is mostly standard UCSD 
Pascal, with a few mentions of specific 
Apple features. Since standardization was 
the goal, nothing is said about the Apple 
Editor or Filer. Thus the book shouldn't 
be used as an Apple user's sole source of 
information. On the other hand, those 
who use this book will be able to write 
code that will run on any Pascal system. 
The authors mention that the book should 
be used in conjunction with the manuals 
accompanying any specific system. 
Throughout, they point out any non- 
standard features, warning the reader about 
commands that might defeat transport- 
ability. 

The approach here is somewhat con- 
centrated. In one chapter, for example, 
six variable types are covered. Each is 
explained, though some are not used until 
later chapters. This concentrated approach 
is good for reference or for a second 
source of learning, but a bit tough on the 
novice. It's a bit easier to learn one or 
two variable types at a time than to see 
them all at once. The book is rich in 
sample programs. Unfortunately, the 
sample program often appears on the page 
after the explanation, necessitating a lot 
of page turning during the learning 
process. 



124 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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CIRCLE 209 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Three Roads, continued... 

Though the book begins with short 
programs, some of the later examples are 
rather long. The long programs, however, 
do present useful examples. One is a loan- 
payment program that, in its final version, 
takes up seven pages. Another, for tic- 
tac-toe. is twelve pages long. The merit to 
these programs is that they are developed 
step by step, giving the reader an insight 
into not just the langauge, but also the 
logic behind the language. 

Several useful appendices are included. 
One explains techniques for interfacing 
assembly language to Pascal. Sample 
programs show how to simulate the PEEK 
and POKE functions available in Basic. 

In general Pascal Primer contains a lot 
of information and an admirable aim 
toward transportable code. While it might 
not be the ideal book for those who own 
the Apple Pascal System, it is good for 
those who are interested in an overall 
view of the language. 

Third in the line came Pascal Program- 
ming for the Apple (T.G. Lewis, Reston 
Publishing Co., Inc.. Reston VA, 234pp., 
$12.95 in paperback). Here the feeling 
was overenthusiasm. The author seemed 
so excited about Pascal that he threw 



everything at the reader at once. He always 
seemed three steps ahead of the reader, 
making it easy to become lost. Even with 
the advantage of having just read two 
other Pascal books. I had a hard time 
keeping up with this one. The book also 
lost touch with the user at times. When 
statements requiring the left bracket were 
first mentioned, for example, no explana- 
tion of how to get the symbol from the 
Apple keyboard was included. 

This is not to say that the book is without 
merit. It contains a great deal of informa- 
tion, including handy summaries of intrinsic 
functions, compact examples of the results 
of various Boolean expressions, and good 
reference information on the graphics 
commands. Those who are familiar with 
Pascal will find much of value here. But 
the beginner should not make this book 
his first stop on the road. 

Of the three. Apple Pascal— A Hands- 
On Approach is the best buy for the Apple 
owner. It could even be used by someone 
without a Pascal system at hand. The 
only problem is that there are times when 
the authors suggest things for the reader 
to try without explaining what the result 
will be. This works well when the reader 
has a system available, but might be a bit 
frustrating for those who don't. Still, this 
is a minor disadvantage when compared 



with the high quality of the book, and the 
book shouldn't be faulted for this since it 
is designed for hands-on learning. 

The real test was whether I had learned 
enough to do a program on my own. For 
a test. I tried that old classic, the bouncing 
ball. Keeping in mind the procedure- 
oriented nature of Pascal. 1 wrote routines 
to draw a box, to determine new coordi- 
nates, and to change delta-x and delta-y 
whenever the user pressed a paddle button. 
A small driver at the bottom did the work 
of calling the procedures, and a While 
loop kept the whole thing running until a 
key was pressed. The program was short 
and didn't take long to enter. My initial 
pleasure with the ease of the editor faded 
slightly as I had to recompile the program 
for every syntax error. I had been spoiled 
by Basic and assembly language. In Basic, 
you can just fix a syntax error and get on 
with things. With machine language, the 
assembler catches syntax problems. Here, 
I was jumping from editor to compiler, 
running through the whole thing again 
for every forgotten semicolon. Luckily, 
besides the syntax errors, the program 
worked well enough for me to feel I had 
at least a grasp of what Pascal was all 
about. The books, especially Apple 
Pascal— A Hands-On Approach, had gotten 
me on the road. D 



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Mail Chauvinism: 

The Magicians, the Snark 
and the Camel red /**<>,. 



It may not look it, but much of the action in computers has already ended. In the next 
decade they 'II simply stamp out machines like those we know already though with new inter- 
connections, at lower and lower prices and with, we hope, better and better software. 

But the real action now is in Networks, Protocols, Standards, Encryption and Databases; 
and at least one war of shadows in Washington may determine our freedoms as users and 
citizens. And you may already have won! But eternal vigilance is the price of freedom, so 
read carefully. 



I. The Snark 

In Lewis Carroll's epic poem, "The 
Hunting of the Snark," a party of very 
dissimilar Victorian gentlemen all go 
off to catch something called a 
Snark. The real catch, however, 
is that though all think they are 
after the same thing, each has an 
utterly different preconception of what a 
"Snark" must be, an image conjured up 
from each man's background and precon- 
ceptions. 

This allegory will be found suggestive 
in many branches of the computer field. 
At the Electronic Mail and Message Con- 
ference, its relevance was particularly 
striking. 

The Electronic Mail and Message (hereafter 
M&M) Conference was held in Washington 
on December 11 and 12. 1980— the waning days of the 
Carter administration. Sponsored by numerous federal 
agencies and committees of Congress, and by AFIPS, the 
computer society of all computer societies, it took place in 
a huge oak-panelled room in the Sam Rayburn Office 
Building. The room was called, by a sign on the door. 
"Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce." 




128 



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Mail Chauvinism, continued... 

The conference began in an atmosphere 
of excitement and wound down from there. 
When it began, at 8:00 a.m. Thursday, 
the room was tense and crowded, packed 
with hundreds of people, and the rows of 
officials' chairs that stared down at us 
were mostly full. But the next morning 
only half as many came, and only a few 
were left at the close. 

But the beginning started in a crackling 
atmosphere. Middle-aged executives looked 
quizzical, elegantly-dressed young lawyers 
grinned smugly, nervous reporters looked 
cowed. ("What do Electronic Mail and 
Message Systems have to do with newsT 
pleaded their eyes.) Almost everybody 
was well-dressed and had short hair. Many 
or most of the technical speakers were 
bearded, but few of the audience. 

There were some exhibits downstairs 
of on-line systems (unfortunately not 
including Arpanent, which was often 
mentioned). Tasteless lunches were served 
by listless waiters, though a marvelous 
open-bar buffet miraculously appeared 
after the first day. 

Mainly the conference was a rapid-fire 
succession of speakers, tightly paced from 
8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. for two days— a 
note-taker's nightmare. In the ensuing 
months I believe I have been able to 
figure out the major themes and issues, 
even though the speakers were randomly 
sequenced and spoke in different 
tongues. 

Rather than tell about the speakers in 
the order they spoke, requiring you to 
untangle many separate threads, I will 
describe as coherent sequences various 
stories that actually came through to us 
piecemeal and in random order. In this 
article I will try to present the new things 
I learned and the principal issues, as 
expressed by some of the strong person- 
alities present. 

Several different schools of "electronic 
mail" were present at the M&M Con- 
ference, though not all were spoken for 
from the platform. 

Two main views were heard, though 
there are several more. One was the idea 
that electronic mail is in some sense a 
simple replacement of paper mail, which 
the Post Office speakers seemed to think. 
The other view sees "electronic mail" as 
just one facet of the coming new world of 
transmissive computing in which a lucky 
few already live. 

The speakers can be divided into several 
groups. Outstanding were the three I call 
"the magicians," whose presentations of a 
computer tomorrow went far beyond 
electronic messages, though electronic 
messages formed an integral part of their 
presentations. Another group, the "pack- 
eters," explained the various conceptual 
levels of packet communications and 




packet networks— the highways, and rules 
of the road, for this tomorrow. Another 
group spoke of dividing the electronic 
spectrum and when you should buy satel- 
lites; regretfully I must omit discussing 
them. 

Then came representatives and spokes- 
men for the U.S. Postal Service, essentially 
explaining why they felt a need and a 
right to control electronic mail as they 
saw it. 

And, finally, numerous "regulators"— 
government lawyers and administrators- 
told us about regulating the spectrum 
(which I must skip) and regulating private 
services and the post office (which must 
be covered). 



Almost everybody was 

well-dressed and had 

short hair. 



A surprising political issue surfaced at 
the conference: the role demanded by 
the U.S. Postal Service in a new world 
they claim to understand but may not. 
What the Postal Service wants to do might 
narrow and restrict what you can do in 
the future with your computer. At present 
there is a compromise, but these political 
issues may resurface at any time. 

The lines appear to be tightly drawn. 
On the second afternoon a lady in the 
audience told me she was the only remain- 
ing attendee from the Postal Service— the 
other three had left. 

Representative Rose 

In a way the first luncheon speaker and 
his enthusiasms perfectly embodied the 
ideas and controversy of the conference. 
This was Representative Charles Rose (D., 
N.C.), who wore a striking plaid jacket. 
He heads the Policy Group on Information 
and Computers of the Committee on House 
Administration of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, and is chairman of the House 
Agriculture Subcommittee on Dairy and 
Poultry. 

130 



A computer enthusiast. Rep. Rose was 
introduced as having a "split screen bulletin 
board." Congress, he told us, has budgeted 
an "informational terminal" for every 
member of Congress. The two approved 
brands are Hazeltine and TI. A portable 
is given out only if the member signs a 
paper "agreeing to be trained in its use." 
Freshmen congresspersons have found this 
very appealing. Rep. Rose told us that at 
the next Congressional seating, the House 
would get a full view of electronic mail— 
now that "Old Stonehead," whose name I 
did not catch, was retiring from some 
post or other. 

Many letters pass between congressmen, 
he told us, particularly "Dear Colleague" 
letters about their individual concerns, 
that go out to all fellow members. A 
representative reads the ones from certain 
people but not from others, he explained, 
and he would like to be able to automate 
this— including the screening out of the 
unwanted material. He is also interested 
in forms of teleconferencing for members: 
he would like to "create an electronic 
place where we can meet as friends in 
private." 

But he was concerned for the use of 
these new media back in the districts. "I 
want Granny, at home, with her video 
text to be able to use this too...." And he 
would like to see public-access write-your- 
congressman terminals. 

Unexpectedly. Rep. Rose spoke on what 
would be the political issue of the con- 
ference. "The U.S. Congressman has many 
friends," he intoned, "and one of these in 
the U.S. Postal Service." And so. he 
explained simply, he wants Electronic Mail 
to be beneficial to the Post Office. We 
will return to this point later. 

The Wizards 

During the opening remarks, Bob Taylor 
sat and listened like a college president: 
his gaze one of Olympian calm and warmth: 
musing, sympathetic but impassive. He 
looks still in his thirties, but can't be, 
since he was head of Arpa/Ipt over a 
decade ago. 

Taylor is manager of the Computer 

Science Laboratory at Xerox PARC. The 

people there do the most powerful and 

exciting things in the whole computer 

CONTINUED ON PC 134 

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CIRCLE 177 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Regulation: Not What You'd Expect 



The Regulators 

The Postal Service representatives 
showed us. in the flesh, a government 
bureaucracy in its struggle for power. You 
don't often meet bureaucracy as them, in 
person. But surprises also came from other 
government bureaucrats at the M&M Con- 
ference. 

You've heard about too much regulation 
out of Washington? Well, so have they, 
these bureaucrats who spoke at the M&M 
Conference, and it is astonishing to see 
and hear half-a-dozen administrators and 
regulators presenting different aspects of 
how they hope to avoid regulating private 
industry, in the electronic network business, 
but how they hope to regulate the Post 
Office, to keep it from getting out of 
hand. 

The Post Office wants to take over 
point-to-point electronic mail, or at the 
very least compete with private enterprise 
message services, which are already offering 
total point-to-point packet services and 
more. And new "value-added" services, 
such as data banks, storage and retrieval 
services, are competing with the very 
packet networks that carry their services. 

So we have a complex picture, one 
obviously ripe for government regulation. 
But who will be regulated, why. and in 
what way? 

While the impact of the new Reagan 
administration may be hard to assess, it 
would seem to favor private enterprise 
and less incursion by the Post Office. 
However, it might also favor less regulation, 
and it is regulation that holds the Postal 
Service in check. 

It's a complex picture, and nobody really 
knows what's going to happen, but in the 
following I'll cover what came up during 
the Mail and Message conference. 

What Holds the Post Office in Check? 

The Postal Service is held in check by 
the Postal Rate Commission, which over- 
sees it. And the PRC. in turn, has a 
consumer interest office which noticed 
the problems with the original ECOM 
proposal. 

The FCC, too. has oversight over the 
Postal Service, simply because it has control 
over interstate electronic carrier services 
and radio licensing. ("They're going to 
have to get their licenses somewhere," 
observed an FCC commissioner archly.) 

Congress, of course, has the power to 
pass laws that reduce or expand the Postal 
Service role. (But once laws are passed, 
of course, it is generally up to executive 
agencies to interpret them, including those 
watchdogs already mentioned.) 

Theory of Common Carriers 

Both private services and the Post Office. 



if they offer point-to-point electronic 
communication, fall under the heading of 
"common carriers," and thus fall subject 
to the Federal Communications Commis- 
sion. Thus, some common-carrier theory 
is in order. 

A common carrier is somebody who 
offers to provide some kind of transporta- 
tion to anyone. (You are probably wonder- 
ing when the term "common carrier" 
originated in written law. 1930? No. 1890? 
No. 1348? Yes.) Modern regulation of 
common carriers began in the nineteenth 
century, under the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, principally because the rail- 
roads were being blatantly unfair in their 
rate structure. 

The common carrier must provide 
service to all customers who request it, 
with no undue discrimination in pricing 
or other conditions of service. In order to 
recognize improper pricing, however, 
regulators must investigate the relation 
between the cost of providing a service, 
and the price of that service based on 
that cost. (Otherwise a carrier could gouge 
on one service and provide another at a 
low cost. Note that in ordinary business 
this is called a "loss leader," and perfectly 
acceptable, but in a regulated industry, it 
is called cross-subsidized, meaning that it 
is actually being paid for out of profits 
from something else. And it is illegal, 
because it distorts the cost of transporta- 
tion, a fundamental necessity for all. 




Thus, published "tariffs." or tables of 
rates, state the precise conditions of service, 
and the carrier must keep up these services 
for these rates indefinitely until he is given 
permission not to do so. (Note that with 
published tariffs, not only is what you see 
what you get, but what you see is pretty 
much all you get, since any enhancements 
or additional service would fall outside 
the permitted tariffs.) 

A gloomy business, this, utterly insulating 
suppliers from the market forces which 
make our economy otherwise so dynamic. 
But generally regarded as very necessary. 

In this century, especially through the 
Communications Act of 1934. common 
carrier doctrine has given the Federal 
Communications Commission regulatory 
power over such services as telephone, 
telegraph and radio station, much as other 
agencies oversee railroads and freight 
haulers. 

The foregoing theory of common carriers 
was presented at the conference in a 
fascinating talk given by Philip Verveer, 
a lawyer at the FCC. Verveer. silverhaired. 



seems generally depressed and talks rapidly 
in a low voice, but with such directness 
and cogency as to get very full attention. 
There had been no applause at the con- 
ference till after his speech. 

In his summary. Verveer expressed his 
personal opinions of the upcoming prob- 
lems. What then must the FCC be con- 
cerned with in the new services? Three 
things. 

1. Possible cross-subsidy. If a common 
carrier, such as the telephone company, 
or even the Post Office, proposes a new 
electronic service, they must prove the 
service can stand on its feet without being 
subsidized out of other profits. 

2. "Pipeline infrastructure. " The new 
basic transportation services, such as Tele- 
net, must be regulated in the standard 
fashion. 

3. Enhanced services. The question is 
whether enhancements to that pipeline 
service— new features, new software on 
top. connections to other programs and 
Licklider's showers of sparks— need to be 
regulated. The FCC, answers Verveer, 
proposes a double standard for these new 
services, depending on whether they're 
offered by old companies or new. He 
proposes only light regulatory oversight 
over enhanced services by recognized 
common carriers (read: Ma Bell, P.O.). in 
particular to make sure there is no cross- 
subsidization. 

But the question, then, is will the new 
enhancers be common carriers? 

Verveer saw this as "metaphysics." If a 
common carrier is an "entity found in 
nature." then you ought to know it when 
you see it. but if the notion is an arbitrary 
one to be applied by the FCC. then the 
FCC in its wisdom can leave most of 
them alone. 

And that is his position: A common 
carrier in electronic hyperspace is whatever 
we say it is. and we don't intend to see 
any. regulating neither resale nor enhance- 
ment. 

Verveer stressed that these were only 
his opinions. Nevertheless the arguments 
gained stature from both his keen presenta- 
tion and his position as Chief of the 
Common Carrier Bureau of the FCC. 

Is It Under The Tent? 

Henry Geller, of the National Telecom- 
munications and Information Authority, 
Department of Commerce, somehow 
reminded me of Henry Morgan. I think it 
was a two-level mischievous smile and a 
gallus-snapping manner. 

Our policy, said Geller, is "to promote 
competition whenever possible," so as to 
foster a true market place and so businesses 
don't have to keep asking federal agencies 
what is legal. The issue, however, is what 



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CIRCLE 251 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Regulation, continued. 



should the Postal Service do in -Electronic 
Mail. 

The current "uneasy truce"— ECOM — 
has the Post Office doing only paper output 
and end delivery, not electronic output; 
but Geller considers that "inefficient." The 
possibility remains that this compromise 
will fall apart: "The Camel's nose is under 
the tent," says Geller. Geller further 
predicts that Congress will let the matter 
slide, and the problem will end up in the 
courts. 

Geller's argument is an administrative 
one. If the Post Office makes an end-to- 
end system, it's a "hybrid" situation where 
government is competing with private 



industry. It is neither free enterprise nor 
the governmental "Postal Telephone and 
Telegraph" system of Europe. 

But if that happens, end-to-end service 
head-to-head with private carriers, how 
can you have simplification and deregula- 
tion? If the government is operating a 
business, how can the real businesses get 
a fair shake? Industry and government 
agencies have different motivations and 
"different ways of borrowing money." 

His position is that the Post Office ought 
to do physical delivery when people want 
it. and be hooked up for input from all 
nets, and that's it. But mainly for the sake 
of an uncomplicated regulatory picture. 



Geller was joined in his presentation 
by Richard Neustadt from the White House, 
a smoothie young lawyer type in a striped 
suit. 

On the camel issue. Neustadt was an 
optimist. The Post Office will never get 
into end-to-end transmission; the "camel's 
nose" model is wrong; the industry will 
never allow it. 

Interestingly, none of the regulators 
approached the problem of the Post Office 
from the point of view of the dangers of 
oversimplification and inflexibility. The 
Post Office's greatest threat may be in 
reducing the imagination and power of 
evolving services. (See "Humph. ") □ 



Mail Chauvinism, continued... 

community, and he is their shepherd. It is 
rather like a shepherd fondly inspecting a 
bleating flock that he addresses us. 

Taylor takes a poll of the group. Half 
the audience had used "electronic nets" 
(whatever they think they mean by that): 
but only a third had written a program. 
(This suggests that half scarcely knew 
what a computer was.) 

Onward nevertheless. Taylor explains 
that one of the special features of electronic 
messages is that they are read at the 
receiver's convenience, waiting somewhere 
till he is ready. And that since they are 
really brought to us by and through 
computers, message systems are "software- 
intensive," requiring programming develop- 
ment on a grand scale. 

He rolls the videotape. On screen we 
see Taylor at his Alto, the famous PARC 



"If you think about these 

as systems for moving 

strings of characters, 

you miss the point of 

their power. " 



hot minicomputer with the finely detailed 
screen. We see the screen divided into 
many fields, which part like the Red Sea 
as Taylor on the screen points first at one 
thing, then another. A prompt tells him 
that messages are waiting; he reads them. 




replies, acts, discards, causing various 
rearrangements of the screen with offhand 
magical passes of his hand. 

One note we see him read on the screen 
causes him to change a schedule; another 
he tells, effectively, "Go file yourself." 
One note he sends electronically to several 
other people, selecting them by flicking 
their names from a list that appears. 

Taylor explains as he goes. "My message 
system is much more than a message 
system." he understates. 

Fields of text rearrange themselves on 
the screen, compress, expand. Sometimes 
the moving cursor is a box. sometimes an 
hourglass, sometimes something else. So 
quickly and effortlessly do the messages 
come and go on Taylor's Alto screen, you 
hardly realize that the work you see him 
doing would be a storm of activity if he 
were shuffling actual paper. 

(The audience is studious but impassive. 
I get the feeling that only a few understand 
what they see — those who already know 
about it— but that the rest of the audience 
doesn't know what it's about and can't 
tell.) 

These messages we see the videotaped 
Taylor working with are not mere telegrams 
that go from one person to another and 
stop. Rather, he may search and scan 
through them, alter them, pass them on, 
or reply, with a flick of the wrist; they roll 
and fly before his face like the cards of a 
riverboat gambler. Some of them involve 
graphics and color and audio. "If you 
think about these as systems for moving 
strings of characters, you miss the point 
of their power," he says. 

The phrase "Office of the Future" has 
been bruited about a great deal in Xerox 
publicity, as in, "we're developing the Office 
of the Future at Xerox PARC," but of 
course who can agree on what that means? 
Yet here it is in front of us: the paper 
trivia-flows of the office are calmly con- 
trolled on the Flatland of the screen. I 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



don't know what the paperwallopers at 
Xerox Corporate think the Office of the 
Future may be. but I'll gladly settle for 
this one.* 

What we see Taylor working with is 
still, in fact, a world of documents, separate, 
potentially printable on paper. But here 
is the kicker. Less than 1% of the electronic 
messages at PARC, he tells us. ever get 
printed out. 

Wizard Two is Michael Dertouzous of 
MIT. He heads what used to be called 
Project MAC, where time-sharing began; 
now it has 300 employees and a more 
boring name, the Laboratory for Computer 
Science. He is tall, dashing, accented, ought 
to wear a cape. 

As computer prices go down 30% a 
year, he says, hidden computers will 
proliferate everywhere, just like the "hidden 
motors" that we know as hair dryers and 
such. 

He shows us screen-views of his own 
personal files: a schedule (which becomes 
a history file as it slides through the present), 
his list of associates and acquaintances 
(cross-filed by name and city, so he can 
fill his travels with companionship); his 
checkbook (which automatically categor- 
izes everything). 

And he shows us how message systems 
of the future might let us go shopping. 
Suppose he wants a certain kind of wallet. 
His computer now makes inquiries at 
various shopping data banks, looking for 
wallets of the right size and color, and 
makes notes on which ones come closest 
to the desired configuration. 

Wizard Three gives us a conceptual 
framework for thinking about this world. 
He is J.C.R. Licklider, called Lick by 
everybody. Warm and cheery. Lick is a 
founder of time-sharing, past director of 
Project MAC. and Arpa pioneer. (Starting 
up the computer work at Arpa. he financed 
Ivan Sutherland's Sketchpad.) One of the 
greats. 

Licklider foresees a world where "all 
intellectual functions arc well supported 
by computers." (Right now we have "access 
to gigabits through punybaud." but that 
will change.) 

Licklider's messages and examples on 
the screen involve fill-ins and subroutines 
and modelling. He shows how he can 
program his computer to make dinner 
arrangements when he goes to a certain 
city: if the first person invited can't have 
dinner, his computer scans the list of his 
other friends in the same city and issues 



* Note: this system effectively became 
available at the 1981 National Computer 
Conference, where Xerox demonstrated 
the Star personal computer. Stars are 
individual $20,000 machines to be con- 
nected together throughout a company 
by the Ethernet cable. 



dinner invitations to them. All this in a 
simple conditional language. 



"/ want Granny, at 

home, with her video 

text, to be able to use 

this too...." 



But rather than talk about "computers." 
whose actual whereabouts and boundaries 
become indeterminate in this sort of a 
coming world, Lick prefers to talk about 
"agents" or "assistants," things you set up 
to do things for you. (Lick also likes to 
call them Olivers, after Oliver Selfridge. 



who came up with the idea around 1966.) 
Agents will handle "augmented telephone 
calls," stacking the calls and pushing them 
through automatically. Agents will pay 
your bill, checking them against the appro- 
priate invoices in standard electronic forms. 
They will sniff out information a friend 
may have set out: his birthday, gift pref- 
erences and sizes, party invitations, infor- 
mation he would like from whoever knows 
it. 

Agents will not merely receive messages: 
they will react to them, sending out new 
feelers and requests to other computers 
and agents. Messages, forking and thrusting 
through a forest of computers and agents, 
will inquire, update and reply, often waiting 
for interactive responses. Messages will 
independently link to animated diagrams 
and status displays, keeping them 
current. 



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136 






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31245 LA BAYA DRIVE, WESTLAKE VILLAGE, CALIFORNIA 91362 

CIRCLE 159 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



NOVEMBER 1981 



137 



Mail Chauvinism, continued... 

Subprograms call each other internally 
all the time, says Lick; soon they'll be 
doing it externally, sometimes in parallel, 
sometimes queuing. So the interchange 
of "messages" becomes something larger, 
a cross fire of interacting events. 

But now you see this messaging is 
something else. It is not postcards or 
telegrams, it is not document handling. In 



Agents will pay your 

bills, checking them 

against the appropriate 

invoices in standard 

electronic forms. 



The World of Packets, 

Protocol-and-Dagger 

Packet nets range from Ethernet— a 
packet system for going between computers 
and terminals in an individual office— on 
up to Telenet, a world-wide packet service 
to which you can subscribe that will hook 
you to most other nets and time-sharing 
systems. 

The basic idea of packet service is to 
get information — text, pictures, even 
voice— to and from the places you want. 
And it has to move in the timely manner 
that today's computer user expects— within 
fractions of a second. This is particularly 
true for highly interactive sessions involving 
two or more computers or agents in united 
interaction. 

The internal mechanisms of packet 
communication are not hard to understand 
if you already understand about computers 
and disks. Essentially a packet network is 
a set of interconnected computers and 
disk drives, which finally connect to users 
of one sort or another. 

All messages, however long or short, 
are divided into "packets," sequences of 
bytes of a uniform size (such as 1 28 bytes) 
and padded out to fill the last packet. 

In a full-scale packet network, the actual 
data is sandwiched between the many 
additional bytes required to carry it along. 
The packet of data is surrounded by an 
"envelope" of bytes specifying parity 
checks, packet numbers (for the identifica- 
tion, retransmission and reassembly of 
damaged ones), addressee routing infor- 
mation, billing information. The envelopes 
may be changed by various computers 
along the way; only the contents are meant 
for the recipient. 

A packet is not unlike a disk block. 
Though a disk block may be surrounded 
by various bits (parity, clock, guard), in 
the final analysis these are not the contents, 
but only helper information that goes away 
when the contents arrive successfully. 

Packet transmissions go from one com- 
puter to another— sometimes through a 
long chain of computers— before reaching 
the final user. The first computer gets its 
packets ready— either dividing up and 
padding out the original message, or 
straightening out the packets it has received 
from elsewhere. 

These it then sends sequentially over 
some channel to the next computer. The 



next computer signals to the sending 
computer when to send and when to 
pause. 

Pause requests occur when the buffer 
area of the receiving computer is full, or 
part of the transmission has been damaged. 
If the buffer area is full, the receiving 
computer may in turn re-transmit the 
packets down the line, or put them in 
longer-term storage (such as disk). Such 
buffering may occur, for instance, if there 
has been faulty transmission, while the 
computer awaits the broken packets 
again. 

Because so many operations can be 
performed quickly by the packet com- 
puters, they are able to make numerous 
and repeated checks on the integrity of 
the data, and effectively create a flawless 
transmission chain depite unreliable chan- 
nels. And the transmission lines can be 
used very efficiently, even with all the 
extra bytes, because the packets may be 
densely packed over time. 

(Commercial packet nets may also vary 
their transmission capacity dynamically, 
renting additional lines at higher cost during 
moments of peak demand. Thus, successive 
packets in a given message may arrive 
over different channels and different routes, 
arriving at intermediate points quite out 
of order. It's the integrity of the material 
at its final destination that counts.) 

Protocols 

The back-and-forth interchange asso- 
ciated with data communication is called 
a "protocol." We saw this above with 
respect to packet transmission: the receiv- 
ing unit says when it's ready, and tells the 
sending unit when to stop. But that's just 
the beginning. 

The packet protocols are not seen by 
the user; they are "transparent." But other 
levels of protocol may be part of the 
interchange that the user (or his program) 
actually sees. The construction and combin- 
ing of protocols is one of the frontier 
problems of today. 

There are simple protocols and complex 
ones, such as the protocol needed to drive 
a Calcomp pen-plotter. The computer must 
repeatedly wait for signals saying the 
plotting unit is ready, and send out the 
next commands only at such times. This 
is an "application" protocol. 

Or consider the protocol of the automatic 
bank-teller machines. 

138 



its back-and-forthing it is more like the 
telephone than telegraph. It is a new form 
of closely coupled responsive session, a 
chain-reaction system of intercommunica- 
tions, among— what? Agents. Places. Data 
bases. Programs, texts, indications, sema- 
phores. It is a pool-table model, like a 
gunbattle, like atomic nuclei near critical 
mass: the event-shower-interchange session. 
A shower of sparks. 

CONTINUED ON PG. 140 



The automatic teller has four basic 
functions: account status, deposit, with- 
drawal, and guarantee-a-check-at-the-super- 
market. All but deposit require "authentica- 
tion." making sure that the card in the 
slot and the password permit what has 
been requested. 

The teller box sends a transaction ID, 
password, command and parameters. The 
bank's computer replies with the trans- 
action number again, followed by either 
GO or NO GO (or the strong form of NO 
GO, GRAB, which causes the card to be 
eaten). 

In today's complex packet networks, 
protocols are stacked and nested, relating 
to a hierarchy of computers, programs 
and agents along the way. with different 
messages addressed to "subnets," "gateway 
processors," "host processors" and the "user 
application" itself. The logic is along the 
lines of "Give this first note to the bartender 
and he'll let you in the back. Then give 
this note to the guy in back and he'll fix 
you up." 

Several of the researchers at the M&M 
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Cunningham of Bell Northern, Carl Sun- 
shine of USC Information Sciences Insti- 
tute, Vinton Cerf of Darpa— are working 
on systems of higher-level protocols that 
can be customized for a variety of purposes 
at the user level while providing reliable 
transport and confirmation at the packet 
and other levels. Higher-level protocols 
are like higher-level languages: they seem 
to be inefficient at first blush, but the 
supposed inefficiencies are far outweighed 
by their improved maintainability and 
evolutionary potential. They can evolve 
and be upgraded indefinitely. 

Ian Cunningham's OSI protocol, for 
example, is intended to work on a variety 
of networks and a variety of computers, 
providing a framework of standard proto- 
cols within and upon which can be built a 
variety of applications. There are seven 
layers (that we needn't get into here), but 
they go up to "session" layers, com- 
municating between processes, and "pre- 
sentation." dealing with data representation. 
Only a couple of these are within user 
reach. 

Security: Privacy, Encryption. 
Authentication 

Packet transmission of plain text is all 
very well in a world of trust and good 

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CIRCLE 2S9 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Dagger, continued. 



will. Unfortunately, there will also be a 
need for privacy— for personal reasons, 
business reasons, and reasons of state— and 
to protect us/ram the state. And we need 
to think about these matters now. 

The first and most obvious problem of 
privacy is encryption — keeping other 
people (and their computers) from reading 
your messages. This is not easy, and strange 
political problems are surfacing. 

The "official" encryption standard— a 
code system generally available— is the 
DES. You can get a chip that performs 
this encoding and decoding, using a secret 
key you've chosen. But public accusations 
have been levelled at this method, specif- 
ically that the U.S. government may be 
promoting it because they know how to 
break it. 

The much more powerful, tough-nut 
encryption system is the remarkable RSA 
code out of MIT. a "trapdoor" code with 
two keys. Either may decode what has 
been encoded by the other— but you 
cannot derive one from the other, at least 
in less than a million years of computation. 
This means you can safely make one of 
them public, so that anybody can send 
you a secret message (encoding it with 
your public key; only you can decode it) 
or you can "authenticate" a message, 
encoding it with your private key so that 
anyone can decode it only by using your 



public key. thus proving its origin. Though 
the government has apparently been trying 
to suppress the RSA code, so far it is a 
uniquely powerful solution to the encryp- 
tion problem. Though a thousand times 
slower than the DES. it. too. may soon be 
available on a chip. 

Unfortunately secret contents and 
authentication aren't the whole ballgame. 
Disguising whom a message is to, and 
how long it is. may also be important; yet 
these must be incorporated in the envelop- 
ing techniques of the packet system 
itself —a level of service which hasn't been 
offered yet. 

Certain other desirable features also 
should be built in at the network level. 
These include "time-stamping" of trans- 
mitted material, and ways of proving a 
thing was sent— effectively, "registered 
mail." 

Because of the ferment, complication 
and newness of all these areas, the packet- 
and-protoeol men at the M&M Conference 
appeared to be unanimously against stan- 
dardization at the present time. And would- 
be suppliers of service, such as the Post 
Office, must demonstrate that they give a 
hang about such matters. 

1984sville 

As already mentioned, several com- 
mentators have expressed alarm at the 
government's curious treatment of the DES 
and RSA codes. But other sinister forebod- 
ings can be found if you look. 



Dertouzos of MIT warned us that 
networking can become a new totalitarian 
instrument, with surreptitious and unauthor- 
ized "explorations" an important new area 
of government imposition. Neustadt of 
the White House put it more simply: "Can 
the FBI intercept your messages?" And if 
someone snoops in the records of a 
message-repeating station where your 
messages may have been kept on tape, is 
it wiretapping? 

Vezza of MIT also feels very strongly 
about this. In the testimony that led to 
the new ECOM design, he fought the 
Post Office's plan of keeping tapes for 
message verification; there was no reason, 
he thought, that the sender's original record 
would not be sufficient in case of doubt. 
But that has been overruled, and tapes of 
the billions of ECOM messages will be 
kept by the Post Office— for, we are told, 
a limited period of time. This is not unlike 
having the Post Office Xerox every letter 
that goes through the mail. 

Those who believe conspiratorial tales 
of government intelligence agencies, cover- 
ing the deaths of John Kennedy through 
John Lennon. see these matters as addi- 
tional indication that our Secret Masters 
are preparing our further future enslave- 
ment. A more moderate perspective, 
however, would indicate simply that many 
people and agencies are behaving with 
authority in areas where not much is known 
yet. Perhaps the time is ripe for neither 
alarm nor smugness. D 



Mail Chauvinism, continued... 

The Camel 

Across this landscape of cheery elec- 
tronic possibilities there came, not so very 
long ago, an interesting intruder: the United 
States Postal Service. 

You have heard of camels. You have 
undoubtedly also heard the expression, 
"When the camel gets its nose inside the 
tent, the rest will follow," or some exotic 
equivalent, intended to convey the idea 
that the rest of a camel cannot be far 
behind its intruding tip, and all of the 
camel will soon be within any environment 
it penetrates. 

Now before this parable can be fully 
explained, and we can get back to the 
conference, it is necessary to fill in some 
facts and history. 

By law. the Post Office has monopoly 
power over delivered things. You cannot, 
for instance, open a delivery service 
between cities except under certain 
between cities except under certain 
specific, narrow conditions. (And symboli- 
cally, you must have U.S. stamps on the 
parcels your service brings.) 

This is the infamous "delivery 
monopoly." At least one M&M speaker. 
Lloyd Johnson, spoke as though there were 



a danger that the post office might attempt 
to extend this monopoly to all electronic 
messages. This also seemed to be the 
position presented by Jaquish of the Postal 
Service, who spoke as if the Postal Service 
had a natural right that extended into this 
new realm. 

In 1978 the Post Office proposed to 
open a new service, called E-COM (Elec- 
tronic Computer Originated Mail; the 
hyphen is something of a mystery). 

Now, the Post Office cannot just do 
anything it wants. It must get permission 
from the Postal Rate Commission, making 
formal proposals for new services. 



sending thousands of pieces a year— to a 
centralized computer system. (This would 
be Western Union's facility in Middletown, 
VA.) 

In this original proposal, a large variety 
of inputs would bring messages to the 
Western Union computer. Bills and form 
letters would be repetitively copied, elec- 
tronically, with appropriate names, amounts 
and other fill-ins; then these finished 
telegraphic communiques would be sent 
electronically to 25 major "serving post 
offices," where their contents would be 
printed out. stuffed in envelopes, and 
delivered with the regular mail. 



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140 



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CIRCLE 233 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Mail Chauvinism, continued... 

carried among separate computers, for 
instance. Another was high cost (30 to 
60c a letter). Then came some deeper 
problems: in selling electronic transmission 
services, the Post Office would be com- 
peting with several common carriers. This 
further threatened a monopoly fight related 



Finally it was accepted by the Post Office 
board of governors, but they then turned 
around and filed a lawsuit against the 
Postal Rate Commission to make the new 
arrangement permanent before it had even 
been tried — that very arrangement they 
had just been fighting. 




ECOM as modified by Vezza and PRC. to be implemented in 1982 by RCA. 



to the Post Office's monopoly prerogative 
of delivery, threatening (at worst) that 
whatever electronic mail might become 
would only be what the Post Office allowed 
it to become. And finally and darkly, 
archival copies of tapes were to be kept. 
This proposal was brought before Albert 
Vezza. MIT professor and one of the 
architects of the Arpanet. He proposed a 
rather straightforward alternative: no 
centralized facility, and the use of common 



The Post Office 

proposed in 1978 to 

connect very large 

mail-senders — those 

sending thousands of 

pieces a year— to a 

centralized computer 

system. 



carriers— available electronic nets— 
between the serving post offices, where 
the printing and stuffing and delivery would 
occur. 

This was simpler. It did not compete 
with common carriers, but used them. 
And it cost about ten times less per piece. 

The two alternatives— the original one 
and Vezza 's— were brought before the 
Postal Rate Commision. which decides 
these things. There was a bitter fight. The 
PRC's decision: "implement the Vezza 
alternative." The Post Office fought this 
decision in the courts, but had to give in. 



The new system will supposedly be 
implemented in 1982. (As of this writing, 
the Post Office has accepted a proposal 
from RCA, but its contents have not yet 
become available.) 

One leading and mischievous feature 
was added to the Vezza alternative in the 
ECOM system that was finally approved. 
This was an input link direct to the serving 
post offices. However, since the Postal 
Service was explicitly forbidden to provide 
end-to-end service ("generation three"), 
information received in this fashion is to 
be put on magnetic tape and sent by express 
mail to receiving post offices. (It is as 
though this step were undertaken explicitly 
to be inefficient, and cry out for the 
electronic completion that is not now 
allowed. A cynic might say the feature 
was put there as a festering inconvenience, 
crying out for proper electronic consumma- 
tion and thus challenging the present com- 
promise.) 

This was essentially the view of Henry 
Geller (see "The Regulators")— that the 
Post Office will be continually maneuvering 
to add electronic services until it has "the 
whole thing," a monopoly of delivery to 
your own terminal. With ECOM, "The 
camel's nose is under the tent" says 
Geller. 

What is anticipated in these early stages, 
since only high-volume mailers may play 
the game, are corporate mass mailings 
such as dunning letters, product recalls, 
bills and special advertising. A special 
advantage of ECOM is its ability to put 
special Text Insert Messages (TIMs) into 
COmmon Text (COT), adding all the John 
Smiths to supposedly personal messages. 
It seems this would save considerable in- 
house effort along the same lines for major 
mailers. 

142 



The Conference Again 

Now here we are at the conference 
again, and we will hear some spokesmen 
from the Post Office. 

First comes the head of R&D for the 
Post Office, Paul Jaquish. He is slow- I 
spoken, balding, somewhat angry-seeming: 
his title is Senior Assistant Postmaster 
General. Research and Technology Group I 
of the U.S. Postal Service. 

He comes on as the heavy with a 
belligerent and defiant manner. Here is 
what I got down: 

"We must control service." 
"We cannot allow our resources to be v 
spirited away." And finally: 

"We have a legislative mandate and a 
financial requirement." 

Well, at least it's up front. But what 
did it mean? Was he talking only about 
delivery on foot? Or is he telling us their 
electronics must eventually be the only 
ones that make messages available to our 
personal computers? It certainly sounded 
to me as though Jaquish said, essentially: 
"Whatever this is. it belongs to us." 

When it came time for questions, I tried 
to ask the question that was burning on 
my mind, but it took too long. I said 
something like: "The format of this con- 
ference suggests a premature delineation 
of mail and message' systems, arbitrarily 
cutting them away from teleconferencing, 
data bases, highly interactive environments, 
electronic publishing and archiving. Could 
you comment?" 

Jaquish 's one-syllable answer got a big 
laugh, and we broke for the first lunch. 

The next day we heard Vincent 
Sombrotto, president of the National 
Association of Letter Carriers and its 
233.000 members. That's right, a quarter 
of a million. 

Jaquish s one-syllable answer got a big 
laugh, and we broke for the first lunch. 

The next day we heard Vincent 
Sombrotto. president of the National 
Association of Letter Carriers and its 
233,000 members. That's right, a quarter 
of a million. 

Sombrotto was fiftyish, with white hair 
and a ruddy complexion. The former 
president of the New York branch of the 
union, he had a Jimmy Durante Brooklyn 
accent and just about as much charm. 
Everyone seemed to find him unexpectedly 
likable. 

Sombrotto addressed himself, naturally, 
to the question of what should be the role 
of postal personnel in electronic mail. 1 
got down just three quotes. 

"It's da most effecient postal soivice in 
da woild." 

"If da wave of da future is electronic 
transmission of mail, den it only makes 
sense to use da most efficient awganization 
in da woild." 

"If dis seems self-soiving" (cheery grin), 
"dat's exactly what it's meant to do." 

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CIRCLE 350 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Key Quotations 




I. The New World 

Bob Taylor of PARC: "If you think about these as systems 
for moving strings of characters, you miss the point of their 
power." 

Sirbu: "Many people find that the filing and retrieval 
capabilities are the most useful." 

Licklider of MIT: "[It's currently a problem of| access to 
gigabits through punybaud." 

Neustadt of the White House: "Spectrum management will 
be the central issue of the 1980's," and "Can the FBI intercept 
messages'.'" 

Kent of BBN: People say RSA code solves the key distribution 
problem. "But they lie." 

Cunningham of Bell-Northern: "Once your letter is pushed 
through a mail slot, and a dog chews it, it's your problem." 

McQuillan of BBN: "The great thing about standards is 
that there are so many of them." 

Showalter of congressional staff: "We may not be able to 
teach congressmen C or Basic, but we may be able to fake 
'em into thinking computers speak English." 

Rose of congress: "I want Granny, at home with her video 
text, to be able to use this too." 



II. The Post Office And, or In, the New World 

Congressman Rose: The U.S. congressman has many friends, 
and one of these is the U.S. Postal Service." 

Sombrotto of the National Association of Letter Carriers: 
"It's da most effecient postal soivice in da woild," and "If da 
wave of da future is electronic transmission of mail, den it 
only makes sense to use da most efficient awganization in da 
woild," and "If dis seems self-soiving, dat's exactly what it's 
meant to do." 

Joyce, consultant to the Post Office: "You're not going to 
see books and newspapers transmitted in the next twenty 
years," and "|In our estimates) We did not include the stimulation 
factor." 

Jaquish of the Postal Service: "We must control service ," 
and "We cannot allow our resources to be spirited away," and 
"We have a legislative mandate and a financial requirement." 

Jackson of the FCC: "If they |the Postal Service] want to 
be involved in over-the-air bit streams, they have to get their 
radio licenses somewhere," and "I suspect this is something 
we'll have a lot of trouble with in our political system." 

Anonymous professor with Arpanet connections, interviewed: 
"They |the Post Office | just don't understand this stuff and 
they don't know what they're doing." 

Fritschler of the Postal Rate Commission: "The regulatory 
process can work, at least in this instance." 

Zimmerman of the National Telecommunication and 
Information Authority: "You ought to be grateful that you 
don't get as much government as you pay for." 

Anonymous consultant, interviewed: "I'm not interested in 
a Footnet." □ 



Mail Chauvinism, continued... 

A Remarkable View 

The most astonishing presentation was 
certainly that of Charles Joyce, formerly 
Director of Information Technology and 
Policy at the Mitre Corporation, and now 
consulting to the Post Office. He is a 
mumbler with a somewhat smug air and 
rather remarkable views. 

Mr. Joyce had made a study of the 
"existing mailstream," that is, the things 
the Post Office delivers now. The question 
they tried to answer was what kinds of 
mail would be directly replaced electron- 
ically, or "diverted." according to this way 
of thinking. 

The projections appear to hold approxi- 
mately constant the number of messages 
per capita. The figures we saw foresee a 
slow drop in conventional mail as "genera- 
tion two" and "generation three" get off 
the ground. And Joyce announces con- 
fidently: "You're not going to see books 
and newspapers transmitted in the next 
twenty years." 

What makes him think the number of 
messages will stay the same? "We did not 
include the stimulation factor," he said. 

Now this is most interesting: it assumes 
that each electronic message replaces a 
sheet of paper folded in an envelope, or 
some other enclosed packet of markings 
on cellulose. And it assumes a very constant 

I universe. (Projections are often presented 
for varying sets of assumptions, none yet 

I known to be true. No such fiddle-faddle 
here.) 



Mr. Joyce's remarks were later com- 
mented on by Einar Stefferud, a consultant 
attending the conference: 

"He wasn't considering the nature of 
the change of behavior. We aren't going 
to mail catalogs any more, there'll be query 
traffic." 



"You're not going to see 

books and newspapers 

transmitted in the next 

twenty years." 



Stefferud continued, "this rests on the 
assumption that electronic mail would be 
analogs or marginal equivalents of record 
traffic, but did not take into consideration 
the network transactions of Licklider's 
model— if you believe in networks." 

Only time will tell, of course, but any 
observer would be reminded here of the 
projection made around 1947 that half-a- 
dozen of that day's computers (each with 
about the power of an Apple) would satisfy 
the United States for the foreseeable 
feature. 

Or consider the market research of the 
Haloid Corporation, whose investigators 
repeatedly reported that the copying- 

144 



machine Haloid was working on would 
only sell a few dozen before exhausting 
all the demand in the United States. (When 
the copier was finally introduced. Haloid 
changed its name to Xerox.) 

The Friday lunch speaker was Lloyd 
Johnson, a poised and impressive individual, 
and staff director of the House of Repre- 
sentatives' Subcommittee on Postal Opera- 
tions and Services. He sounded a less 
enthusiastic note for the Post Office than 
had Rep. Rose. 

One of Johnson's first remarks was that 
everyone was proceeding from different 
assumptions, perhaps the best point made 
at the conference. He then went on to 
outline the history of the Post Office's 
maneuverings to institute electronic mail 
service, based on the notion that growing 
use of electronic messaging constituted 
"first-class mail diversion," as though 
someone were taking away what rightfully 
belonged to the Post Office, like the ball- 
point pens on chains. 

Hair-raising estimates from various 
sources project staggering amounts of 
electronic communication. One com- 
mentator estimated that 220 million people 
would be sent ten items a day each 
averaging 30K bits per item. (Have you a 
better guess?) Vezza's earlier Congressional 
testimony had foreseen between 230 million 
and five billion electronic messages in 
1983, which would already be as much as 
ten percent of the mail'. 

CONTINUED ON PG. 150 

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ERVICECARD 



What's Who In All This 

AFIPS American Federation of Information Processing 
Societies. 

ARPA (now called DARPA) Advanced Research Projects 
Agency of the Department of Defense. 

ARPA/IPT Information Processing Technology division of 
ARPA— original backers of computer graphics, time-sharing 
and packet nets. 

Arpanet The defense-and-research packet net connecting 
numerous universities and defense locals. 
BBN Bolt. Beranek and Newman, a frontier hotshot computer 
consulting and system design firm in Boston. 
DARPA (New name of ARPA.) Defense Advanced Research 
Projects Agency. 

DES Data Encryption Standard, supported by NBS and NSA. 
ECOM or E-COM Electronic Computer-Originated Mail. Post 
Office trademark for their original proposal and that now 
under implementation. The migration of the rogue hyphen is 
inexplicable. 

EMM Electronic Mail and Message System(s). 
FAX Facsimile: pushing a picture through a wire with a 
converted analog signal. 
FCC Federal Communications Commission. 
IFIP International Federation for Information Processing. (A 
society of societies, like the U.S. AFIPS.) 
ISO International Standards Organization. 
MAC Project MAC (Man And Computer), pioneering time- 
sharing department at MIT (now become the Laboratory for 
Computer Science). 

M&M (Electronic) Mail and Message; doesn't melt in your 
hand or disintegrate en route. 



MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology; a principal 
contributor to computer revolutions. 
NBS National Bureau of Standards. 

NSA National Security Agency, a huge government agency 
occupied with coding and decoding things. Their opposition 
to the RSA code has raised serious questions. 
OSI Open Systems Interconnect, a proposed universal protocol 
framework. 

PARC Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, a key hotshot 
location. 

PO Post Office: the United States Postal Service. 
PRC Postal Rate Commission, watchdog agency over the PO. 
PS The United States Postal Service. 

RSA Rivest-Shamir-Adelman code, supposedly unbreakable 
"trapdoor" code or "public-key cryptosystem." Two very long 
numbers mutually code and decode each other's results; if 
one is published, the other cannot be deduced in feasible 
time, and therefore remains secret. NSA opposition to RSA 
has been interpreted as sinister by some observers. 
TELEX Brand name of a prevailing form of push-through 
digital printout message system. 

TWX (Teletypewriter eXchange.) Push-through digital printout 
message system operated by the phone company. 
USC University of Southern California. 
VAN Value-Added Network: digital service which somehow 
does more than time-share or transmit messages. 
X.21 The circuit-switched data communication standard (where 
wires are reconnected for each transmission, as in the present- 
day phone system). 
X.25 The packet data communication standard. □ 



Two Models of Mail 



A 



H 



!)()(, I 




fct 



lxk;: 



Classic Model of "Mail". 



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perils as dog G. Any threats beyond H. such as interior dog I, 
are the problem of addressee J. Note the irony if DOG 1 =DOG2: 
up to the door he will be bested: beyond he may do what he 
will. 




Naive Electronic Parallel, (omitting interactions. 

acknowledgements, queries, etc.) 

Sender (A), sitting at screen (B). dispatches message from 
his computer (C). It enters electronic service (D). some collection 
of disks and gadgets and long wires and who knows what. The 
message is stored. Instantaneously or by and by it reaches the 
destined computer and screen (E.F) of addressee (G). But to 
whom does he complain if all he gets on screen F is garbage? 

Is the thing still in D? What recourse has G if purveyors of 
service B contend that his computer E is a dog that has eaten 
his message? (Can G reply that the relationship of D to E is a 
virtual external DOG I rather than a domestic internal 
DOG 2?) □ 



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Why The Post Office Thinks "Electronic Mail" Is Like Paper Mail 



When any person meets the computer, he sees it in terms 
of his life up to that point, as a simpleminded genie to take 
over the drudgery of what he already does. 

Mathematicians and engineers saw in it a fast numerical 
device, generals saw a bombardier, businessmen saw a billing 
machine. I personally saw a writing and movie machine. Now 
the Post Office looks, and Lo! they think it is a letter-transmission 
device. 

Nobody is wrong in these perceptions. But to flesh out any 
of these visions well and rightly, you have to know a great 
deal more about the computer's other possibilities than was 
obvious at first. 

Misled By the Word 

The phrase "Electronic Mail" is just as leading— and 
misleading— as so many other phrases and paradigms that 
have generated compiling computer visions and narrow-minded 
systems. 

It is easy to see why the Post Office might get the idea that 
"electronic mail" is related to what they do already. Let us 
consider some of the superficial resemblances that might lead 
to this idea. 

The word, to begin with. "Mail" sounds so familiar. But in 
some way this is falling prey to the sound of words, like 
wanting to put milk and sugar on a daytime serial. 

"Packet" also sounds familiar. (Packets ordinarily go first 
class, right?) The terminology of the electronic packeters. 
too. sounds awfully like mail. A digital packet has private 



contents, an "envelope" of bytes, which includes the "address^ 
and transport billing information, which is rather like a "stamp." 
But that's obviously just a superficial resemblance of the 
transport quantum. 

(Amusing, too, and tying in with this simplified view, was 
IBM's presentation of the Math Conference of "output devices 
for electronic mail" as being printers, not screens; the paper 
is somehow thought to be fundamental. This despite the fact 
that Taylor or PARC says only 1% of messages on their 
system ever get printed.) 



SinRAGE. 
Kl I'OSITORY^. 
SERVICES 



Ml SSACI s 
RESEMBLING 

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One-Was Communications 
\Nithoul Inimeo'iate Kepis. 
Stored Onk Tcm|*>rarik 



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SHOWERS 

i)l 

SPARKS 

^ High-SpMd 

Interactive 
Sessions 
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STORAGE, SPARKS AND "MAIL 

But essentially the "mail" concept of old is like only certain 
kinds of electronic messages: those which are not interacting 
with "agents." or part of highly interactive sessions; whose 
storage is deemed to be temporary: and which wait for their 
recipients, who are human beings, to read them, reply at 
leisure, and file them elsewhere. 

It is impossible at this time to guess even vaguely what 
proportion of digital traffic will represent this old-fashioned 
kind of "mail." 



A Misleading Model 

In the model repeatedly referred to by 
the Post Office representatives at the M&M 
conference, there are three "generations" 
of electronic mail. To their way of thinking, 
there is a natural progression from paper 
mail to a destined, but similar, electronic 
future. Let's look at this. 

The idea of the telegram— more recently 
the "mailgram" — is indeed a form of 
electronic mail, well known to everyone; 
paper arrives at your office or front door. 
People who have seen conventional letters 
sent electronically may think that's it. that 
"electronic mail" means simply some 
shortening of the path. 

Now it is certainly the case that the 
forthcoming ECOM system, discussed in 
this article, is mail in the ordinary sense; 
it has to be. It comes out on paper and is 
walked to your door. It does not come 
out on a terminal, it does not trigger 
electronic events. But what is misleading 
is the extension of that idea, the notion of 
Paper Destiny, that that's all there is. And 
that misleading extension is their model 
of electronic mail "generations." 

The Generations 

Generation One is called "paper in, 
paper out." This involves somehow getting 
a message into a computer, transmitting 
it electronically, printing it out. and 
delivering it on foot. 



pmvsk At 

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VIDEO |_ 




Hypothetical Generation I. "PAPER IN. PAPER OUT' 



this is wholly impractical, since digital scanning and conversion does not work 
well in general. This brings us directly to Generation Two. "Electronic in. 
paper out," as in forthcoming ECOM. 



CI SIOMIK 
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WtlRI) 

I'RtK i SSUHS 

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Hypothetical Generation II: "ELECTRONIC IN. PAPER OUT" 

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Misleading Model, continued. 



By seeming logical progression, the 
supposed next step. "Generation Three," 
drops the paper and is "electronic in. 
electronic out." 




Hypothetical Generation III: 
"ELECTRONIC IN. ELECTRONIC OUT" 

It is this supposed "stage" to which 
Postal Service spokesmen have claimed 
the right, that the Postal Rate Commission 
has defeated, and that the Carter admin- 
istration forbade by explicit executive 
order. 

But is it the next stage at all? Just because 
the preceding stages involved, of necessity, 
things that could be printed on paper, 
this next "generation" allows things that 
can*t be usefully printed— such as anima- 
tions— and can at once go beyond the 
transmission of letter-like alphabetical 
chunks to the shower-of-sparks model 
presented by the magicians. As Bob Taylor 
said, "If you think about these as systems 
for moving strings of characters, you miss 
the point of their power." 

"Third Generation" Really Means 
Storage 

Here is a real irony: the Post Office's 
"Generations" are based on the push- 
through idea, but actually what they call 
the Third Generation must involve external 
storage. A postman can always get to a 
mail slot in your door, even if it means 
fighting rain, sleet or gloom of night, or 
even if it means saying "Excuse ine" to a 
crowd of people in the way. If the lines to 
your computer are busy, however, there 
is no way that message can be pushed 
through. Thus there must be provisions 
to store or buffer it externally until ready. 

Moreover, in the event of a garbled 
message reaching your computer, there 
must be provision for re-verification. It is 



all very well to say, "Once the letter is 
pushed through your mail slot, and a dog 
chews it. it's your problem," but a letter 
that has been chewed by your dog, or 
accidentally trampled, spilled on, or per- 
haps inhaled by your vacuum cleaner, is 
nevertheless usually identifiable and read- 
able, even if too icky to file. But bit-hash 
is another problem. If supposed messages 
are sitting in your computer when you get 
home and they are wholly meaningless 
and unidentifiable, there must be some 
way to ask your carrier for a replay. 

But if you call in to that carrier's 
computer, how does it know you are not 
an imposter spying on you? What pro- 
cedures give you a retry? 

Well, these problems are essentially 
worked out on such systems as Arpanet 
and Tyme-Share. You call with your 
password and "open your mailbox." mean- 
ing that the disk storage of your message 
is unveiled to you: material is discarded 
when you give permission. 

Well and good in a private-enterprise 
or research situation. But if a government 
supplier takes over the entire act, all these 
arrangements become more portentous 
and perhaps more sinister. You become 
not just a customer, but a captive customer. 
When dissatisfied under private enterprise, 
you have the option of going to another 
vendor; if it's the government you have 
the option of filing complaints and briefs, 
or not sending messages at all. 

But. of course, most sinister is the notion 
that your communications are being stored 
hv a government agency, even if it is the 
Good OP Post Office. 

The Second Generation maintains a tie 
to the first. The "Third Generation." in 
its full realization, does not. (We might 
just as well call an automobile a Second 
Generation Horse-and-Buggy. and the 
comparison is pretty clear point by point. 
But when we get to calling an airplane a 
third generation Horse-and Buggy, we're 
in trouble. And I think it's the same for 
this model of generations. 



The very term "mail diversion," used in 
some of the estimates of future electronic 
messaging, confirms this: if letters go down 
in quantity and digital transmissions go 
up. they call that "mail diversion." But is 
a phone call a "diverted letter?" No. it's 
something else. 

The problem is in the frame of mind. 
The Post Office people seem to believe 
that fulltext transmission is the only model. 
To go beyond that, and recognize the 
panorama of remarkable interactive pos- 
sibilities, requires a broad-scale knowledge 
of computers and all the things that they 
can do. 

The remark of consultant Joyce, that 
"You're not going to see books and 
newspapers transmitted in the next twenty 
years." epitomizes this narrow focus. Of 
course, a book or newspaper is not sent 
electronically in full all at once. What 
happens is an interchange session with 
the stored document. And that is something 
very different. 

Paradigm Shift 

The original conceptual model was 
perhaps best stated by Herbert Simon in 
The Shape of Automation. In a nutshell 
Simon says that automation changes the 
shape of an activity so much as to make it 
a complete surprise. For example: if we 
talk about automating garbage disposal. 
visions might come to mind of prowling 
robot garbage trucks emptying the cans— 
but not of in-sink Disposalls, which involve 
changes all across the paradigm. 

Whether a thing can be printed on paper 
may be the best dividing line between 
what usefully constitutes "mail" and what 
doesn't anymore. Text or bit-map pictures 
could be paper mail — but it is senseless to 
print executable programs or digitally 
explorable data bases and graphic struc- 
tures. Fishlines to databases and text 
repositories, cascading interactive events, 
have nothing to do with mail as we know 
it. And these will be our next generation 
of library and communication. □ 



Mail Chauvinism, continued... 

Other consultants foresaw twelve and 
a half billion pieces "diverted" in 1990. 
twenty-six billion in 2000. 

So whatever it is. it's important. And it 
is not surprising that the postal workers 
are agitating for a piece of this action, 
which Johnson called "turfmanship." even 
though the General Accounting Office 
has estimated that "any loss" to the P.O. 
could be covered by attrition. 

HUMPH: A Concluding Editorial Opin- 
ion 

Some of the finest minds of our time 
are trying to build a new world of inter- 



active communication and instantaneous 
availability of information, pictures, ideas, 
models, worlds. 

Meanwhile the Post Office has come to 
assume, in some innocence, that electronic 



Postal workers are 

agitating for a piece of 

the action. 



message services are directly related to, 
and in competition with, what they already 
do— the "same thing" as letters on paper. 



■ 



150 



This "turfmanship." as Lloyd Johnson 
called it, is strongly reminiscent of the 
typesetting-union problems faced by new- 
papers in the sixties, when the typesetters 
imagined that "new jobs" would be created 
in electronic typesetting to which they 
had a natural right— even though the actual 
new jobs involved computer programming, 
and were being carried out by vendors 
elsewhere. What is going to happen is 
something different. 

There still exists the faint possibility 
that the Post Office might actually force 
a monopoly of its services in these new 
areas, based by some miraculous extension 
of law on its existing delivery monopoly. 
This possibility is slight, because compe- 
CONTINUED ON PG. 156 

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Five Snark Paradigms 

At least five models of "electronic mail" 
can be discerned. 1 believe these constitute 
a more comprehensive view than those 
elsewhere called "Generation 1, 2 and 3." 
The real and overriding question is, what 
is the conceptual structure of this thing? 
And what are its boundaries? 

1. Push-through. (Also called "forced 
delivery.") Some people seem to think 
electronic mail is a sort of telephonic 
scribe: from some kind of a sending unit, 
you dial up your addressee's receiving 
unit. If it is functioning and not busy, you 
push through a series of signals which the 
receiving unit records, usually on paper. 

Several such systems already exist. One 
of these is facsimile (or Fax), the sending 
of pictures down a wire from one unit to 
another. To send a letter, you transmit a 
picture of the letter, an incredibly inefficient 
method which may take a minute or 
more. 

Push-through alphanumeric systems are 
also popular: the TWX and Telex net- 
works, widely used by businesses, effec- 
tively permit you. the sender, to type on 
an addressee's teletypewriter. As with Fax. 
the sender effectively seizes the recipient's 
machine during the time of transmission. 

The question arises, however, as to 
whether such systems are "mail." They 
only permit as much material to be trans- 
mitted as there is time in the day. and 
they effectively force entry into a con- 
tinuing scroll of material. One attendee, 
Einar Stefferud, puts it this way: "They 
aren't mail, they are forced-delivery 
systems. True mail requires a mailbox, a 
place the addressee can open at his 
leisure." 

2. Point-to-point. These systems assume 
a sender and a receiver, and have a general 
resemblance to "mail" in its usual form. 
The transmission occurs in just one direc- 
tion. A reply, if any. is expected in the 
other direction, but not as part of the 
same event or session. 

According to this view, electronic mail 
is really just a simple transmutation of 
ordinary paper mail, going from one "drop" 
(where the sender puts it) to the addressee's 
mail drop (where a postman— or some- 
thing—puts it). 

Because much electronic mail seems to 
take this form, some people, including 
the Post Office, have been led to think 
that that's what electronic mail "is." Storage, 
buffering, acknowledgements, complex 
sessions and chain reactions are not taken 
into account. 

3. Repository Systems. Rather than 
sending a message directly from A to B, it 
may be better to leave it on some other 
system. C, where it may be left until 
needed— or archived indefinitely. 



The third-party system. C, may be a 
small file-server machine in an office, or 
such a large-scale service as Telemail, 
which stores mail on request as well as 
transmitting it. (This is analogous to both 
secretarial services and telephone-answer- 
ing services.) Actually most "electronic 
mail" uses storage outside the recipient's 
own machine. 

One of the most obvious reasons for 
doing this is safety. As Cunningham said, 
"Once your letter is pushed through a 
mail slot, and a dog chews it, it's your 
problem." Rather than having to worry 
about, or pay for, super-reliable equipment 
that won't lose your communications, it 
makes sense to pay a third party who's 
got the reliable equipment — possibly even 
the carrier— just to hold onto the message 
for you. 

But there are other kinds of externalized 
messages. Links or mentions citing external 



Expanding this in a slightly different 
way, a message may be built out of 
citations. It may cite and summon materials 
out of some data bank, the assemblage of 
these materials being the real messsage. 

4. Interactive sessions. In this approach, 
the sending and receiving units remain 
coupled during an interaction, and indeed 
other units may join in the activity, in a 
"shower of sparks" responseplex. (See "The 
Magicians." described elsewhere.) 

But here tradition is lost and we are in 
a new universe. In such a multifunction 
interchange of queries, requests, notifica- 
tions, acknowledgements, links, contribu- 
tions and invocations, among agents, data 
bases, personal files, programs, graphical 
displays, executable programs and sub- 
programs, cascades of information chunks 
caroming in chain reaction, dancing 
demons and sprites, there is no boundary 
between "mail " and active programs. 



"Shower of Sparks"— Sophisticated Multi-Agent Session 

(Licklider. Dertouzos) 




V ruts m sinu.il ontlllOS 
lh.il nus he vp.ir.iti' uYskcs 
programs, mcraal subroutines 
sotluare ■CUMI. 
or iusi .ilvout njrlhlm 
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files for optional pullout (as on the proposed 
Xanadu network) may also prove to be of 
great practicality: a letter no longer says 
"According to your communication of the 
27th." but actually hooks to that com- 
munication so the reader may see at once 
what is being mentioned. "With reference 
to your letter on the 27th" becomes an 
actual link to the letter of the 27th. "With 
respect to our order number 3794" 
becomes, "with respect to" and then a 
link to the actual order itself, stored. These 
links cannot be usefully printed out: a 
fishline is for pulling, it is not a line on 
paper. 



Actual Mechanism of "Electronic Mail" 




s 1 1 IRKD 

II M 
DATABASI 5 

\l,l SIS 
tlllll K 
I SI RS 



5. High-Interchange with External 
Storage. Combining types .1 and 4 gives 
us our final type, that which uses external 
files plus multi-agent interchanges on the 
Licklider model. 

This paradigm is perhaps the most 
exciting to computer freaks, the most 
powerful for a variety of business functions, 
and the most unimaginably remote from 
anything like conventional message 
services. But it is toward this that we are 
going, I believe. Data bases and external 
archiving will become inextricable: and 
they will grow together into a generalized 
form involving multi-computer, multi-agent 
interchage. Welcome to the funhouse. □ 



IIMI 1)1 I U 

AND 

IMTIA1IM 

Of 

RIUi'll M 




STORAGI 



152 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



THE GREAT 



-iKM-JIUM: 



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TheBASIC 



Handbook 



Encyclopedia of the 
BASIC Computer Language 



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by 
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SINCLAIR 



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PACKARD • * TH 

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Ihe 




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3 DATE Time betwe e n dates 

4 DAYYEAR Day of year a particular date falls on 

5 LEASEINT Interest rate on lease 

6 BREAKEVN Breakeven analysis 

7 DEPRSL Straightlne depreciation 

8 DEPRSY Sum of the digits depreciation 

9 DEPRDB Declining balance depreciation 

10 DEPRDDB Double declining balance depreciation 

1 1 TAXDEP Cash now vs. depreciation tables 

12 CHECK2 Pnnts NEBS checks along with daily register 

13 CHECKBK1 Checkbook maintenance program 

14 MORTGAGE/A Mortgage amortization table 

1 5 MULTMON Computes time needed for money to double, triple. 

16 SALVAGE Determines salvage value of an investment 

1 7 RRVARIN Rate of return on investment with variable inflows 

18 RRCONST Rate of return on investment with constant inflows 

19 EFFECT Effective interest rate of a loan 

20 FVAL Future value of an investment (compound interest) 

21 PVAL Present value of a future amount 

22 LOANPAY Amount of payment on a loan 

23 REGWTTH Equal withdrawals from investment to leave over 

24 SIMPDISK Simple discount analysis 

25 DATEVAL Equivalent nonequrvaient dated values for oblig. 

26 ANNUDEF Present value of deferred annuities 

27 MARKUP * Markup analysis for Herns 

28 SINKFUND Sinking fund amortization program 

29 BONDVAL Value of a bond 

30 DEPLETE Depletion analysis 

31 BLACKSH Black Scholes options analysis 

32 STOCVAL I Expected return on stock via discounts dividends 

33 WARVAL Value of a warrant 

34 BONDVAL2 Value of a bond 

35 EPSEST Estimate of future earnings per share for company 

36 BETAALPH Computes alpha and beta variables for stock 

37 SHARPEl Portfolio selection model -i.e what stocks to hold 

38 OPTWRTTE Option writing computations 

39 RTVAL Value of a right 

40 EXPVAL Expected value analysis 

41 BAYES Beyesian decisions 

42 VALPRIMF Value of perfect information 

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44 UTILITY Derives utility function 

45 SIMPLEX Linear prog r amming solution by simplex method 

46 TRANS Transportation method for linear programming 

47 EOU Economic order quantity inventory model 

48 QUEUE 1 Single server queudng (waiting line) model 

49 CVP Coat-vciiumeprofit analysis 

50 CXX1DPROF Conditional profit tables 

51 OPTLOSS Opportunity loss tables 

52 FQUOQ Fixed quantity economic order quantity model 

NAME DESCRIPTION 

53 FQEOWSH As above but with shortages permitted 

54 FQEOQPB As above but with quantity price breaks 

55 QUEUECB Coat-benefit waiting tine analysis 

56 NCFANAL Net cashflow analysis for simple inv uti in .n l 

57 PROF1ND Profitability index of a project 

58 CAP1 Cap. Asset Pr Model analysis of project 



59 WACC Weighted average cost of capital 

60 COMPBAL True rate on loan with compensating bal. required 

61 DISCBAL True rate on discounted loan 

62 MERGANAL Merger analysis computations 

63 FtNRAT Financial ratios for a firm 

64 NPV Net present value of project 

65 PRUDLAS Laspeyres price index 

66 PRfNDPA Paasche price index 

67 SEASIND Constructs seasonal quantity indices for company 

68 TTMETR Tune series analysis linear trend 

69 TIMEMOV Time series analysis moving average trend 

70 FUPRMF Future price estimation with inflation 

71 MAILPAC Mailing list system 

72 LETWRT Letter writing system-links with MArLPAC 

73 SORT3 Sorts list of names 

74 LABEL1 Shipping label maker 

75 LABEL2 Name label maker 

76 BUSBUD DOME business bookkeeping system 

77 T1MECLCK Computes weeks total hours from timeclock info. 

78 ACCTPAY In memory accounts payable system-storage permitted 

79 INVOKE Generate invoice on screen and print on printer 

80 INVENT2 In memory inventory control system 

81 TELDIR Computerized telephone directory 

82 TIMUSAN Time use analysis 

83 ASSIGN Use of assignment algorithm for optimal job assign. 

84 ACCTREC si memory accounts receivable system-storage ok 

85 TERMSPAY Compares 3 methods of repayment of loans 

86 PAYNET Computes gross pay required for given net 

87 SELLPR Computes selling price for given after tax amount 

88 ARBCOMP Arbitrage compulations 

89 DEPRSF Sinking fund depreciation 

90 UPSZONE Finds UPS zones from zip code 

91 ENVELOPE Types envelope including return address 

92 AUTOEXP Automobile expense analysis 

93 rNSFtLE Insurance policy He 

94 PAYROLL2 h memory payroll system 

95 DILANAL Dilution analysis 

96 LOANAFFD Loan amount a borrower can afford 

97 RENTPRCH Purchase price for rental property 

98 SALELEAS SaWeaseback analysis 

99 RRCONVBD Investor's rate of return on convertible bond 
100 PORTVAL9 Stock market portfolio storage-valuation program 



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Nets, Messages and Arpanet 

Computer networks, fondly called nets, are generally thought 
of as many computers connected by communication lines. 
And a user at a terminal, or personal computer, effectively 
connects to the whole net by hooking up to any one.* 

Nets may hold data, which is sometimes "distributed"— spread 
out among the computers— and they may run programs for 
you. They also carry "electronic mail." which are really messages 
left on the disk drives somewhere in the network. A user of 
the net. when told he has "mail waiting" uses his password to 
cause the computer to show what's been left there for him. 

Already vast numbers of such "electronic" messages— actually 
they are usually magnetic, but never mind— travel among 
individuals every day. The Old Guard who developed time- 
sharing really had no inkling that one of the principal uses of 
time-shared computing would be simply this forwarding of 
stored messages. 

There are many network mail systems; almost all time- 
sharing systems offer something like a mail system. One of 
the most powerful is "Augment," offered by Tym-Share — the 
commercial version of Douglas Engelbart's two decades of 
pioneering designs at Stanford Research Institute. 

The most influential computer net is the mighty Arpanet, a 
curious system of over a hundred computers across the 
country— at universities, research establishments and military 
installations. Financed by the Defense Department, it was 
originally conceived as a means by which defense-linked 
researchers could use the special facilities of each other's 
computers. This it is. However, to everyone's surprise, it has 
come about that the principal use of the Arpanet is as a 
message highway, carrying millions of transmissions and replies 
every day. (Many of these messages are programs and dataplexes 
which cannot be usefully printed. Indeed, many of these 
"messages" are simply individual bursts in high-density interactive 
sessions in which two or more devices are participating.) 

* A "net" can sometimes be just one computer. Indeed, in a 
way it could be argued that "net" is just a new word for time- 
sharing, the simultaneous use of big computers by many 
people. 



The elite who use Arpanet think of it as their connection to 
an extraordinary universe of brilliant individuals— each other. 
Membership in this community is a vital part of the sense of 
identity of many people in it; and the idea of losing this 
connection is dreaded as a fearsome expulsion, like losing 
credit card privileges. 

Nevertheless, there is talk that the Defense Department 
suspects it is paying for some usage which is not directly 
related to defense. (This is obviously true, but Arpanet is also 
an expanded experiment in high-tech informational com- 
munity.) 

In any case, the rug may one day be pulled out from many 
of these users, and as yet no service broad or powerful 
enough to replace it is on the horizon. D 



Can the At-Sign Save Us? 

There is already a convention for passing messages among 
nets, which is in use between certain of them. A user of one 
net may address a user at. say, Arpanet, as follows: 

SNERD@ARPANET 

"Snerd" being the registered password of an Arpanet regular, 
the nets will pass this message on through to Arpanet, which 
will in turn see to it that "Snerd" is informed of its being 
stored there. 

It was argued in private by certain attendees of the M&M 
Conference that dangers posed by the Post Office to the 
hopes of sophisticated users could in some ways be mollified 
by this convention. 

Suppose the PO obtained that most feared prerogative, a 
monopoly of "electronic mail." Nonetheless, if you are a 
member of a known net and addressed through that net — like 
SNERD@ARPANET-then that message would be diverted 
to your home net before it ever got into the PO net. 

But this is cold comfort for those concerned with creating 
an exciting information society, not merely for the network 
elite, but for everybody. And unless the freakiest ideas can be 
tried on a competitive basis, we may never know what we 
would have really wanted. □ 



Mail Chauvinism, continued... 

titors would not stand for it and customers 
would not stand for it — besides which, of 
course, there is the Reagan administration's 
stand against government services in 
general. 

But most important, the Postal Rate 
Commission has in its wisdom given the 
Post Office that fraction of electronic 
communication which can be stuffed in 
an envelope. 

However, that does not necessarily end 
the threat. The warnings of Henry Geller, 
for instance, centered on the difficulty of 
a mixed economy where the Post Office 
offered electronic services in competition 
with private vendors. 

I see a different sort of threat: that the 
Postal Service might make electronic mail 
become what they think it is. And this 
could cripple us all for the indefinite future. 
At a point so early in the development of 
such services, it is astonishing that the 
Postal Service is already petitioning to 
make ECOM permanent. What if perma- 



nence had been legislated for the Ford 
Trimotor, the Eniac computer and the 
SOAP language? 



The Postal Service 

might make electronic 

mail become what they 

think it is. 



But it is in the further services the Post 
Office might offer— currently forbidden — 
that the danger lies. Even if they get no 
monopoly, by offering new services they 
have the power to structure an industry. 

If the Post Office can. with flexibility, 
participate in this with as much foresight 
as those whose vision is driving it, then 
their participation will do no harm. But if 
Post Office participation means low-grade 

156 



visions are to be foisted on the public, 
simplified and degraded forms of trans- 
mission that cripple the kind of interaction 
we are trying to create, these maneuverings 
are to be viewed with the greatest alarm 
by those who care about the world of 
tomorrow. Oversimplification and inflex- 
ibility could greatly reduce the imagination 
and power of tomorrow's evolving services. 
Let us hope the Post Office can find the 
wisdom to expand its understandings, and 
make an orderly contribution to the 
structure of our new life of the future, 
rather than a narrow, monopolistic impedi- 
ment to the world some of us are trying to 
create. 

Epilog 

In "The Hunting of the Snark," the 
quarry all were seeking turned out to be 
that most horrible of beasts, the Boojum. 
If the finest visions are not shared as 
widely and clearly as possible, what Boojum 
may we not find? □ 

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Side by Side : 

Pascal and Basic 



Al Evans 



It may seem a bit heretical to describe a 
Pascal program in terms of a Basic pro- 
gram, but that's precisely what I'm going 
to do in this article. Most of us are used to 
Basic and fairly friendly with it. Pascal 
puts us in a new environment full of edi- 
tors, filers, compilers, linkers, system 
libraries, segmented programs and exter- 
nal units. 

It's important to realize that all these 
possibilities are provided for one reason: 
to increase the number of ways we can 
approach a problem. Pascal provides a 



Most of us are used to 

Basic and fairly friendly 

with it. Pascal puts us in 

a new environment. 



rich and coherent field for programming: 
a structured system. On the level of the 
functional units of any given program, the 
differences between Pascal and Basic are 
less striking than the similarities. 

Program Make-menu was orginally writ- 
ten in Apple Pascal as a general-purpose 
menu utility. The Pascal version should 
run on any UCSD Pascal system with 
minor reformatting (a 40-column screen is 
presently assumed). The procedure 

Al Evans, 120fi Karen Ave. Austin. TX 7H757. 
158 



"Select" can be inserted directly into any 
UCSD Pascal program. The only entity 
which must be available to both the proce- 
dure "Select" and the calling routine is the 
Type "TextPage." 

This menu uses the convention of 
moving a "pointer" with the right- and left- 
arrow keys. A carriage return (in Pascal, a 
carriage return or space) selects the item 
currently pointed to. 

Most people find this type of menu 
faster and easier to use than the "pick a 
number" kind. It can be completely con- 
trolled with only 3 keys. Functions most 
often used can be placed near the top and 
bottom for rapid selection. A "wrap- 
around" display is used — the top item is 
one step below the bottom item and vice 
versa. Illegal entries are impossible, short 
of pushing RESET. 

For purposes of demonstration and 
experimentation. Makemenu also 
includes a procedure to format input into 
an array of strings centered to print in the 
middle of a 40-column line. The main pro- 
gram allows you to format and select from 
a menu. 

The Basic version of Makemenu is. as 
nearly as practical, a statement-for-state- 
ment translation of the Pascal program. I 
stopped short of using "non-standard" 
Basic programming practices which 
would be expensive in terms of memory 
and execution time. And I did not "strain" 
the Basic language to precisely duplicate 
the process of a statement when the same 
effect could be achieved more economic- 
ally in Basic by altering the process. 

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Side by Side, continued. . . 



In either language, Program Make- 
menu starts with a brief initialization sec- 
tion (lines 10-40 in the Basic program). 
This is followed by a jump to a main con- 
trolling routine (lines 10000-10700 in 
Basic. Main Program in Pascal). The main 
program lets you format a control menu 
with the routine Format (lines 1000-1900 
in Basic. Procedure Format in Pascal), 
then displays the menu and accepts selec- 
tions from it using the routine Select (lines 
2000-2950 in Basic. Procedure Select in 
Pascal). Being a demonstration program, 
it then simply displays your selection and 
waits for you to continue or quit. 

Let's follow the program step by step, 
beginning with initialization. 

Initialization 

Pascal programs start with declarations 
of global constants, types, and variables. 
"Global" means "defined everywhere 
within a program or procedure." The 
opposite of global is "local." Hold that 
thought for a few paragraphs — we'll come 
back to it. 

Constants in Pascal are indeed con- 
stant. They remain the same throughout 
the program and from one run to the next. 
The only way to change them is to alter 
the source text and recompile the pro- 
gram. 

In Basic, on the other hand (lines 10-15), 
their constancy is a function of the pro- 
grammer's state of mind. For example, if 
you add 

10025 MAXCHAR = 85 
to the Basic program, you will be free to 
enter long lines when formatting your 
menu. This is guaranteed to produce 
incomprehensible effects. 

Basic has nothing directly comparable 
to a type declaration. The variable types 
used in Basic are integer, real, and string, 
plus arrays of these types. In Pascal, a type 
might be defined as: Type Hicard=(J,Q. 
K.A); or Type Weekday =<MON.TUE. 
WED.THUR.FRIl. 

Later in the program, a variable of the 
type Weekday could only be assigned one 
of its defined values, just as an integer in 
the Apple can only be assigned a value 
between -32767 and 32767. Furthermore, 
these types are ordered. Just as the integer 
1 is less than 2. the Weekday MON is "less 
than" TUE. Obviously, the possibilities 
are endless. 

But in the present program. I have sim- 
ply used the Type TextPage as a conveni- 
ent word to stand for an array of 20 strings. 

"Variable declarations" in Basic are 
optional (but considered good form). The 
Type of a variable is defined by its suffix 
(none for real. % for integer, $ for string). 
The Basic "DIM" statement on line 35 is 
approximately equivalent to the Pascal 
variable declaration MENU:TextPage. 
But there is one important difference, 
with the advantage going to Basic in this 
case. 




As I mentioned before, PAGESIZE is 
actually a variable, rather than a constant, 
in the Basic program. We could add the 
line 

20 INPUT "PAGESIZE. ".PAGESIZE 
and change this constant on every run. Or 
we could CLEAR all variables later in the 
program, change PAGESIZE. and dimen- 
sion the array again. This type of dynamic 
storage allocation is comparatively diffi- 
cult in UCSD Pascal. In fact, it can't be 
done at all with arrays. 

Controlling the Main Program 

With initialization complete, we'll skip 
over the working routines to the control- 
ling Main Program. Line 50 takes care of 
this in Basic: in Pascal it is automatic. 

In Pascal, one major objective is to 
write Main Programs which are concise 
and easy to understand. Names of vari- 
ables and procedures are selected care- 
fully. If they are clear and meaningful, the 
Main Program can approach an English- 
language description of the process used 
to perform the task at hand. Ideally, a 



person not familiar with the program can 
read the Main Program section and gain a 
quick understanding of what is going on. 
Of course, there is a good reason to do 
this in Basic, too. We are free to select 
appropriate names and use REM's to 
make the process obvious. Nor is it diffi- 
cult to be obtuse in Pascal, but the divid- 
ing line is sharper. In Basic, we can at least 
always tell what actions the computer 
itself is performing. Unclear Pascal code 
borders on the completely incomprehen- 
sible. 

Procedure Format 

The first statement in the Pascal Main 
Program is Format(MENU). This state- 
ment does two things. First, it calls Proce- 
dure Format, serving exactly the same 
purpose as the GOSUB 1000 in the Basic 
program (line 10050). Second, it assigns 
MENU as the "parameter" passed to For- 
mat. The top line of Format reads: 

Procedure FormatlVar TEXT:Text 
Page); 
This declaration means that 1 item is to be 



MAKEMENU BASIC: 
TRANSLATION OF PASCAL 
PROGRAM MAKEMENU 



36 



1 REM 

2 REM 

3 REM 
S I 

10 REM CONSTANTS 
15 PAGESIZE - 20! MAXCHAR 
20 : 

25 REM VARIABLES 

30 MENUITEMS - Oi INDEX » 

35 DIM MENU* (PAGESIZE) 

40 CH* ■ "" 

45 ■ 

SO GOTO lOOOOi REM JUMP TO MAIN PROGRAM 

55 ■ 

60 l 

1000 GOTO HOOl REM PROCEDURE (ROUTINE) FORM* 

10O5 l 

1010 REM PROCEDURE (SUBROUTINE) CENTER 

1020 SPACE* - " " 

1030 FOR J - O TO INT ( (38 - LEN (S*> ) / 2) 

1040 S* « SPACE* ♦ S* 

1050 NEXT J 

1060 RETURN ■ REM END OF "CENTER* 

1065 I 

1100 REM 



BEGIN MAIN BODY OF FORMAT 



1150 
1200 
1250 
1300 
13SO 
1400 
1450 
1500 



HOME 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 



•**F0RMAT A MENU**' 



YOU MAY USE UP TO " | PAGESI ZE; " LINES" 

PRINT "OF UP TO "iMAXCHAR;" CHARACTERS EACH" 

PRINT 

INPUT "ENTER NO. OF MENU LINES: "I MENU ITEMS 

IF MENUITEMS 1 OR MENUITEMS > PAGESIZE THEN 

■PAGESIZE; " , PLEASE"! GOTO 1450 

PRINT 

PRINT "ENTER EACH LINE OF MENU! " 

FOR I » 1 TO MENUITEMS 

PRINT I J". ";i INPUT "";MENU*(I> 

IF LEN (MENU*(I>) > MAXCHAR THEN 
TERS, PLEASE"! GOTO 1700 
1800 S* ■ MENU*(I): GOSUB 1010: MENU* ( I ) 
1850 NEXT I 

1900 RETURN I REM END OF 'FORMAT' 
1905 I 
1910 l 



160 



1550 
1600 
1650 
1700 
1750 



PRINT "BETWEEN 1 AND 



PRINT "MAXIMUM "»MAXCHAR»" CHARAC 



S* 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



passed to Format, that the item may 
changed by the procedure ("Var"). that 
the item will be referred to as TEXT 
within the procedure, and that the item 
TEXT is in fact a TextPage (as compared 
to an Integer or String). 

This makes it possible, within a single 
program, to Format(MENU). then For- 
mat(WINELIST) or FormatlPROCE- 
DURFTABLEl. presuming that these are 
all defined as TextPages. 

Parameter-passing is more difficult in 
Basic: it must be explicitly defined by the 
programmer. I'll return to this subject. At 
this point, just note that the main body of 
the Basic Format routine (lines 1KX)- 
UKX)I refers directly to the MENUS 
array, while the same portion of the 
Pascal program | BEGIN (•Format*)... 
END: l*Format*l| refers to it indirectly 
as TEXT. 

Actual processing in Format begins at 
the Pascal line which reads "BEGIN 
(•Format*!" (Basic line 12001. The pro- 
gram prints out the parameters to be used 
in making up the menu (Basic lines 1 150- 



1400) and asks for the number of lines of 
text to be placed on the menu | Basic lines 
1450-1500. Pascal lines REPEAT... 
UNTIL (MENUITEMS> = 1> and 
(MENUITEMS< = PAGESIZE)|. 

Note the different approaches to 
range-checking. Pascal, as we all know, 
frowns on GOTO statements. Loosely, 
the Basic program says "Get it and check 
it: if it's wrong, go back and get it again." 
The Pascal program says "Just keep get- 
ting it until it's right." The results are the 
same. 

The rest of the procedure is an indexed 
loop to fill each line in the menu with an 
entry from the keyboard. The loop is 
contained between FOR and NEXT in 
Basic, between BEGIN and END in 
Pascal. Again, note the different 
approaches to range-checking. 

Subroutine Center 

Just before the end of the loop is a call 
to a subroutine used to center each line 
of text |C"enter(TEXT|l|) in Pascal, line 
IKO0 iii Basic |. In Pascal. TEXT|I| is 



I KOGRAM MAI EMENLIj 

Const PAGESIZE=2C; 
MAXCHAR=36| 

Type Tex tPage=Arr ay tl. .PAGESIZE] of Stringi 

Var MENU I TEMS , I NDE X i I n t eger | 
MENUt TextPage; 
CHiChari 



Procedure Format (Var TEXTi TextPage) i 
War It Integer; 



Procedure Center (Var Si String); 
Const SPACE-' '| 
Var I : Integer; 

BEGIN 
For 1 1=0 to (38-Length(S) ) DIV 2 do 
Si=Concat (SPACE, S) 
END; ((Center*) 



BEGIN (tFormat*) 
Page (OUTPUT) ; 
Wri teln C «*Format 
Wri teln; 

Writelnl'Vou may t 
Wri teln ('of up to 
Wri teln; 
REPEAT 
Write ('Enter No. 
I* (MENUITEMS 1> 



a Menu** * ) i 



» up to ' .PAGES I ZE, ' lines'); 
■.MAXCHAR,' characters each.'); 



Menu Lines; '); Readln (MENUITEMS) ; 
( MENU I TEMS >PAGES I ZE ) 



Then Mr i teln (* Between 1 
UNTIL (MENU I TEMS >=1) and 
Writeln; 

Wr ■ teln ( 'Enter each line 
For I l-l to MENUITEMS do 
BEGIN 
REPEAT 
Urited,'. ' ) iReadln (TEXTC I 3) ; 
If Length(TEXTCI 3) >MAXCHAR 
Then Wr i teln (' Max win ', MAXCHAR, 
UNTIL Length (TEXTC I JX-MAXCHAR: 
Center (TEXTCII) 
END; 
END; (*Format*> 



and '.PAGESIZE, ', please' 
(MENUITEMS -PAGES I ZE) ; 

of menu; ' ) ; 



characters, please. 



passed as a variable parameter to Center. 
Center refers to this string as "S." Line 
1800 of the Basic program shows how 
such parameters can be passed explicitly 
in Basic. This is fairly simple for a string 
or numeric variable. Obviously, it would 
be more complicated to pass an entire 
array in this manner, although it is com- 
pletely possible. 

As I mentioned above. Pascal refers 
indirectly to the menu array as TEXT by 
the use of paramter-passing. To do the 
same in Basic, we would have to add the 
statements 

FOR I = 1 TO PAGESIZE 

TESTStf) = MENUS! I) 

NEXT I 
The inverse operation would be required 
after formatting was complete. 

This would often lead to a dispropor- 
tionate increase in time and memory 
required for a Basic program. I therefore 
considered it against the "rules" of this 
program translation. 

In any case, the procedure/subroutine 
Center simply adds spaces to each string 
entered in the menu to center it on the 
screen. In doing so. it brings us back to 
the distinction between global and local 
variables. 

Note that the Pascal Procedure Center 
uses "I" as a loop control variable, even 
(hough "1" is the variable controlling the 
loop from which the procedure is called. 
"I" is declared as a variable in both the 
heading for Format anil the heading for 
Center. The variable "I" declared in the 
Format heading is "local" to the proce- 
dure Format. It does not exist anywhere 
else in the program. The "I" declared as a 
variable in Center is local to Center. It 
does not exist anywhere else in Format 
or. or course, anywhere in the main pro- 
gram. I You Pascal programmers know 
that Format's "I" would exist in Center if 
it were not superceded by a local declara- 
tion, but that's beyond the scope of this 
article.) 

This distinction between global and 
local variables makes it possible to add 
procedures to a Pascal program and 
know that they will not change variables 
which might later be used somewhere 
else with unexpected results. There is no 
such distinction in Basic. Another vari- 
able ("J" is this case) must be used to 
control the subroutine in lines HMO-lObO. 

The Pascal operator "DIV" is simply 
an integer version of "/." Line HBO of the 
Basic program has the same effect. 

The Format routine checks each line 
for length as it is entered and centers it. 
When MENUITFMS strings have been 
entered. Format has completed its opera- 
tion and passes control back to the main 
program. 

The main program now enters a loop 
which will be repeated until something 
other than a "C" is entered at its end. 



NOVEMBER 1981 



161 



Side by Side, continued... 

Procedure Select 

This loop sets INDEX to point to the 
first item on the menu and calls the Pro- 
cedure Select (Basic lines 2000-2950). 
Once again, note the technique used to 
pass parameters in Basic (line 10150). 
The array itself is not passed for the same 
reason as before. 

Procedure Select sets TOP to center 
the menu vertically on the screen, calls a 
subroutine to display it (Pascal Proce- 
dure Display. Basic lines 2010-2070). and 
uses arrows to point to the top item on 
the menu (Pascal Procedure Markitem. 
Basic lines 21 10-2170). Note that the vari- 
able names used in the two languages are 
slightly different. 

In Basic. I could not use POINTER or 
TOP as variable names. They contain 
the reserved words INT and TO. Further- 
more, in Applesoft and many other ver- 
sions of Basic. OLDINDEX and OLD- 
POINTER would refer to the same 
variable, as the first two letters are the 
same. In UCSD Pascal, the first eight 
letters of a variable name are significant. 



The same programming 

problem can be solved 

very similarly in two 

reputedly-dissimilar 

programming 

languages. 




GOTO 2200: REM PROCEDURE (ROUTINE) SELECT 
l 
REM PROCEDURE (SUBROUTINE) DISPLAY 
HOME 

HTAB (1): VTAB (TP) 
FOR I - 1 TO ITEMS 
PRINT MENU»( I ) 
NEXT I 
RETURN j REM END OF 'DISPLAY* 



2000 

2003 

2010 

2020 

2030 

2040 

2050 

2060 

2070 

2075 I 

2110 REM PROCEDURE (SUBROUTINE) MARKITEM 

2120 LEFT ■ liRIGHT - 39 

2130 HTAB (LEFT) I VTAB (TP - 1 ♦ 0INDEX)i PRINT " 
HTAB (RIGHT) l VTAB (TP - 1 + OINDEX): PRINT " 
HTAB (LEFT) I VTAB (TP - 1 ♦ INDEX): PRINT "•>" 
HTAB (RIGHT) ■ VTAB (TP - 1 + INDEX) l PRINT "<» 
RETURN I REM END OF 'MARKITEM' 



2140 
2130 
2160 
2170 
2173 
2200 
2250 
2300 
2350 
2400 
2450 



BEGIN MAIN BODY OF SELECT 
2) 



REM 
TP - INT ((24 - ITEMS) / 
GOSUB 20101 REM DISPLAY 
INDEX - PTRlOINDEX ■ PTRi GOSUB 2110t REM 
GET CH* 

IF CH* = CHR* (13) THEN 
2SOO OPTR - PTR 
2550 IF CH« 



MARKITEM 



GOTO 29501 REM JUMP OUT ON C/R 
CHR* (21) THEN GOTO 2700 l REM RIGHT ARROW 



2600 PTR - PTR 
2650 IF PTR > 
2700 IF CH* 



1 



ITEMS THEN PTR = PTR - ITEMS 
> CHR» (8) THEN GOTO 28501 REM 



LEFT ARROW 



2750 PTR 



PTR - 1 



2800 IF PTR < 1 THEN PTR - PTR ♦ ITEMS 

2850 OINDEX = OPTRs INDEX ■ PTRi GOSUB 2110: 

2900 GOTO 2400 

2950 RETURN : REM END OF 'SELECT' 

2955 l 

2960 : 

2965 : 

lOOOO 

10050 



REM MARKITEM 



REM MAIN PROGRAM 

GOSUB 1000: REM FORMAT 

10100 INDEX = 1 

1015O ITEMS « MENUITEMS:PTR 

10200 HOME 

1O250 HTAB (1): VTAB (8) 

1O3O0 PRINT "ITEM SELECTED WAS:" 

10350 PRINT 

10400 PRINT MENU* (INDEX) 

1 0450 PR I NT 

PRINT "PRESS -C- TO CONTINUE" 

10550 PRINT "ANYTHING ELSE TO QUIT" 

10600 GET CH* 

10630 IF CH* <= "C" THEN 10100 

10700 END 



INDEX: GOSUB 2000: REM 



SELECT 



Otherwise, the operation of Display and 
Markitem is the same in either language. 

Procedure Select now reads a char- 
acter from the keyboard |Read(KEY- 
BOARD.CH) in Pascal, line 2400 in 
Basic |. We are interested in only three 
characters: left arrow, right arrow, and 
carriage return. (For reasons beyond the 
scope of this article. Pascal considers a 
carriage return to be the same as a space 
when only a single character is being 
read.) 

A carriage return sends us back to the 
Main Program, with INDEX set to the 
menu position of the item selected. A 
right arrow moves the pointers one step 
down the display (increasing the present 
value of INDEX by 1). A left arrow 
moves them one step up. No other entry 
has any effect on the program, the 
arrows, or the value of INDEX. In any 
case, the display is updated by Markitem 
according to the character read. 

Slightly different loops are used to per- 
form these functions in Basic and Pascal 



| Basic lines 2400-2950. Pascal "Then 
REPEAT...UNTIL CH=CHR<32)|. 

The main difference is that Pascal 
makes it possible to execute condi- 
tionally any number of actions based on 
the results of a comparison (If. ..Then 
BEGIN. ..END). In Basic. I achieved the 
■ante result by reversing the comparison 
and using GOTO to skip over the actions 
NOT to be taken (for example, line 
2550). 

The other difference is the fact that 
the statement Read(KEYBOARD.CH) is 
repeated twice in the Pascal program. 
This is usually necessary in Pascal, and is 
a side-effect of not using the command 
GOTO. The first read (outside the loop) 
is used to determine whether to enter the 
loop at all. The second (at the bottom of 
the loop) is used to determine whether to 
exit the loop. This is perfectly reason- 
able, but seems peculiar at first. 



When you make a choice and press 
< RETURN >. Select passes control 
back to the Main Program, along with the 
new value of INDEX |line 2950 in Basic. 
END: ('Select*) in Pascal |. Subsequent 
operation is exactly the same in Pascal 
and Basic: the program clears the screen, 
prints out the menu line you selected to 
prove it is operating correctly, and asks 
whether you want to choose again. 

In a real Basic program, the action 
taken at the point of return would be 
determined by a statement such as 

ON INDEX GOSUB 3000.4000... 
The same selection process is accom- 
plished in Pascal by 

Case INDEX of 

I : Procedural 

2: Procedure2 

3: etc. 
END. ('Cases*) 



162 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Procedure Select (TEXT; Tex tPage; ITEMSi Integer ;Var PO INTER J Inteq 

V«r OLDPOINTER, TOPi Integer; 
CH:Char; 



Procedure Displays 
Var 1 1 Integer : 

BEGIN 

Page ( OUTPUT >; 

Gotoxy (0.T0P) < 

For Ii-l to ITEMS do Wr 1 teln (TEXTC II ) ; 
END; <*Di splay*) 



Procedure Marki tem < INDEX, OLD INDEX: Integer) i 
Const LEFT-O; 

RIGHT-38; 

BEGIN 

Gotoxy (LEFT, TOP- 1+OLD INDEX) j WriteC ')| 

Gotoxy (RIGHT, TOP- t+OLDINDEX) ; WriteC '); 

Gotoxy(LEFT,TOP-l+INDEX> l Write('=>' ) ; 

Gotoxy(RIGHT,TOP-l+INDEX> i Write('<=' ) 
END; IIMarkiteall 



BEGIN (*Select*> 
T0Pi=( 24- ITEMS) DIV 2; 
Display; 

Markitero(POINTER, POINTER) ; 
Read (KEYBOARD, CH> | 

I* CHOCHR(32) (*<RETURN> or <SPACE>*> 

Then REPEAT 

OLDPOINTER; "POINTER; 

If CH-CHR(21> («Right arrow*) 

Then BEGIN 

POINTER; -POINTER+1 | 
If POINTER>ITEMS 
Then POINTER: -POINTER- ITEMS 
END; 
If CH=CHR(B> (*Left arrow*) 
Then BEGIN 

POINTER: -POINTER- 1 ; 
If P0INTER<1 

Then POINTER: -P0INTER+1TEMS 
END; 
Markitem(POINTER, OLDPOINTER) ; 
Read (KEYBOARD, CH) ; 
UNTIL CH-CHR<32> (*<RETURN> or <SPACE *) 
END; ((Select*) 



BEGIN (*MAIN PROGRAM*) 
Format (MENU) ; 
REPEAT 
INDEX I>1| 

Select (MENU.MENUITEMS, INDEX) ; 
Page (OUTPUT) | 
Gotoxy (0.8) ; 

Wri teln (' Item selected was:'); 
Wri teln; 

Wnteln(MENUCINDEX3) ; 
Wri teln; 

Wri teln ( 'Press "C" to continue'); 
Wri teln ( 'Anything else to quit'); 
Read(CH); 
UNTIL (CHO'C) and (CHO'c") 
END. 



Conclusion 

And so I have shown that the same 
programming problem can be solved very 
similarly in two reputedly-dissimilar pro- 
gramming languages. In this particular 
case, neither seems to have any particular 
advantage over the other. This apparent 
equivalence is somewhat misleading. 

While I have used a fair percentage of 
the "power" of Basic (defined in terms of 
the constructs and actions possible). I 
have hardly scratched the surface of 
UCSD Pascal. The brief discussions of 
type definitions and parameter-passing 
give only hints of the capabilities of this 
language. 

NOVEMBER 1981 



There are several additional types of 
loops— all the string functions of Basic 
and a few extras, completely recursive 
multiline functions. There are "file" and 
"record" type variables. Long programs 
can be broken down into "segments" 
which are loaded from disk only when 
they're needed. 

But the point of this article is that I was 
not required to use any of the unfamiliar 
structures of Pascal to write a useful pro- 
gram. They are simply available. And they 
will still be available when I am writing a 
program which cannot be so easily trans- 
lated into Basic. □ 

163 



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CIRCLE 298 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Jacob Ever 



We hear a lot about the virtues of 
Pascal and structured programming, 
and the impending obsolescence of 
Basic. This article presents another 
view.—EBS 



Most personal computers are pro- 
grammed in Basic. In many cases the 
language is built into the read only memory 
of the machine. As a result most users of 
small computers learn Basic as their first, 
and sometimes their only, language. In 
the October 1980 survey of Byte magazine 
almost 50% of the readers indicated that 
they use Basic frequently, and close to 
90% indicated occasional or intended 
use. 

Yet computer language experts argue 
that Basic is a bad language. I have even 
heard it called a "spaghetti" language. 
This does not indicate that Basic has the 
elegance and style of the Italian language. 
No. quite the contrary might be true. The 
term actually refers to the control structure 
of the language. If one traces with a pencil 
the lines being executed in a Basic program, 
in sequence of execution, one ends up 
with lines crisscrossing one another. Not 
unlike a bowl of pasta. This is due to the 
many GOTOs. or branches, that one 
typically encounters in a Basic program. 



Jacob Ever. 175 Ivy Hill Cr.. Rvc Town. NY 
1057.1. 



The spaghetti syndrome, it is argued, 
makes the program difficult to read and. 
therefore, difficult to maintain. This is 
contrasted with the smooth flow of a 
"structured" language such as Pascal. One 
can usually write a program in Pascal 
without any jumping around, i.e. without 
GOTOs. Some versions of Pascal have 
branching only as a discouraged option. 



Will the superior 

qualities of Pascal win 

out over the popularity 

but poor structure 

of Basic? 



Furthermore, most Basics do not allow 
explicit naming of objects. For example, 
a variable in Basic usually has a two 
character name, the first being alphabetic. 
This makes reading a Basic program a 
feat of memorization. It is a well known 
fact that short term human memory can 
hold only six or seven items. Therefore a 
program that contains more than a few 
non-mnemonic names is indigestible, again 
reminding one of the aforementioned bowl 
of noodles. 



Finally, almost all Basics are interpretive. 
That means that the lines of the program 
are translated into machine instructions 
as they are encountered during the running 
of the program. In a loop that is executed 
many times, the interpreter figures out 
each time separately the action to be taken 
based on the stated instructions. This is 
slow! 

Before getting my personal computer, 
a Northstar Horizon. I read many articles 
on this subject in the pages of this and 
other computer publications. It was stated 
repeatedly that now that Pascal is widely 
available, the days of Basic are numbered. 
Therefore. I resolved that Pascal would 
be the language that I would use for 
programming my applications. Unfortun- 
ately it was several months before I could 
lay my hands on a UCSD Pascal compiler 
so I fell back to programming in Northstar 
Basic. Later I had a chance to program in 
Microsoft Basic. By the time I learned 
Pascal. I became interested in comparing 
the various languages in a given applica- 
tion. 

The application I chose for comparison 
is a word processor which I called Simple- 
word. Simpleword is a full screen editor 
which is simple to learn, yet has a full 
range of editing features. I programmed 
it in Northstar Basic iNBasicl. in Microsoft 
Basic i M Basic i and Pascal. The article is 
the result of my experiences in writing 
Simpleword. 



166 



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Basic Beats Pascal, continued. 



Pascal 



Program Test; 
const nol=300 
var i i integer j 

anarray[l. .nol] of string[26]j 

Procedure create; 
begin 

ar[l] := 'abcdef ghi jklmnopgrstuwxyz • ; 

for it =2 to nol do 
a[i]:=ar[i-l] 
end; 

Procedure replace; 
begin 

for i i = 1 to nol do 

ar[i,pos( 'z' ,ar[ i]) ]:=chr(13) 
end; 

Procedure print; 
begin 

for ii=l to no] do 
write(ar[i] ) 
end; 

begin (* main *) 

create; 

write(chr(7) ) ; (* ring bell *) 

replace; 

write(chr(7)) ; 

print ; 

write(chr(7) ) ; 
end. 



Nbasic 

100 DIM P$(7800) 

110 REM Create 

120 PRINT CHR$(7) 

130 FOR 1=1 TO 7774 STEP 26 

140 P$( 1 , 1 + 26 )="abcdef ghi jKlmnopqrstuwxyz' 

150 NEXT I 

160 REM Replace 

170 PRINT CHR$(7) 

180 FOR 1=1 TO 7800 

190 IF P$(I,I)="z" THEN P$ ( I , I ) =CHR$( 13 ) 

200 NEXT I 

210 REM Print 

220 PRINT CHR$(7) 

230 PRINT P$ 

240 PRINT CHR$(7) 

250 END 



Mbasic 

100 clear 10000 

110 nol=300 

120 dim P$(nol) 

130 ' Create 

140 print chr$(7) ; 

150 P$( l)="abcdefghi jklmnopqrstuvwxyz" 

160 for 1=2 to nol 

170 P$(I)=P$(I-1) 

180 next I 

190 • Replace 

200 print chr$(7) ; 

210 for 1=1 to nol 

220 midf (P$(I).instr(P$(I) ,"z") ,l)=chr$(13) 

230 next I 

240 • Print 

250 print chr$(7) ; 

260 for 1=1 to nol 

270 print P$(I) 

280 next I 

290 print chr$(7) ; 

300 end 



Performance 

Why should one be concerned about 
the performance of a language? Well the 
only time one should pay any attention to 
this area is when the system response 
time is bothersome (i.e. when it affects 
productivity). In Simpleword one first enters 
text. In my experience, one almost simul- 
taneously starts changing it. Let me address 
the performance aspects of each one of 
these operations separately. 

When it comes to entering text, all 
languages are fast enough to pick up the 
input as fast as it is typed in. Even a touch 
typist is satisfied with the capability of 
the languages to accept input. This is 
very important since a slowdown in this 
area can have a major impact on the 
usefulness of a text editor. 

When it comes to editing, the picture is 
mixed. Northstar Basic turns out to be 
slow when editing requires searching a 
string of text. It is interesting to note that 
in a recent performance test done by the 
Association of Computer Users and pub- 
lished in Computer World, Northstar Basic 
outperformed several machines costing 
many times more. 



Figure I. 

However, when it comes to word pro- 
cessing, N Basic has two disadvantages: 1) 
lack of built in string searching function; 
2) primitive string storage facilities. So I 
devised a series of benchmark tests that 
compare the three languages in their ability 
to handle a typical word processing applica- 
tion. 

Before describing the benchmarks and 
the results, let me spend a moment on 
text storage. If asked to identify a basic 
unit of text, most people will say a word 
or, possibly, a sentence. Yet most word 
processing systems use a character or a 
line as a basic unit. Simpleword is a 
character-oriented word processor, yet it 
has to be aware of lines, since lines are 
the unit printed or displayed at any given 
time. 

In NBasic the working text is stored as 
one long string. The program has to have 
the intelligence to break up the long string 
into individual lines. An empty line is 
simply stored as a line full of blanks. This 
takes a lot of space and is cumbersome to 
handle. Pascal as well as MBasic allows 
storing the text as an array of lines. 

168 



MBasic is particularly adept at storing 
individual lines in a very economical 
manner. It reserves space only for the 
characters that are actually contained in 
the lines. Pascal on the other hand stores 
every line as if it contained a full comple- 
ment of characters. Thus, an empty line 
occupies a full line of space in Pascal, but 
not in MBasic. 

The text handling benchmark creates 
a text with 300 lines, each one containing 
the complete alphabet. The next module 
searches each line, replacing the last 
character in the line with a carriage return. 
Finally the complete text is displayed. So 
the text consists of three modules: create. 



Create 

Replace 

Print 

Total 



Nbasic Mbasic Pascal 

4 2 2 

55 2 2 

8 9 8 



67 



13 



12 



Figure 2. Run time in seconds. 

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CIRCLE 260 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Basic Beats Pascal, continued... 

replace and print. Figure 1 shows the 
program as implemented in Pascal. NBasic 
and M Basic. There are obvious differences 
in program readability, but this will be 
explored in a subsequent section. Figure 2 
shows the results of executing the three 
programs on a Northstar Computer. NBasic 
running native on the machine while 
MBasic running under CP/M. 

It is interesting to note that there is 
almost no difference in execution time 
between MBasic and Pascal. The fact 
that MBasic is fully interpretive while Pascal 
is partially compiled is dwarfed by the 
availability of a built-in string searching 
function. On the other hand. NBasic suffers 
for not having such a capability. 

My conclusion from the performance 
test and practical experience in running 
all three word processors is that any one 
is satisfactory as an input device. NBasic 
is lacking in editing performance, but this 
could be overcome by augmenting it with 
an appropriate machine language routine. 
However. NBasic also takes a lot of memory 
for text storage. 

MBasic and Pascal were about equal 
in performance, with an edge for MBasic 
in storage economy. The more important 
question, however, is the simplicity, read- 
ability and ease of maintenance of programs 
written in the two languages. More on 
this in the next section. 



Language Structure 

Here is the crux of the matter: Will the 
superior qualities of Pascal win out over 
the popularity but poor structure of Basic? 
Trying to answer this question, one runs 
immediately into a "basic" difficulty (pardon 
the pun— it just slipped out). The problem 
is that there is no one Basic. Even in this 
limited sample there are two Basics from 
which to choose: MBasic from Microsoft 



The system aspects of 

Basic were the 

determining factors in 

choosing it over Pascal. 



and NBasic from Northstar. The following 
is a comparison of the three languages in 
terms of ease of writing and ease of 
changing a program. 

Scanning the programs in Figure Litis 
obvious that Pascal has the best readability 
index. Unfortunately, there is no such index, 
but the point is still valid. The Basic 
programs require comments to make them 



Figure 3. 





Mbasic 


100 


for J=l to 100 


200 


input I 


300 


if 1=1 then gosub 1000: next Jj • Road a line 


400 


if J>1 then gosub 2000: ' Write a line 


500 


if J=9 then print "end": end 


600 


next J 




Nbasic 


100 


FOR J=l TO 100 


200 


INPUT I 


300 


IF 1 = 1 THEN GOTO 700 \ REM Read a 1 1 


400 


IF I>1 THEN GOSUB 2000 \ REM Write a line 


500 


IF 1=9 THEN EXIT 900 \ REM End 


600 


NEXT J 


700 


GOSUB 1000 \ REM Read a line 


800 


NEXT J 


900 


PRINT "end" \ END 




Pascal 


Program readwrites 


var 


i : int eq< 


begin 


repeat 




read( i ) ; 




case i of 




1 : rcadl Lnei 




2 : wri tel i rip; 




end 


until (i=9)j 


writeline 


end 





readable: Pascal with its explicit names is 
usually self-explanatory. 

In the benchmark program there is no 
need for any GOTOs. but in the actual 
implementation of Simpleword in NBasic 
there are quite a few of them. Interestingly, 
in the MBasic version there are none. 
This is because MBasic implements the 
IF.. .THEN statement differently from 
NBasic. 

Specifically, in MBasic THEN can be 
followed by multiple statements. This 
capability can be used to approximate a 
limited block structuring. To illustrate, 
let's take a very ordinary situation of a 
program where the value of an input 
determines a set of actions. Figure 3 is an 
implementation of such a program in the 
three languages. 

Now NBasic requires two branches to 
implement the logic of this program. Maybe 
one could reduce it to one with some 
performance penalty: but it is remarkable 
that MBasic does not require any branches 
for the same program. However, the 
program is still difficult to read due to the 
unrevealing nature of the GOSUB state- 
ment. GOSUB 1000 is as obscure as a 
moonless night. To overcome this handi- 
cap, one is forced to add comments to 
the text. Even more are needed in the 
NBasic program because of the potentially 
confusing GOTOs. 

Interestingly, one can achieve the same 
readability in the Pascal version of the 
program without any comments whatso- 
ever. One reason, no doubt, is the superior 
structure of Pascal, but equally important 
is the ability to use explicit names. Most 
Basics allow any name as long as it fits 
into two alphanumeric characters, the first 
always being alphabetic. There are limita- 
tions on how much intelligence can be 
crammed into two characters. 

After a lot of thought I decided to write 
the final version of Simpleword in MBasic. 
From the foregoing it was clear that I 
could write in a straightforward, "struc- 
tured" manner. And indeed the MBasic 
version of Simpleword, with 150 lines of 
code, does not need the crutches of any 
branching statement. To overcome the 
readability problem, I added a comment 
next to every GOSUB call-all 25 of 
them — and I documented, in a dictionary 
at the beginning of the program, all the 
important variables. Then I wrote a small 
program that eliminated all remarks from 
the final, production version of the pro- 
gram. This is a space-saving feature since 
in Basic, unlike Pascal, remarks do occupy 
valuable storage space during execution. 

Of course, the obvious question is: why 
bother? Write the program in Pascal to 
start with! Yes, indeed. But there is a 
catch. This relates not to the language 
features of Pascal, which are indeed superb, 
but to the systems aspects of Pascal as 
compared to MBasic. Let me explain. 



170 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




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Basic Beats Pascal, continued... 

The System 

When one writes a program, one actually 
interacts with two environments— some- 
limes more. One is the environment of 
the language one uses, in this case Basic 
or Pascal, and the other one is the system 
environment which includes everything 
else besides the language itself. The latter 
is usually ignored when discussing alter- 
natives, with all attention focused on the 
attributes of the language. Yet it is an 
important aspect of writing, debugging 
and then running a program. 

As I indicated, the system aspects of 
Basic were the determining factors in 
choosing it over Pascal. To explain what 
I mean let's examine the process of writing 
and debugging a program. One writes the 
source statements using a text editor of 
some sort. In Basic one can use the 
integrated text editor that is a part of the 
package. The very next step can be the 
start of a test run. In Pascal on the other 
hand one first explicitly invokes the text 
editor. Then the source code is stored. 
Next the compiler is run. Then finally the 
test run can start. 

This is a time-consuming process during 
the debugging phase when, at least in my 
case, many errors are found and require 
corrections; but then even finding a bug 
can be very tiresome in Pascal. The com- 
piler gives one very gixxl pointer for syntax 
errors, but if an execution error is encoun- 
tered watch out! You are on your own. 
My version of Pascal gives a cryptic 
message like P#5 S3 12 E828. And don't 
try to find an explanation in the manual 
(PAS-DOC Revision 1). I tried, but did 
not find any. I presume that the good 
people in San Diego thought it best to 
keep a few secrets to themselves. 

Basic also allows one a fair degree of 
freedom for controlling the system 
resources. This is very important if one 
wants to make the program easy to use. 
For example MBasic allows error trapping. 
In Simpleword. the user is asked for the 
name of the file where the text to be 
edited is stored. If the file name is not 
found in the directory, one gets an error 
message and the program aborts. This 
can happen in Pascal or in MBasic. But in 
the latter, the error can be trapped by the 
program, which can then ask the user to 
please re-enter the name as it cannot be 
found in the directory. 

Another example is the FRE function 
in MBasic. It gives the amount of space 
remaining for storage of text strings. Using 
this function the program can be aware 
when space is running short and gives the 
user a chance to store his text before the 
inevitable program termination due to lack 
of space. There are other statements and 
functions that give an MBasic programmer 
a tighter control over his environment 
than that accorded to the Pascal pro- 
grammer. 

172 



Conclusion 

Of the three languages compared. North- 
star Basic. Microsoft Basic and UCSD 
Pascal. Northstar Basic was rejected first 
due to performance and language defi- 
ciencies for text processing application. 
Pascal was found, not unexpectedly, to 
have the best language features. However, 
to my surprise. I found the better system 
capabilities of Microsoft Basic outweighed 
the language advantage. So MBasic was 
chosen as the vehicle for implementing 
my text editor Simpleword. 

My conclusion is that rumors of the 
imminent demise of Basic are premature. 
The latest version of Microsoft Basic 
(version 5) has. I understand, explicit 
naming capabilities and better control 
structures. So 1 expect that many personal 
computer users will continue to use it as 
happily as they have in the past. Basic has 
a simplicity that is still very attractive— this 
not only at the language level, but from 
the system point of view as well. Its 
interpretive nature allows for very easy 
debugging. Its performance, at least for 
my application, compared very well with 
that of Pascal, and Basic allows the pro- 
grammer to manipulate the system 
resources as well. 

Many of my friends, casual personal 
computer users rather than professional 
programmers, use Basic to write programs 
for fun and sometimes even for profit. 
The language is perfectly adequate for 
their needs, but yet they have a grawing 
doubt. Should they use a 'better' language 
say Pascal? What heights of programming 
virtuosity could they reach using a struc- 
tured language? My advice to them is that 
unless they want to take up programming 
as a more or less full-time occupation 
they should not bother. Basic is true and 
tested and will be with us as long as they 
own their computers and a lot longer. D 



<mmm\ 




"P-Utt— buddy!! Wanl'a see some quick and dirty 
programs?" 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




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CIRCLE 350 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Trilingual Tutorial 



Ray C. Horn Jr. 



Below are definitions of several terms that appear in this article. 

Source Code— Computer programs as written by most humans. Source code 

contains conveniences and shortcuts that the machine can't directly use. For 

example, rather than using the instruction JP SKXX) (jump to location 1000 hex). 

the programmer can enter the line JP SUB1. and then label the line he wants to 

jump to with the label SUB1. An assembler or compiler program lakes this code 

and turns it into straight machine language. 

Object Code — The actual machine language that the computer uses. This is in the 

form of numbers which refer to instructions, memory locations, and just plain 

numbers. 

Interpreted Language — Some computer languages are translated into machine 

code during execution. Each line is interpreted every time it occurs. Consider the 

Bask lines 

10 I OR X = 1 TO 10 

20 PRINT X 

.*) NEXT X 

lines 20 and M.) would be translated into machine code ten times. The interpreter 

doesn't remember that it has interpreted a line before. This repetition is the major 

reason why interpreted languages execute slowly. 

Compiled Language — Computer languages can be translated, as whole programs. 

into machine language. The compiled language performs the desired functions of 

the original program without any need to translate while running. This type of 

language runs considerably faster than an interpreted language. A program is 

written in source code, then compiled into object code. — D.L. □ 



Microcomputer programming is more 
than just Basic. Pascal or Fortran, or 
who's got what CPU. or how much RAM 
we own. or even how many megabytes of 
on-line disk storage we command. It is 
much more than this. It is. and necessarily 
should be. fun and enjoyable. 

How many times have you heard some- 
one say that Assembly Language or any- 
other language is difficult to program? 
Sure, assembly is difficult because of the 
nature of what you are trying to accom- 
plish, but should that preclude you from 
learning how to program assembly 
effectively'.' More importantly . should you 
be fearful or apprehensive about taking 
the plunge into Assembly Language just 
because you'll need to learn a couple of 
other numbering systems or just because 
you'll have to lower yourself to the level of 
the machine in order to tell the little beast 
what you want it to do without all the 
elegant Basic niceties you've come to 
know and rely on? 

My answer is an absolute NO! Assembly 
Language programming shoultl not cause 
anybody to be fearful or apprehensive. 
Fearful of what? The computer isn't going 
to byte anybody Ipardon the pun), or get 
mail and walk away if you make a few 
mistakes. So what if the first couple of 
programs don't quite run properly? So 
what if you have to go back and rewrite a 
program to get rid of an elusive bug? It's 
all part of the total programming experi- 
ence. 

My objective in this article is to expose 
you to three different programming 
languages: Basic. Basex la little known 
but very useful language I and Z-80 
Assembly Language. 

To illustrate the relative strengths anil 
weaknesses of the three languages I will 
use a single problem and present its solu- 
tion in each language. The problem at 
hand is "What to Name the Baby?." the 
inspiration for which came to me after 
reading Paul Raymer's article in the 
A ugust 1 980 issue of Creative Computing . 

RayC. Horn Jr.. PSC Box 330.1. Edwards AFB. CA 
93523. 



174 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




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Tutorial, continued... 



Listing 2. (Base* Listing. ) 



Listing I. (Basic Listing! 

CLEAR FDI I INI U-Z 

« * 

■•« I OUR I i i Hi: WORDS . . .. li WI8TEI) » 



100 
1 LO 

130 
140 

160 
I 70 

200 






* HORN JR. * 

, IPYRIGHT CO. 19 MJGUS1 r'80 * 

'« - 

»«««***» * * « » ><*»»»**»•* * * * * * * * 

FOR Z-l TO 36--: FOR U»l Tl 

IT-T-I I 

■ PRINl IHR*<44-H«I>CHR»<64+X>CHR*' IR»<<J4+Z>" "I 

:Nt XI INEX1 INEX I INI 
PRINT"TOTAI WORDS i "M 



33000 


REM 


i WHAT 


33006 


DIM 


CR* 1 


1 (1 1 1 ■', 


8TR 


CR* 1 


33026 


'it I 


1 


33034 


XNW 


START 


33040 


1 OR 


Z"63 




1 OR 




33056 


i OR 




33064 


FOR 






INi 


T 


33078 


CHR 


3c' 


33004 


CHR 


32 


33090 


CHR 


Z 


33096 


i HR 


Y 


33103 


CHR 


X 


33108 


c:hr 


W 


33114 


CHR 


32 


33130 


CHR 


38 


33196 


TIL 


U+l 90 


33138 


i II 


Xi 1 90 




i II 


Y » 1 90 


33168 




Z + l 90 




PRT 


CR« 1 


331(13 


F'RT 


"TOTAL 


33194 


END 





TO NAME THE BABY 



I I ■ 






WORD' 






Simply stated, the problem is to gener- 
ate and display all possible four-letter 
words using the entire alphabet from A-Z. 
Sueh as AAAA. AAAB. AAAC. ete. 
There are exaetly 456.976 four-letter 
words possible. Not exactly a trivial 
problem after all. 

The Basic listing 

The Level II Basic listing I Listing I) is 
quite straightforward. Lines 2 10-220 do all 
the work necessary to produce a listing of 
all possible four-letter words. Unfortu- 
nately, interpretive Basic is quite slow. 
Listing 1 prints out approximately 22.4 
four-letter words per second, and takes 
over five hours to complete the list. But 
then Basic isn't used because it's fast. 
Basic is easy to program and debug, and 
most of us get lazy every nowand then and 
go back to Basic for recreational pro- 
gramming. 

The Basex Listing 

Basex stands for Basic and Executable 
machine code, which is exactly what it is: 
part Basic and part machine code 
mnemonics. Basex is a compiled, inter- 
active, high level language, and what it 
lacks in structure it gains in processing 
speed. For this application Basex is about 
five times faster than Level II Basic. 
Basex (see Listing 2l runs to completion 
in about 1 hour. 7 minutes. 24. 3H seconds. 
or about 113 four-letter words per 
second. 

For those of you not really familiar 
with Basex syntax or structuring. I'll walk 
through Listing 2 and explain. 

With Basex we don't use line numbers 
as with Basic, instead we use a memory 



address where the call to the runtime 
routine is located. Also we don't use 
multi-function lines as in Basic, instead 
we get one Basex statement for each 
statement address or program line. 

Line 330(X) is a regular RF.Mark state- 
ment. Line 33006 is a regular DIMension 
statement familiar to most of us in con- 



Basex is a compiled, 

interactive, high level 

language, and what it 

lacks in structure it 

gains in processing 

speeo. 



junction with data arrays, except here we 
are setting aside string storage space at 
the string variable CRS. Line 33014 is a 
string storage statement which directs 
Basex to assign the ASCII code 13 to the 
first location of string CRS. 

Line 33026 is similar to a Basic LET 
statement: in Basex SET does the same 
job as LET. Line 33034 is a program 
label; Basex will assign the value 33034 to 
the symbolic label START. Lines 33040- 
33064 do the same job as the first logical 
line of line 210 in Basic listing: setting up 
nested FOR. ..TIL loops. ASCII code 65 
is the letter "A." 



In line 33072 (since Basex is an integer 
subset language we can count only from 
to 655351 variable T was supposed to 
count the total words printed. A small 
goof on my part — variable T does not 
actually reflect the total words printed. 

Lines 33078-33120 will print two 
spaces, a four-letter word, and two more 
spaces continuously throughout the run- 
ning of the program. This will cause eight 
words to be printed to a line on the video 
display, and this will also allow normal 
scrolling. Variables Z. Y. X and W are 
used to keep track of the four different 
letters we arc using at any given time. 
The CHR statement in Basex causes an 
ASCII code to be printed to the video 
display, much like CHRS(x) statement in 
Basic. 

Lines 33126-33162 close each of the 
open FOR. ..TIL loops established in lines 
33040-33064. ASCII code 90 is the letter 
"Z." 

Lines 33174-33194 print a carriage 
return to the screen and then tell us the 
value of T. not the actual number of 
words printed. The END statement in 
Basex is similar to END in Basic: it tells 
Basex where and when to stop and turn 
control back over to the Basex monitor 
program. 

If you study listings 1 and 2 you should 
see quite a few similarities in both syntax 
and structure. This is because Basex and 
Basic are so very much alike that one 
could readily convert Basic syntax to 
Basex syntax. But that's where the simi- 
larities end. because Basex is compiled 
language, not an interpretive language 
like Basic: hence Basex will run about 
five times faster than interpretive Basic. 



176 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



The Sinclair ZX80 is innovative and powerful. 
Now there's a magazine to help you get 
the most out of it. 



Get in 

sync 



SYNC magazine is different from other 
personal computing magazines. Not just 
different because it is about a unique 
computer, the Sinclair ZX80 (and kit ver- 
sion, the MicroAce) But different be- 
cause of the creative and innovative phi- 
losophy of the editors 

A Fascinating Computer 

The ZX80 doesn t have memory map- 
ped video. Thus the screen goes blank 
when a key is pressed To some review- 
ers this is a disadvantage. To our editors 
this is a challenge. One suggested that 
games could be written to take advan- 
tage of the screen blanking. For exam- 
ple, how about a game where characters 
and graphic symbols move around the 
screen while it is blanked? The object 
would be to crack the secret code gov- 
erning the movements. Voila! A new 
game like Mastermind or Black Box 
uniquely for the ZX80 

We made some interesting discoveries 
soon after setting up the machine. For 
instance, the CHR$ function is not limit- 
ed to a value between and 255. but 
cycles repeatedly through the code. 
CHRS (9) and CHR$(265) will produce 
identical values. In other words. CHRS 
operates in a MOD 256 fashion We 
found that the " = " sign can be used se- 
veral times on a single line, allowing the 
logical evaluation of variables. In the 
Sinclair, LET X=Y=Z=W is a valid ex- 
pression. 

Or consider the TL$ function which 
strips a string of its initial character. At 
first, we wondered what practical value it 
had Then someone suggested it would 
be perfect for removing the dollar sign 
from numerical inputs 

Breakthroughs 9 Hardly But indicative 
of the hints and kinds you II find in every 
issue of SYNC We intend to take the 
Sinclair to its limits and then push be- 
yond, finding new tricks and tips, new 
applications, new ways to do what 
couldn t be done before SYNC functions 
on many levels, with tutorials for the be- 
ginner and concepts that will keep the 
pros coming back for more We II show 
you how to duplicate commands avail- 
able in other Basics. And. perhaps, how 




to do things that can t be done on other 
machines. 

Many computer applications require 
that data be sorted But did you realize 
there are over ten fundamentally differ- 
ent sorting algorithms? Many people 
settle for a simple bubble sort perhaps 
because it's described in so many pro- 
gramming manuals or because they've 
seen it in another program However, 
sort routines such as heapsort or Shell- 
Metzner are over 100 times as fast as a 
bubble sort and may actually use less 
memory. Sure. 1K of memory isnt a lot 
to work with, but it can be stretched 
much further by using innovative, clever 
coding You'll find this type of help in 
SYNC 

Lots of Games and Applications 

Applications and software are the meat 
of SYNC. We recognize that along with 
useful, pragmatic applications, like finan- 
cial analysis and graphing, you'll want 
games that are fun and challenging. In 
the charter issue of SYNC you'll find se- 
veral games. Acey Ducey is a card game 
in which the dealer (the computer) deals 
two cards face up. You then have an op- 
tion to bet depending upon whether you 
feel the next card dealt will have a value 
between the first two. 

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direction to look next 

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Tutorial, continued... 

Assembly Listing 

Listing 3 represents a quantum leap in 
data throughput for this particular prob- 
lem. It will run to completion in just 
about 32 minutes 42 seconds, or about 
232.8 four-letter words per second on the 
video. For this particular example. 
Assembly Language will run just about 10 
times faster than Basic and about 2.5 
times faster than Basex. Obviously if you 
were going to run a program such as I 
have presented in this article, you would 
not want to wait five hours for the pro- 
gram to finish: even one hour is a long 
time when you just want to see the pro- 
gram run to completion. With the aid of 
Assembly Language, it is possible to 
attain fantastic output rates with only 
minimal effort. 

Contrary to popular belief. Assembly 
Language is not difficult to program. In 
fact, once you see just how easy it is to 
get successful results you'll probably 



With the aid of 

Assembly Language, it 

is possible to attain 

fantastic output rates 

with only minimal effort. 



never go back to Basic except for light 
recreational programming. 

For those who are not familiar with 
Assembly Language I'll go through the 
source code line by line: 

Line 200 may be changed to suit your 
individual needs: I'm running 4HK RAM 
so I always put the object code well 
above the source code for my assembler. 
Line 210. CALL 01C9H. calls a sub- 
routine from the Basic ROMs to clear the 
screen and put the cursor in the upper 
left corner. Lines 220-240 initialize the 
four counters we will be using to contain 
01's. Lines 250-280 initialize the six-digit 
BCD (binary coded decimal) total words 
printed counter that we'll be using later. 

Lines 290-430 form a function similar 
to T=T+1' using single precision vari- 
ables in Basic. Here we are using a six 
digit BCD counter. 

Line 440-460 get two spaces (ASCII 
code 20 hex or 32 decimal) and puts them 
at the beginning and the end of the out- 
put string buffer, similar to the two CHR 
I3's at the front and back of the four 
letter output segment in the Basex pro- 
gram (see lines 33078-33120). 

Lines 470-530 do the same job as. CHR$ 
<64+W)CHR$<64+X)CHRS(64+Y) 
CHRS(64+Z) in Basic. 



Listing 3. (Assembly Listing. I 











100 


! MHAT 


TO NAME THE BABY? REVISIT 










110 


P ADAI 


U D 1 ROM APPI 


" ■ :ni 1 1 ISI IN*, 










130 


■ CHEAT l 


AUGUST 1980. PG. 90 










130 


















140 


ASSLMHLY PROGRAM = 


■•>-\ 'v«Er [ON 3.3 










150 


BYl 


RAY C. HORN 


JR 


_ 










IrtO 


i OPYR CG 


AUGU8 










170 


















100 


















190 










A000 








3O0 




ORG 0A00OH 


r MID 33K 


A000 


CD 


C9 


01 




START 


CALL 01CVH 


1 CLEAR SCREEN 


A003 


91 


01 


01 


330 




LD HLrOlOlH 


i.l i I B 


A006 


33 


Dl 


A0 


830 




LI) (U),HL 


1 


[NIT. X U 


A009 


33 


D3 


A0 






LD (Y),HL 


- 


[NIT. Z Y 


AO0C 


91 


00 


00 


850 




LD HLrOOOOH 




A00F 


99 


D5 


A0 


?<40 




LD (T)rHL 


r 


[NIT. BCD COUNTER 


A013 


AF 






370 




XOR A 


7 ZAP Ai 


A013 


39 


D7 


AO 


380 




LD (T+3KA 


7 


I NIT. ALL OF BCD CNTR. 


A016 


91 


D7 


A0 


390 


HNLOOP 


LD ML r 1 +8 


; 


PNT TO BYTE HO 


A019 


7E 






300 




II) Ar(HL) 


p 


61 r BYTE NO Of BCD CNTR 


A01A 


C6 


01 




310 




ADD A i 1 




HUMP BYTE 


A01C 


97 






330 




DAA 


: 


DECIMAL ADJUST BYTE 


A01D 


77 






330 




LD (HL),A 


r 


PUT BYTE BACK 


AO 1 1 


9B 






340 




IX C III 


; 


PNT TO BYTt l 


A01F 


7E 






350 




LD A,(HL) 


| 


GET BYTE 1 


Aoao 


CE 


00 




360 




■ \,0 


1 


BUMP BYTE 1 (ADD CY) 


A033 


97 






370 




DAA 


| 


DECIMAL ADJUST BYTE 1 


A033 


77 






380 




LD <HL),A 


7 


PUT BYTE 1 HACK 


A034 


?B 






390 




HI 


t 


PNT In BYTI 


A035 








400 




LD A, (HI ) 


; 


GET HIYTI 


A036 


CE 


00 




410 




AfO 


7 


BUMP BYTE 8 (ADD CY) 


Aoes 


97 






430 




DAA 


7 


DECIMAL ADJUST HYTE 3 


A039 


77 






430 




LD <HL>rA 


t 


PUT II i'H ' HACK 










439 


; Lite 


8 890 - 430 ARI 










434 


» ba<; 




.llii.ll PRECISION) 










436 


ONLY 


MUCH FASTER. 














438 










A03A 


81 


ao 


30 


440 




LD HL>8080H 


; 


GET SPACES 


A03D 


99 


D8 


A0 


450 




I.I) (W0RD),HL 


; 


PAD 8 SPACES IN FRONT 


A030 


39 


DE 


A0 


460 

469 1 




1 I) (UORD+6), 


HI 1 


PAD 8 SPACES IN REAR 


A033 


01 


'.0 


40 


470 




LD BC4040H 


; 


GET (A -1) 


A036 


9A 


Dl 


A0 


480 




I.I) HLi (U) 


| 


GET U X CNTRS. 


A039 


09 






490 




ADD HL.BC 


7 


COMPUTE <W«40H>, (X+40H) 


A03A 


99 


DA 


A0 


500 




LD (UORD+2), 


HLr 


BTORE 1ST TWO LETTERS 


A03D 


3A 


D3 


A0 


510 




10 III .., (Y) 


7 


GET Y Zl CNTRS. 


A040 


09 






590 




ADD HL.KC 


; 


COMPUTE (Y+40H) , CZ1+40F 


A041 


33 


DC 


A0 


530 




LD (WORD+4), 


II. - 


STORE LAST TWO LETTERS 


A044 


31 


D8 


A0 


540 




I.I) HI. r WORD 


j 


PNT TO WORD 


A04 ? 


06 


08 




550 




III B,8 


7 


B CHARS TO SEND 


A049 


7E 






560 


PLOOP 


LI) A, 'III > 


1 


GET CHAR 


A04A 


CD 


33 


00 


570 




CALL 0033H 


■ 


SEND IT TO VIDEO 


A04D 


33 






580 




INC HL 


| 


BUMP PNTR 


A04E 


10 


F9 




590 
593 




DJNZ PLOOP 


7 


DO 8 TIMES 


A050 


3A 


00 


38 


6O0 BRI AK 


LD A,(38B0H) 


? 


CHECK SHIFT' 


A053 


CB 


47 




610 




HI 1 0,A 


5 


SHIFT - ' 


A055 


38 


09 




69<) 




JR Z,NEXTZ 


7 


IF NOT SHIFT r DO NEXT 


A057 


3A 


40 


38 


630 




LD A,(384()H> 


1 


BREAK CHECK 


A05A 


CB 


S7 




640 




III 1 ->,A 


7 


BREAK? 


A05C 




03 




6SO 




JR ZrNEXTZ 


7 


IF NOT BREAK, DO NEXT 


A05E 


18 


4B 




660 
669 




JR TOTALU 


' 


ELSE IF SHIFT -BREAK r EK 


A060 


3A 


1)4 


AO 


670 M XT2 


LD A,(Z1> 


* 


GET Zl CNTR 


A063 


3C 






680 




INC A 


j 


BUMP Zl 


A0A4 


38 


D4 


A0 


69<) 




LD (Zl) ,A 


r 


PUT BUMPED Zl BACK 


A067 


FE 


IB 




700 




c:p 37 


7 


Zl : 1 <«• Zl <- 8i 


A069 


FA 


78 


A0 


710 




• II' M,NEXTY 


7 


IF Zl 


A06C 


3A 


D3 


A0 


790 




LD Ar(Y) 


I 


II Bl GET Y CNTR 


A06F 


3C 






730 




[NC A 


7 


HUMP Y 


A070 


33 




AO 


74C 




LD (Y),A 


7 


PUT BUMPED Y BACK 


A073 


3E 


01 








LD Arl 


f 


GET 1 


A075 


33 


D4 


A0 


760 




LD (Z1>,A 


| 


I NIT Zl COUNTER 


A078 


3A 


D3 


A0 


770 Ml KTY 


LD A . ( Y > 


; 


GET Y CNTR 


A07B 


1 1 


IB 




780 




CP 37 


; 


r : 1 <- Y <- 86 ? 


A07D 


FA 


8C 


A0 


790 




,IP M,NEXTX 


; 


IF Y < 37 


A080 


,1A 


D3 


A0 


800 




LD A,(X) 


; 


ELSE, GET X CNTR 


A083 


3C 






810 




INC A 


; 


BUMP X 


A084 


33 


D3 


A0 


830 




LD <X),A 


? 


ii n HUMPED X BACK 


A087 




01 




830 




LD A,l 


f 


GET 1 


A089 


33 


D3 


A0 


840 




LD <Y)rA 


7 


INIT Y CNTR 


A08C 


3A 




A0 


850 M 


LD Ar<X) 


7 


GET X CNTR 


A08F 


FE 


IB 




860 




CP 37 


; 


X : 1 <- X <- 36 •' 


A091 


FA 


AO 


AO 


870 




IP M.NEXTUI 


7 


IF X < 37 


A094 


3A 


Dl 


A0 


OIK) 




LD A,(W> 


7 


GET W CNTR 



178 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



/^ Th ePROGRAM STORE sSffSKSSs 




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16K disk... $29. 95 




DODGE RACER 

From Synapse Software 

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Full of sound, color, and excitement. DODCE 
RACER can be played with one to four compet 
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16K tape. ..$22. 50 24K disk. . . $22. 50 

CONFLICT 




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While checking your orbiting minefields, one 
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Tutorial, continued... 

Lines 540-590 do the same job as 
PRINT" "CHR$(M+W)CHR$(64+X) 
CHR$(64+ Y)CHR$(64+Z)" ";" in Basic. 
In other words it prints eight characters, 
with the four inner characters being the 
four letter word we generated in lines 
470-530. 

Lines 600-660 strobes the keyboard for 
the Shift and Break keys to be pressed. If 
Shift-Break keys are pressed simulta- 
neously, the program will print the total 
words printed up until that point and 
then it stops at the SYSTEM entry com- 
mend prompt. We have to have some 
way of stopping the program in an 
orderly manner outside of pressing the 
RESET button. 

Lines 670-960 do the same job as 
NEXT Z:NEXT Y:NEXT XrNEXT W:' 
in Basic only much faster. 

Lines 970-1090 are where our program 
ends up after 32 minutes of strenuous 
activity. It will print a CR/LF (carriage 
return and line feed), then it will print a 
message for the operator, and then it will 
convert and print the total number of 
words generated from the six digit BCD 
counter. Then the program will wait for a 
few seconds for the operator to take his 
finger off the Break key. otherwise you'd 
fall back into Basic READY' without 
getting a change to restart the program 
from the SYSTEM entry prompt (•*'.'_'). 

Lines 1096-1 180 define variable names, 
store our messages and create a word 
buffer. 

Lines 1 190-1310 are a very simple BCD 
to ASCII conversion routine taken from 
a Z-80 handbook I had laying around at 
home. We need some way of converting 
BCD to ASCII to be easily understood. 

Line 1320 is a standard assembler END 
statement; it causes START to be con- 
sidered as the auto-start address upon 
assembly. 

Conclusion 

That's really all there is to program- 
ming Basic. Basex and Assembly 
Language for a fairly simple problem. 

In general, once you've determined 
how to go about solving a given problem 
in Basic, it's really a very easy task to 
rewrite the program for almost any other 
language whether it be Basex. Pascal. 
Fortran. Forth, or Assembler. The logic 
of the thing stays the same no matter 
which language you choose to express 
the problem. With this general concept in 
mind, programming can become quite 
enjoyable and even fun. I thoroughly 
enjoy programming Assembly Language 
because of the challenge it presents and 
also because of the raw programming 
power that Assembly allows me to use. In 
Assembly Language you have total con- 
trol over what the CPU does and how it 
does it. Not many languages afford you 
that much control. D 



A097 
A098 
A09B 
A09D 

A0A0 
A0A3 
A0A5 
A0A8 

AOAB 

AOAD 
A0B0 
A0B3 
A0B6 
A0B9 
AOBC 
AOBF 
A0C3 
A0C5 
A0C8 
AOCB 
AOCE 



A0D1 
A0D2 
A0D3 
A0D4 
A0D5 
AODB 
AOEO 
A0E1 
A0E4 
A0E7 
AOEB 
AOEF 



A0F1 
A0F3 
A0F4 
A0F5 
A0F6 
A0F7 
A0F8 
A0FA 
A0FD 
AOFE 
A100 
A103 
A105 

A000 



3C 

33 Dl AO 
3E 01 
33 D2 A0 

3 A Dl AO 
FE IB 
F2 AB A0 
C3 16 A0 

3E OD 
CD 33 00 
31 El AO 
CD A7 38 
3A D5 AO 
CD Fl AO 
3A DA A0 
CD Fl AO 
3A D7 AO 
CD Fl AO 
01 FF FF 
CD 60 00 
C3 B3 03 



01 
01 
01 
01 



00 

30 54 4F 
54 41 4C 
57 AF 53 
53 30 3A 
SO O0 



4F 

E6 F0 

OF 

OF 

OF 

OF 

C6 30 

CD 33 00 

79 

E6 OF 

C6 30 

CD 33 00 

C9 



890 

900 

910 

TOO 

930 

940 

950 

960 

963 

970 

980 

990 

1000 

1010 

1030 

1030 

1040 

1050 

1060 

1090 

1093 
1094 
1096 
1100 
1110 
1120 
1130 

i:i4<) 

1150 
1160 
1170 



1:180 
1 188 
1184 

1190 
1300 
1310 
13SO 
1330 
1340 
1350 
1260 
1370 
1380 
1390 
1300 
1310 
1313 
1330 



INC A 
LD (U)rA 
LD Arl 
LD <X>,A 

NEXTW LD A,<U> 
CP 37 
JP V. rOTMJU 

JP MNLOOP 

TOTALU I.I) Arl3 

I ,il L 0O33H 
LD HLrTCrrWRD 
IA7H 

I D A,<T+0> 

i'ni i BXI 
LD A, < I 
CALL BXBCD 
L.I) Ar<T+3) 

I D BC, OFFFFH 
CAL I 00. 



SYSTEM VARIABLES: 



• BUMP U 

J PUT BUMPED U BACK 

P GE1 I 

; INIT X in I 



GET U CNTR 
U : 1 ■■'■■-■ UJ <■ 
IF U < 36 
IF W 



26'? 



- GET CR/LF 

; SEND IT TO VIDEO 



PNI TO in: 



SAGE 



II I I i in uator 
i.i i BYTE MS BCD CNTR. 
CONVERT PRIN1 AS 
GET BYTE ttl BCD CNTR. 
CONVERT PRINT rtsri [ 
i.l i II,' II HO BCD CNTR 
CONVERT PRINT A8I I I 

I ■! I A r COUNT 

l- HEW I OB A UHILi 
BACK in BASIC (SYSTEM i 



U 
X 
Y 
Zl 

T 
WORD 



DEFB 1 

IX KB 1 

DEFB 1 

DEED 1 

DEES 3 

I>EFS 8 

DEFB OOH 



; N : 1 



N O 36 



REAL A DIGIT BCD CNTR. 
WORD BUFFER 
DELIMITER 



TOTWRD BEEN 'TOTAL WORDS : 



DEFB OOH 



DELIMITER 



; END 8YSTEM VARIABLES. 



BXBCD 



LD CrA 

AND OF OH 

RRCA 

RRCA 

RRCA 

RRCA 

ADD A.30H 

CAUL 0033H 

LD A,C 

AND OFH 

ADD A.30H 

CALL 0033H 

RET 

END START 



SAVE BCD BYTE IN C 
MASK OFF LOU DIGIT 



- ALIGN HI-DIGIT TO LOU 

- MAKE ASCII (30H-39H) 

t PRINT DIGIT ON SCREEN 

1 GET BCD BYTE BACK FROM C 

; MASK OFF HI. DIGIT 

- MAKE ASCII (30H-39H) 

5 PRINT DIGIT ON SCREEN 

I RETURN TO CALLER 

- AUTO-START HERE 




O fcTtoont by | 

vJKRg 

"This computer set us back a pretty yen'" 
180 CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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CENTRONICS 739 ( 

With Graphics and 

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• 18 x 9 dot matrix; suitable for word 
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80/132 columns • Top of form 

CENTRONICS 739-1 (Parallel) (List $995) $785 

CENTRONICS 739-3 (Serial) (List $1045) 815 

QRAPPLER™ Apple graphics interface $165 




ANADEX 




Dot Graphics, Wide Carriage 



• 1 1 x 9 dot matrix; lower case descen- 
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copy. 
. (List $1650) * Call 




ANADEX 9501 

QRAPPLER™ Apple graphics Interface $165 



EPSON MX80/MX70/MX100 



Low-Priced 
Professional Print Quality 

* 9 x 9 dot matrix • Lower case descenders 
— ,> • 80 CPS • Bidirectional, Logic seeking • 
40, 66, 80, 132 columns per line • 64 special 
graphic characters: TRS-80 Compatible • 
Forms handling • Multi-pass printing • Ad- 
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We also carry a lull line 
ol Epson Accessories. 

EPSON MX80(& MX80FT) (List $645) $Call 

EPSON MX70 Dot graphics, 5x7 matrix (List $450) $Call 

EPSON MX100 wide carriage , graphics (List $945) $Call 

QRAPPLER™ Apple Graphics Interface $165 

QRAFTRAX 60 -MX80 Dot Graphics $ 95 

MX80/70 FRICTION FEED KIT 

User installable kit for single sheets. 

Easy 30 minute installation $ 75 

ANACOM 

Low Cost, High Speed, Wide Carriage 
• 9 x 9 dot matrix • Lower case descenders • Wide carriage 
Adjustable tractors to 16" • 150 CPS, Bidirectional, Logic Seeking 

ANACOM 150 (List$1350) $995 



VISTA — C. ITOH STARWRITER 




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• 25 CPS (Optional 45 CPS) • Typewriter 
quality • Centronics parallel • RS 232 
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test • Diablo compatible • Friction feed 
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• Manufactured by C. ITOH. 



VISTA V300(C. ITOH) STARWRITER (List $1895) $1575 

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Dot Resolution Graphics, quality print, speed 

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justification 

IDS 460Q 9 wire printhead, graphics (List $1094) SCall 

IDS 560Q wide carriage, graphics (List $1394) $Call 

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NEC SPINWRITER 

High Speed Letter Quality 

• 55 CPS • Typewriter quality • Bidirectional • Plotting • pro- 
portional spacing. 

5510 RO, Serial (List $3055) $2575 

5530 RO, Parallel (List $3055) $2575 

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PRINTERS 

MALI BU 165 wide carriage, graphics, letter quality (Llst$1975) $1325 
QUME 5/45 typewriter quality (List $2905) $2559 
DIABLO630 $C»II 

INTERFACE EQUIPMENT 

EPSON ACCESSORIES $ Cal 

ORANGE INTERFACE for Apple II 

parallel interface board & cable . $ 1 

I MICROTRONICS Atari parallel interface $ 

I TRS-80 CABLES to keyboard or Exp interface $ Call I 

I NOVATION D-CAT direct connect modem $ 180 J 



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CIRCLE 250 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Model I and III ROM Look fllikes 
Model I and III ROM Look fllikes 
Model I and III ROM Look filikes 



Now that the Model HI TRS-80 com- 
puter has made its way into the market- 
place, it appears to have successfully 
replaced the Model I and left over 200.000 
owners out in the cold with a software 
compatibility problem. Or has it? 

Many Basic programs will run on both 
machines with few or no changes. Machine 
language programs which do not use any 
ROM code should function properly 
assuming no critical timing loops are 
used. 

The Model HI Z-80A CPU runs slightly 
( 14%) faster than its predecessor. Machine 
language programs which utilize ROM 
routines may or may not have problems 
depending on the routine used. 

Table 1 lists the addresses (from-to) 
which are identical in both machines. As 
you can see much of the code is identical 

Joseph CVsaitis. I0.WO Launcelol Lane. Columbia. 
MD2KM4. 



Joseph Cesaitis 



(thank you. Tandy). In those cases where 
the from and to addresses are the same 
only a single byte matched. This table 



should aid those who wish to write machine 
language software for both machines, but 
only have access to one machine. D 



0000-0002 


0005400D 


001O0046 


0049-004F 


00634065 


0071-0081 


008340A9 


00AB-O0AD 


00AF-00B1 


O0B5-OOC5 


OOC7-O0E9 


OOEB-OOFE 


0102-0105 


010B-010C 


0110-0111 


0116-0117 


0I1C-011C 


0122-0124 


012D-01D9 


O1F0-O1F0 


01F2-01F2 


01F5-01F7 


02104211 


0232-0234 


0246-0246 


025F-0263 


0283-0283 


02A8-02E1 


02E5-O3C1 


03EA-03EA 


0469-046A 


0495-0495 


049F-049F 


04B8-04B8 


O50D-O50D 


05334)533 


05DO-05DO 


05D4-0673 


0708- 124B 


124E-1917 


1919-191B 


191D-1B5C 


1B60-206C 


206E-2072 


2074-2074 


2076-2076 


20B9-20BB 


20BD-20F6 


20F8-213A 


213C-2166 


216S-2269 


226F-2B84 


2B89-2B8B 


2B8F-2B90 


2B94-2C1E 


2C43-2C79 


2C80-2C80 


2C83-2C89 


2C8D-2FFB 


— 



Table I. Model I and Model III ROM comparison (start address-end address). 



C L () A I) M () N T H L V 



"all the jit that's news to load" 



TRS-80 PROGRAMS ON CASSETTE 

CLOAD Magazine for your Model I or III! 



Golcta. Calif. You can get 7 or X programs on cassette, each month. 
thai ('LOAD dirccilj into your TRS-80 Model 1 or III! 

A subscriber, too engrossed in trying to sa\c the world from invading 
aliens (March. I°XI issue) to give his name, slated. "I receive a 30 minute 
cassette bv I irst (lass Mail each month containing some of the best games 
and educational programs I have ever played. Some are even in machine 
language! "Another ('LOAD subscriber. Claudinc ('load, could now 
"lit the computer into her schedule" thanks to the utilities and occasional 
disk programs she received fn>m ("LOAD. She was writing about it lo all 
ot the people on her mailing list (November. I l )7 l > issue I. 
Gel the news firsthand Gel a subscription to ('LOAD Magazine. 



hv Clyde (load, star reporter 



The Fine Print: 

Overseas rates slightly higher — 

please wnte tor them, 
back issues available — ask for our list " 
TRS-80 is a trademark ot Tandy Corporation 
California residents add 6% to single copies 
and anthologies Programs are tor Level II 
I fc>K , Model III 1 6K , and occasionally tor disks 
'24 Level I hack issues also available 



PRICES 

I year subscription $42.00 

6 month subsc nption .... $23.00 

iMngle copies $4.i>0 

Anthology volume I ... $10.00 
Anthology volume 2 .... $15.00 

s\asten aid Visa Welcome. 



. ss MAGAZINE INC. 




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CIRCLE 113QN READER SERVICE CARD 



805 962-6271 



01981 



TRS-80 sensational 

software 



creative 
software 



Board Games 



Cassette CS-3001 $11 95 




6 Programs 



Requires 8K 



»»T»T1 |T""Y 



Z-Chess III 

Disk CS-3S13 (32K) $24 95 Cassette CS-301 7 ( 16KJ S19 95 



Qulbkc A 3-dimensional tic-tac-toe type of 
game played in a 4x4x4 cube. A real 
challenge 




t.iii4j l.lliii 



Backgammon (by Scon Adams) Excellent 
graphics and challenging play in this popular 
game 



Mugwump. Four friendly Mugwumps are 
hiding on a 10x10 grid Can you find them 
all in ten moves? 

Wumpus Try to find the Wumpus in a 
dodecahedron network of caves complete 
with bottomless pits and giant bats 

Wumpus 2 Five different types of caves 
or create your own More hazards too. 



Flip Disc. Our version of Othello with three 
skill levels from good to expert 



Battle Games 



Cassette CS-301 2*11 95 



4 Programs 



Requires 16K 




ODD "OVOI 

■. a IB l?.:::a Mill 

J2 



III I I II 



This is one of the most sophisticated computer chess playing 
programs available today Seven different skill levels provide 
practice for the beginner as well as challenge the more experi- 
enced players The speed of Z-Chess will also surprise you. 
Even at the highest skill level it is one of the fastest chess pro- 
grams available 



Stock & Options Analysis 



GUNNER Destroy enemy aircraft with your 
anti-aircraft gun. 



SUB HUNT Pursue and destroy a computer 
controlled submarine. 





TANK BATTLE . Two players battle it out in GET ACROSS Evade the enemy in this real 
this real-time graphic game time, sound game 



Original Adventure 

Disk CS-3518 (48K) $ 19 95 

This is the original adventure game complete 
with a colossal cave populated with nasty 
little dwarves, a giant clam, trools and much, 
much more Includes the SAM76 language 
in which the game runs 



Games Pack on Disk 

Desks CS-3S03 I32KI $39 95 

This set of menu-driven disk contains all 20 
games from cassettes CS-3001. CS-3002 
CS-3004 and CS-3005 



Cassette CS-3306 1 16K). $99 95 
Disk CS-3801 (32K). $99 95 

Should you hedge, buy. or sell ouP Stock 
and Options Analysis puts a securities advisor 
in your computer, providing you with four 
powerful investment tools Option gives 
important indices for opening and closing 
call option transactions Opgraph presents 
a graph or table of profit for any combination 
of long or short calls, puts, and stocks This 
allows the detailed evaluation of three types 
of hedges Newprem helps predict the future 
premiums of an option at any desired time 
and future stock price Portval lets the 
computer do the paper work, providing full 
portfolio services including value per share, 
current value, and capital gain The program 
includes the effects of commissions, margin 
interest and dividends Beyond helping to 
organize and evaluate your present portfolio 
Stock and Options Analysts is an excellent 
aid for planning and testing future 
strategies The comprehensive 24-page 
manual with this package not only shows 
how the programs work, but is also a primer 
on the strategy of hedging listed options 
against common stocks This strategy has 
been repeatedly shown to actually be more 
c o ns e rvative and more consistently profitable 
than straight buying and selling of stocks 




Order Today 



To order any of these software packages 
send payment plus $2 00 postage and 
handling per order to Creative Computing 
Morris Plains NJ 07950 Visa MasterCard 
and American E xpress orders may be called 
in toll-free 



Order today at no risk It you are not 
completely satisfied your money will be 
promptly and courteously refunded 

Creative Computing Software 

Morris Plains NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631-8112 

InNJ 201-540-0445 



creative computing software 



PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS 




PEMODKT 
~1ABLT 



SjHSESEHSEEjEH' 



PtoBi 



22 ii 



^c Th|Pai U|r» Pufti«Cw 



,Si>^ GdTb Dy[Ho ErTi ) Vb 
Pu ta O Bx Of Es F» Md No 



8 

]Lu 



Oean Schmidt'— 



Periodic Table is a program which 
produces a Periodic Table on the screen 
with each element symbol in its correct 
place. Three options are given. The first 
allows the user to select a group of 
elements, for example, the transition 
elements, which are shown in inverse on 
the periodic table. There are eleven 
different groups that can be selected. 

Another option starts with the temper- 
ature in the upper left hand starting at 
absolute zero. As the temperature rises, 
each element changes to inverse on the 
screen as it reaches its melting point. When 
an element reaches its vaporization point 
its symbol is removed from the periodic 
table. 

The third option is a variation of the 
second. The user may select a specific 
temperature and have the conditions shown 
for that temperature. For example, if 0° 
Celcius were chosen, each element that is 
a solid at that temperature is shown on 
the screen in normal characters. Each 
element that is a liquid is shown in inverse, 
and each element that is a gas is eliminated 
from the table. 

The program is written in Pascal for 
the Apple II Plus with language card. 

Sample runs of Periodic Table are shown 
here. If you would like a listing of the 
program, please send SI .00 with an SASE 
to: Magic City Campus. Minot H.S.. Minot, 
ND 58701. Attn: Computer Club. For a 
disk containing the program, send $10 or 
$5 and a blank disk to the same address. 

D 



Dean Schmidt *»l Southwest 22nd St.. Minot. ND 
58701. 



438_ DEGREES CELSIUS 
i—l PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS 












B 


c 














M 


Si 














Ti 


V 


Cr 


Mn 


Fe 


Co 


Mi 












V 


2r* 






Tc 






























Ta 


M 


Re 


DE 


Ir 


















La 


Ce 


Pr 


P« 


Pm 


Sn 


Eu 


Get 


fe 


B* 


Mo 


Er 


Ik 


* 


lii 




ft 


Tn 


°* 


U 


Np 


Pu 


Pm 


Ca- 


Fk 


C( 


E5 


Pi 


*a 


fe 


lu 



Lite 



-Z2fi DEGREES CELSIUS 



PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS 



RbSr 



Frlfc 



AISi 



VZrNbHoTcBuRhFWAaCa 



Qe B» ua Hf Ta. W 



V Cr Mn Fe Co Hi 



ReCe 



CuZriGaBtAsSeBrKr 



IrPtFuHaTl 



InSnSb 



CIV 



FbtBiPojftt|Rr 



>ie 



LaQtPrNd 



ThPa 



Pate* EL GdTc Dj htoEr Ta V 
hfcjpo fta Ca Bk|cf b»T»P I 



r— 1 PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS 




184 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



4 New Games From Hayden 
In the SARGON Tradition! 



New! KLONDIKE 2000 

(Trackman) A Space Age Treasure Hunt! 
An exciting new game of fabulous 
treasures, hidden caves and dangerous 
robots! The object: to become the richest 
player. Finding the gold is only half the 
battle ... the other half is keeping it You'll 
need robots to guard your fortune . How 
do you make a robot your ally? Simple - 
feed it more power chips than its previous 
owner did. or you can overcome the 
enemy with robots you have already won 
For one to four players. 
* 10209, Apple II Disk, $24.95 

New! TRS-80 GALAXY OF 
GAMES 

(Savolaine. DiUey and Wilkerson) 4 For the 
Fun Of It! Choose from four challenging 
games and enjoy hours of fun! 
HANGMAN • a word game enthusiasts will 
love this computerized classic that features 
excellent graphics! ONE ARM BANDIT 
brings slot machine excitement into your 
own home SKUNK -a unique dice game 
with special sound effects. JACKS -a card 
game to play with the computer or your 
friends, trade high cards for low cards and 

compete for the lowest point total. 

"09903, TRS-80 Models I and III, 

1 14.95 



I 
■ 
I 
I 
■ 
■ 
■ 
■ 
■ 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
■ 
I 
I 
I 
I 



ORDER TODAY! 

Hayden Book Co . Inc 

50 Essex St. Rochelle Park. NJ 07bb2 

Please send me the software checked. 
Residents of NJ and CA must add sales 
tax Name of individual ordering must be 
filled in Offer good in US only. Payment 
must accompany orders from P.O. Box 
numbers. 

U Enclosed is my check or money order. 

G Please bill to my Master Card or 

VISA account »_ 

Interbank * Expiration Date * 



□ 01209 
: 03404 

□ 03408 
n 03409 

03410 
D 03414 

□ 03418 



03440 
03444 
03484 
07403 
09809 
i 09903 



Name. 



Address . 



City/ State/ Zip. 



CC 11/81 012 




SARGON II 

(Spracklens) The first great computer 
Chess program! "We are impressed with 
the program's speed, its opening book, 
and its much improved end game . . Save 
your money and buy SARGON II ... " '80 
Software Critique 7 levels of play, and 
levels 0-3 in tournament rime. It has 
randomized opening book for all levels 
through three moves Special hint mode 
included at all levels except will suggest a 
good (but not necessarily the best!) move 
you can next make 
"03404. Apple II: 
"03410, OSIC1P; 
"03418. TRS-80 Models I and III: 
"03440, OSI C4P; 
each tape $29.95 

"03408. TRS-80 Level 11 Disk; 
"03409. Apple 11 Disk; 
"03414. OSI C1P Disk: 
'03444. OSI C4P Disk; 
"03484. OSI C8P Disk: 
each disk. $34.95 

Available at 

your local 

computer store! 



New! TETRAD 

(Hess) Now try a 3 -dimensional Tic Tac 
Toe and enjoy beautiful color, surprising 
sound and a choice of 3 levels of difficulty! 
A real challenge that allows 76 winning 
combinations Tetrad adds a new 
dimension to a familiar game . as you battle 
the computer to get 4 in a row in any 
direction . 
"09809. Apple II Disk. $19.95 

New! MIND THRUST 

(Sackson and Wazaney) Match wits with 
the computer! Be the first to complete a 
chain across the board Switch sides at any 
time and control your opponent's pieces ss 
he controls yours 
"07403. TRS-80 Tape. $16 95 



Other Hayden 
Grime ware. . . 



REVERSAL (Apple II) 
BLACKJACK MASTER 
(TRS-80 Level II; Apple Version 
Soon to be Available) 
BATTER UP!! A Microbaseball 
Game (TRS-80 Level II) 
GRIDIRON: A Mu rofootball 
Game (TRS-80 Level II) 



Soon to be 
available. . 



CHAMPIONSHIP GOLF 

ALIBI 

STAR TRADERS 

ASTEROID BLASTER 

QUICK SILVER /CRAZY COURSE 

WORD SOLITAIRE 



For Orders, Inquiries and Technical Support Call Toll Free 



800-631-0856 




50 Essex Street, Rochelle Park, NJ 07662 BOOK. COIfipaiiy, IffC. 



CIRCLE 205 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



A Basic Generative 
Grammar Program 



The article "Grammar as a Program- 
ming Language" I Jan/ Feb 1978) con- 
tained examples of how to use the 
REPLACE command in Logo to gen- 
erate sentences from syntactical rules. 
The following article shows how a 
similar approach can be done in Basic 
on the TRS-80. 



This program was inspired by the article 
"Grammar as a Programming Language" 
in the Jan/Feb 1978 issue of Creative 
Computing. Since I had studied formal 
grammars in college, the idea of a program 
able to generate statements according to 
a given grammar was familiar and fascinat- 
ing. 1 decided to write my own as soon as 
I had my own computer. The program 
described in this article is. I think, a decent 
attempt. It has all the necessary basic- 
capabilities, plus a few frills which 1 found 
convenient. 

The program, written in Basic for the 
TRS-80. is separated into five modes 
Grammar. Generate. Edit, Read and Write. 
The capacities and operation of these 
modes are described in the following sec- 
tions. 

Grammar Mode 

Grammar mode is used to input the 
rules of the chosen grammar. Rules are of 
the form 

STRING = SUBI/SUB2/SUB3.../SUBN 
w here STRING is the string of characters 
to be replaced, and SUB1...SUBN are the 
possible replacement strings, separated 
in the rule by the "/" character. Recursion 
is allowed, and replacement strings may 
of course, be the initial strings of other 
rules. "Null" replacement strings, which 
replace an initial string with zero characters, 
are indicated by a double slash "//." Every 
time the Grammar or Read modes are 
entered, all previously defined rules are 



Kimball Rudeen, 

0217.1. 



Ave. Li'xiiiKlon. MA 



Kimball M. Rudeen 



Figure I. 



MODE - GRAMMAR. GENERATE. EDIT, READ. WRITE. TERMINATE: 

GRAMMAR 

INPUT RULE - USE END TO HALTS 

SEN-SUB VER OBJ 

SUB=ARTICLE NOUN/NAME 

VER=L IKES/HATES/SEES/ RUNS AFTER 

OBJ«ARTICLE NOUN 

NAME-BI LL/ TOM/HARRY/ JOE 

END 



Figure 2. 



MODE - GRAMMAR. GENERATE. EDIT. READ. WRITE. TERMINATE: 

GENERATE 

INPUT START SYMBOL LIST - USE PERIOD TO END LIST AND END TO EXIT 

GENERATE MODE. 

1 SEN AND SEN 

2 SEN 

1 SUB VER OBJ AND SUB VER OBJ 

1 NAME VER OBJ AND NAME VER OBJ 

1 NAME SEES OBJ AND NAME RUNS AFTER OBJ 

I NAME SEES ARTICLE NOUN AND NAME RUNS AFTER ARTICLE NOUN 

1 JOE SEES ARTICLE NOUN AND HARRY RUNS AFTER ARTICLE NOUN 

2 SUB VER OBJ 

2 ARTICLE NOUN VER OBJ 

1- ARTICLE NOUN HATES OBJ 

2 ARTICLE NOUN HATES ARTICLE NOUN 

1 JOE SEES ARTICLE NOUN AND HARRY RUNS AFTER ARTICLE NOUN 

2 ARTICLE NOUN HATES ARTICLE NOUN 
FINISH 

INPUT START SYMBOL LIST - USE PERIOD TO END LIST AND END TO EXIT 

GENERATE MODE. 

END 



lost. An existing grammar may be modified 
by the edit commands (see Edit mode). 
Rules may be input by the user or read 
from tape, rules may be saved on tape 
(see Read/Write Mode). Figure 1 illustrates 
grammar input. 

Generate Mode 

Generate mode is used to input the list 
of strings to which the program will apply 
the grammar defined in the grammar mode. 
Each entry string may contain substrings 
not defined as an initial string in any 
grammar rule. Such substrings will not be 
changed by the program. 

Each entry string will be treated sepa- 
rately. The program will continue to try 

186 



the rules of the defined grammar against 
a given string, printing out intermediate 
results, until no more replacements can 
be made. If no grammar rule applies to a 
list entry, it will be left unchanged. 

At the end of the process, the final 
result for each list entry will be printed 
out. The output subroutine is designed to 
avoid ending a line in the middle of a 
substring when possible. When this occurs, 
the subroutine will backtrack to a blank 
in the current string and end the line 
there. If no blank exists, the string will be 
printed as is. Note: a recursive grammar 
rule can generate an infinite loop. Figure 
2 illustrates the operation of the Generate 
mode. 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 




PUT YOUR COMPUTER 
IN ITS PLACE. 



Don't be afraid of your computer. Tell it 
exactly what's on your mind and don't take no 
for an answer. 

But first you'll have to understand it. 

Without Me You're Nothing is the title and 
the spirit behind the new book by Frank Herbert, 
the author of Dune. You probably read excerpts 
in Omni. His straight talk about home computers 
straightens the record on just who's running the 
show. 

Herbert rips through the fear by demystifying 

On sale in lime for Christmos, in oversize 
guide to computer magazines, microcom 
a glossary of computer terms 



"computerese." He lays out the simple facts 
about how computers work. How to choose the 
system you need. And how to use it to defend 
yourself against the other guy's computer. 

In plain English, you can learn to program 
your computer to do most anything. From bal- 
ancing your checkbook to maintaining your car. 

Once you understand your machine, you 
can get down to business. Demand results. And 
rest a little easier, knowing that the microchips 
aren't plotting against you. 

formot. $5.95. Illustrated, and including a 
puter accessories and manufacturers, and 



POCKET BOOKS, Department WMY 

1230 Avenue of the Americas, New York NY 10020 

Please send me copies of WITHOUT ME YOU'RE NOTHING. 



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and NYC residents please add appropriate sales tax.) Send check or money 
order — no cash, stamps or CODs please. Allow six weeks for delivery. 

NAME 



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At your bookseller now. Or use this coupon to order by mail. 

POCKET J>BOOKS 



1tt 



jcippkz computer 

Sales and Service 




Apple II Plus 48K-$Call Toll Free 



Grammar, continued. 




Z80 Softcard $319.00 

16K RAM Card $15900 

Videx 80 Col $289 00 

NEC 12 Green Monitor $ CALL 

Zenith 12 Green Monitor $ CALL 

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MODE - GRAMMAR. 


GENERATE. EDIT, READ. WRITE. TERMINATE! 


EDIT 






EDIT - LIST, 


ADI 


. DELETE. MODIFY. QUIT: 


EDIT:LI8T 






1 




3/SEN/ 1/SUB VER OBJ/ 


2 




3/SUB/ 2/ARTICLE NOUN/NAME/ 


3 




3/VER/ A/LIKES/HATES/SEES/RUNS AFTER/ 


A 




3/OBJ/ 1/ARTICLE NOUN/ 


5 




A/NAME/ A/BILL/TOM/HARRY/JOE/ 


EDIT: DELETE 






NAME 






EDITIMODIFY 






NB-ART I CLE 


ADJECT 


EOITlADO 






ARTICLE-A/THE 




EDITiADD 






N0UN=CAT/DOG/BI RD/H0RSE 


EDIT8LIST 






1 




3/SEN/ 1/SUB VER OBJ/ 


2 




3/SUB/ 1/ARTICLE ADJECTIVE NOUN/ 


3 




3/VER/ A/LIKES/HATES/SEES/RUNS AFTER/ 


A 




3/OBJ/ 1/ARTICLE NOUN/ 


3 




7/ARTICLE/ 2/A/THE/ 


6 




A/NOUN/ A/CAT/DOG/BIRD/HORSE/ 


EDITiQUIT 







Edit Mode 

Edit mode is used to modify an existing 
grammar. There are four commands: List, 
Add, Delete, and Modify. The List com- 
mand will list the current grammar rules 
in their storage format. This consists of 
the original Grammar mode input format, 
plus two count values giving the length in 
characters of the initial string and the 
number of possible replacement strings. 

The Add and Modify commands allow 
new rules to be changed. The Modify 
command requires the modified rule to 
be specified completely. The Delete string 
needs to be given. Figures 3 and 4 illustrate 
the operation of the Edit mode. 

Read/Write Modes 

Read/write modes are used to input or 
store in a grammar. I/O facilities may 
have to be provided by the user. The 
subroutines shown are designed for my 
machine, a TRS-80. These modes will save 
the trouble of redefining a complex 
grammar. 



Figure 3. 



Applications 

Applications of this program are many 
and varied. The examples given suggest 
demonstrating the rules of English 
grammar. The same rules defined "in 
reverse" would analyze a given sentence 
into its component parts. This program 
can be used to generate or analyze bars 
of music, statements in languages such as 
Pascal, graphic commands, or speech 
synthesizer commands— almost anything 
defined by a grammar. 

Extensions 

There is, of course, plenty of room for 
improvement. In the current program, the 
length of a generated string is limited to 
the length of a single string variable. It 
should be possible to generate into a string 
array rather than a single variable. Another 
possibility is special command characters 
to control output, such as a "#" character 
causing a skip to a new line. Additional 
features will suggest themselves with experi- 
ence. □ 

Figure 4. 



MODE - GRAMMAR. GENERATE. EDIT. READ. 


WRITE. 


TERM I NATE « 


GENERATE 






INPUT START SYMBOL LIST - USE PERIOD 


TO END 


LIST AND END TO EXIT 


GENERATE MODE. 






SEN 






SUB VER OBJ 






ARTICLE ADJECTIVE NOUN VER OBJ 






ARTICLE ADJECTIVE NOUN HATES OBJ 






ARTICLE ADJECTIVE NOUN HATES ARTICLE 


NOUN 




A ADJECTIVE NOUN HATES A NOUN 






A ADJECTIVE BIRD HATES A BIRD 






A ADJECTIVE BIRD HATES A BIRD 






FINISH 






INPUT START SYMBOL LIST - USE PERIOD 


TO END 


LIST AND END TO EXIT 


GENERATE MODE. 






END 






MODE - GRAMMAR, GENERATE. EDIT. READ, 


WRITE. 


TERMINATE: 


TERMINATE 







188 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



NEW FOR THE APPLE III 



This data base management system is 
especially designed for the Apple III. It can be 
used with a floppy disk or up to 50 M.G., hard 
disk drive. Easy to use. Easy to understand. 



»/## 



Data Manager III has the power, speed, and 
flexibility that delivers the results you expect 
from your Apple III. Coming to your Apple de- 
aler soon. 



NEW FOR THE APPLE II 




Merge information from the fields of any Data 
Factory or Invoice Factory file to any other Data 
Factory or Invoice Factory file. 

We saved at least five hundred dollars the first 
week we used this program. We wanted to 
change the account numbers of our custom- 
ers. There were invoices in a Data Factory file 
going back a year and a half, and our customer 
file contained 750 dealers around the world. 
Quite a job to change all those records. Using 



The Data Factory and the Merger we com- 
pleted the job in a morning! 

The Merger is easy to use. Just specify a field 
common to both data base files. Then list 
which fields to merge from one data base to the 
other. Press RETURN and the Merger does the 
rest. The Data Factory, The Invoice Factory and 
The Merger are partners to get your work done 
quickly. 



c 1981. Micro Lab. Inc 
Apple is a trademark ol Apple Computers. Inc 




micpc lab 



systems that work 




2310 Skokie Valley Road 
Highland Park, IL 60035 . 312-433-7550 

CIRCLE 1SS ON READER SERVICE CARD 



NOVEMBER 1981 



189 



Grammar, continued. 



Generate Program Listing 



GOTO L000 
GOTO 220 
GOTO 4000 
GOTO 50(90 



10 REM GENERATE' A GENERATIVE GRAMMAR PROGRAM 
20 REM BY KIMBALL M. RUDEEN 

30 ZLS 

40 CLEAR 3000 
50 RANDOM 
£0 Utt-INT A-Z 
70 DIM COM*iS0). ND*<25) 
75 REM SELECT OPERATING MODE 

80 PRINT "MODE - GRAMMAR, GENERATE. EDIT, READ, 
WRITE. TERMINATE :" 

90 INPUT M*:1F L£FT*lM*. 3>«"TER" END 

100 IF LEFT*1M*,3)»"GRA" GOTO 160 

110 IF LEFT»<M». 3)-"EDI" 

120 IF LEFT*lH», 3)="GEN" 

130 IF LEFT*IM», 3)»"REA" 

140 IF LEFT*iM».3)-"WRI" 

1S0 GOTO 80 

1SS REM GRAMMAR RULE INPUT 

160 coa 

170 PRINT "INPUT RULE - USE END TO HALT I " 

180 INPUT CC« 

190 IF CC»-"END" GOTO 80 

200 GOSUB 1000 

210 G01J 180 

215 REM STRING GENERATION* INPUT START SYMBOLS 

220 PRINT "INPUT START SYMBOL LIST - USE PERIOD 

TO END LIST AND END TO EXITGENERATE MODE." 
230 CSD-0 
240 INPUT ISD* 
250 IF ISD*-"." GOTO 280 
260 IF ISD*-"END" GOTO 80 

265 REM STRING GENERATION: SCAN STRINGS 
270 CSD=CSD+l:ND»iCSD>=ISD*JGOTO 240 
280 CD-0 

290 CD-CD+1UF CD>CSD GOTO 820 
300 SD*^ND*lCD) :CF-0:CL»0 
310 CF-CF+UCN-0 
320 IF CF>CL GOTO 810 
330 LN»VAL(COM*<CF>> 
340 M»4 

350 IF LN>9 M-M+l 
360 SUB»=M1D*CC0M»(CF),M, LN) 
370 PS-0 
380 LSD-LENCSD*) 
390 PS-PS* 1 

400 IF PS)LSD-LN*1 GOSUB 690:GOTO 310 
410 NN-LN+PS-1 

420 IF SUB*-MID*(SD*. PS.LN) GOTO 440 
430 GOTO 390 
435 REM REPLACE STRINGS 
440 LC-LEN(C0M»(CF))«CL-1 

450 M-LC-LN-4HF LN> 9 M-M-l 

460 CN=VAL(R1GHT»(C0M*<CF).M)> 

470 CM-INT(CN*RND(0>>4-1 

480 PSD»«LEFT*<SD*. PS-1) 

490 Ll-LNt-7 

500 IF LN>9 Ll-Ll+1 

510 IF CN>9 Ll-Ll-1 

520 SN>0 

530 FOR I -LI TO LC 

540 IF MlD»lLOMHCF), I. 1)-"/" SN-SN+1 

550 IF SN-CM GOTO 580 

560 NEX1 1 

570 PRINT "ERRUR"ICM.SNtGOTO 820 

580 FI-H-HSM-0 

590 FOR I-FI TO LC 

600 CH*-MID*iCOM*lCF). I, 1) 

610 IF CH»»'V" GOTO 650 

620 PSD*-PSD*+CH* 

630 SM=SM»1 

640 NEXT I 

650 IF SM-0 NN-NNfl 

660 I-LSD-NN 

670 IF 1)0 PSD*=PSD*->-RIGHT*iSD*. I) 

680 SD*-PSD*:ND*iCD)-SD»iPS-PS+SM-l:GOTO 380 

685 REM OUTPUT GENERATED STRINGS 

690 IF CN-0 GOTO 800 

700 LSD-LEN ( SD* > t M- 1 

710 LD-63 

720 IF LSD-M»1>63 GOTO 750 



730 
740 
750 
760 
770 

780 
790 

800 

80S 

810 

820 

830 

840 

850 

860 

870 

895 

900 

910 

920 

930 

940 

995 

1000 

1010 

1020 

1030 

1040 

1050 

1060 

1070 

1080 

2000 

2005 

2010 

2020 

2030 

2040 

2050 

2060 

2070 

2080 

2090 

2100 

2110 

2120 

2130 

2140 

2150 

2160 

2170 

2180 

2190 

2200 

2210 

2220 

2230 

2240 

2250 

2260 

2270 

2280 

2290 

2300 

2995 

3000 

3010 

3020 

3030 

3040 

3050 

3060 

3995 

4000 

4010 



PRINT MID*<SD*,M. LSD-M-M) 

GOTO 800 

FOR 1=1 TO 63 

IF MID*<SD*.M+LD. 1) <> " " LD-LD-18NEXT I 

IF LDO0 PRINT MID*<SD*.M. LD) ELSE PRINT 

MID*<SD*.M.63> 

IF LDOO M-M+LD+1 ELSE M-M+63 

GOTO 710 

RETURN 

REM CONTINUE GENERATION OR TERMINATE 

IF CLOO GOTO 300 ELSE GOTO 290 

PRINTiCN-1 

FOR CD-I TO CSD 

SD*-ND*(CD) I GOSUB 690 

NEXT CD 

PRINT "FINISH" :GOTO 220 

END 

REM REPLACE RULE CF IN LIST 

SC-CC 

CC-CF-1 

GOSUB 1000 

CC-SC 

RETURN 

REM ADD GRAMMAR RULE TO LIST 

CC-CC+UCE-HCA-0 

FOR 1-1 TO LEN<CC*> 

IF MIDKCC*. I, 1)-"/" CE-CE+1 

IF MID»<CC*. I. 1)-"-" CA-I 

NEXT I 

C0M*(CC)-STR*(CA-1)*" 

COM* ( CC ) -COM* < CC ) +' • / " 



/"♦LEFT*<CC», CA-1 ) 
+STR*CCE)+"/" 

COM»(CC)-COM*(CC)+RIGHT»(CC«.LEN(CC*)-CA)*"/" 

RETURN 

PRINT "EDIT - LIST. ADD, DELETE, MODIFY. QUIT." 

REM EDIT GRAMMAR RULES 

INPUT "EDITi'ME* 

IF E»-"LIST M GOTO 2080 

IF E*-"ADD" GOTO 2100 

IF LEFT*<E*. 3)-"DEL" GOTO 2130 

IF LEFT*<E*. 3)-"M0D" GOTO 2220 

IF E»«"QUIT" GOTO 80 

GOTO 2010 

FOR 1 = 1 TO CC:PRINT I. COM*< I ) JNEXT I 

GOTO 2010 

INPUT CC* 
GOSUB 1000 
GOTO 2010 

INPUT SUB* 
LN-LEN(SUB«) 
GOSUB 3000 

IF CF-0 PRINT "NOT FOUND"! GOTO 2010 

FOR I-CF+1 TO CC 

C0M*CI-1)-C0M*<I) 

NEXT I 

CC-CC-1 

GOTO 2010 

INPUT CC* 

LN-0 

FOR 1-1 TO LEN(CC») 

IF MID*(CC*. I. 1) <> "-" LN-LN+liNEXT I 

SUB*»LEFT*<CC». LN) 

GOSUB 3000 

IF CF-0 PRINT "NOT FOUND" sGOTO 2010 

GOSUB 900 

GOTO 2010 

REM LOCATE GRAMMAR RULE 

FOR CF-1 TO CC 

IF LNOVAL(C0M*<CF>> GOTO 3040 

M-4HF LN>9 M-M+l 

IF SUB*-MID*<COM*(CF).M. LN) GOTO 

NEXT CF 

CF-0 

RETURN 

REM INPUT GRAMMAR RULES 

CC-0 

INPUT#-1,CC* 



4020 IF CC*-"END" GOTO 80 

4030 CC-CC+UCOM*<CC>-" "+CC*sGOTO 4010 

4995 REM WRITE GRAMMAR RULES 

5000 FOR CF-1 TO CCsPRINT»-l,COM*(CF)xNEXT 

5010 PRINT»-1, "END"iGOTO 80 



190 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



ECHO SERIES™ speech synthesizer; 

COMPUTERS ARE SPEAKING OUT! 

Now you can add intelligible speech to your computer 
without using vast amounts of memory! The ECHO ] [™ 
speech synthesizer for the Apple* is the first of a 
series of synthesizers based on the same technology 
that made the Speak & Spell * * a success. 

The initial operating system allows the creation of 
your own vocabulary with phonemes (word sounds) 
while using very little RAM memory (approx. 800 bytes 
+ 20 bytes/word). Enhanced operating systems and 
vocabulary ROMs will be offered as they become 
available. 

The ECHO ][™ comes complete with speaker, instruc- 
tion manual, and a disk containing a speech editor, 
sample programs, and a sample vocabulary. Sug- 
gested list price is $225. 



See your dealer or contact: 




/ 



7 STREET ELECTRONICS 
/ CORPORATION 

'Trademark of Apple Computer 



3152 E. La Palma Ave., Suite C 
Anaheim, CA 92806 (714) 632-9950 

Trademark of Texas Instruments 
CIRCLE 268 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



NEW APPROACH TO LEARNING 




c 1981 Micro Lab Inc 
Apple is a trademark of Apple Computers. Inc 



Did you ever choose an answer on an 
exam and 

A) think it was wrong, but got it right. 

B) were sure it was right — it wasn t 1 

C) made a lucky guess and wondered 
how. 

D) think you were right, but not sure 
why 

E) all of the above 

With these unique tutorial programs, 
you will be shown why your answer was 
right or wrong. Learning becomes fun 
when you understand the reasoning 
behind a choice. 

The ENGLISH SAT I (which provides 
aid in the verbal section — Antonyms. 
Analogies. Sentence Completions, and 
Reading Comprehension), of the 
Scholastic Aptitude Tests, and the U S. 
CONSTITUTION TUTOR (to help pre- 
pare for any level exam in US Gov- 
ernment) are currently available for 
an Apple II computer with 48K and a 
disk drive at $30 each. 

a micro lab 
learning center 



—^^~ systems thai work. 




**1LS.** 



TUTOR 

By Myrna Helfand 



2310 SKokii' Vallo, Rodd • Highland Park IL 60035 • 312 433 7550 

CIRCLE 1S6 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Henri Picciotto 



The fact that on the PET screen a line 
has 40 characters, while I logical line can 
have up to 80 (actually 79). leads to some 
tricky situations. 

When you press the RETURN key. the 
PET enters your input into memory. This 
applies to entering direct mode com- 
mands. Basic program lines, or inputs dur- 
ing a program RUN. Your input is picked 
up off the screen, not directly from the 
keyboard as on many other computers. 
(Actually the screen buffer in memory — 
Ed.) This has many advantages: for 
instance, it allows you to enter a modifed 
version of a Basic program line without 
having to retype the whole line. However, 
to do this properly. The PET must know 
whether it is expected to pick up input off 
a 39- or a 79- character line. The length of 
the current line (39 or 79) is stored at 
memory location 213 (242 in the old 
ROMs). The program entitled Experi- 
ment 1 will allow you to check this out for 
yourself, by entering various values for M. 
The PET also needs to know where the 
line in questions begins. This information 
is kept at memory locations 196-197 (224- 
225 on the old ROMs). 

When the cursor is on a given line on 
the screen, the PET generally assumes 
that it is a 39-character line. However, if a 
character has been printed in the 40th 
position of the same screen line, the PET 
will assume that the cursor is in the first 
half of a 79-character line. If a character 
has been printed in the 40th position of 
the preceding screen line, the PET 
assumes that the cursor is in the second 
half of a 79-character line. (There is one 
exception. "Printing" a cursor move- 
ment through the 40th position of a screen 
line does not affect the length of the 
logical line. To verify this, put a "cursor 
right" instead of a graphic character on 
line 120 of Experiment I.) This feature 
usually works to the user's advantage by 
allowing him to enter Basic program lines 
or INPUTs of up to 79 characters automa- 
tically. However, there are situations 
where this arrangement causes problems. 

One such situation is when a program 
prints a carriage return while the cursor is 
in the first half of a 79-character line. 
What happens then is that the cursor is 
sent to the beginning of the next logical 
line, which is one screen line below the 
location expected by the user. For 
example, try writing a program that will 
draw a box. 40 characters wide and 12 
characters high, and then number the 10 
lines in the box. producing the result 
shown in Figure 5. Of course, there are 

Henri Picciotlo. 1805 Monterey Avenue. Berke- 
ley. CA 94707. 




Notes on Overcoming Some Strange Problems 

on the PET 



several ways to do this. (Feel free to find 
your own before reading on. I Program 1 
shows one way to draw the box using 
PRINT statements. However the program 
runs into trouble when trying to number 
the lines (see Figure 1). The 1 is in the 



second half of a 79-character line, so the 
carriage return, generated by the lack of a 
semi-colon after the Z" in line ISO. works 
normally. But the numbers 2 through ri are 
in the first halves of 79-character lines. 
and the carriage return skips a screen line 





REM E X PERI M E N T 1 




110 


INPUT M 




128 


FOP Z=l TO M ! PRINT "8", NEXT 




136 


PRINT PEEK<213> 




148 


PUN 






Experiment 1. 




pHHi 




mm 

98 


1 2 




m 


1 3 




® 


1 4 




1 


$ 5 




M 


■ € 




$ 


3$ 7 




St 


m 3 




8 


^ 9 




$ 


» 10 


» 


READY 






■ 


Fiiture 5. Proiiram IB. IC or ID output. 




100 


REM PROORRM 1 




110 


PRINT M"; 




120 


FOR 2=1 TO 40 ■ PRINT "»"; : NEXT 




130 


FOR Z=l TO 10 




140 


: PRINT "MMMT; 




150 


NEXT 




160 


FOR Z=l TO 40 : PRINT "»"j : NEXT 




170 


PRINT "wr; 




180 


FOR Z=l TO 10 : PRINT "II" Z : NEXT 

Program 1. 





192 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Yes 



I want to make the moat of my 
m computar. Sand ma: 



Quan Hem Price Total 

Basic Computar Games $7.95 

More Basic Computer Games 7.95 

Computers For Kids— Apple 3.95 

Computers For Kids— TRS-80 3.95 

Computers For Kids— Atari 3.95 

Computers In Mathematics 15.95 

Blister Ball (48K) Apple Disk 29.95 

Air Traffic Controller: 

Apple Disk (18K) 19.95 

Apple Cassette (16K) 11.95 

Atari Disk (24K) 19.95 

Atari Cassette (16K) 14.95 

TRS-80 Disk (32K) 19.95 

TRS-80 Cassette (16K) 11.95 

Computer Music Record 6.00 

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More Basic Computer Games 7.95 ^— ^ 

Computers For Kids— Apple 3.95 

Computers For Kids— TRS-80 3.95 

Computers For Kids— Atari 3.95 

Computers In Mathematics 15.95 

Blister Ball (48K) Apple Disk 29.95 

Air Traffic Controller: 

Apple Disk (18K) 19.95 

AppleCassette(16K) 11.96 

Atari Disk (24K) 19.95 

Atari Cassette (16K) 14.95 

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Computer Music Record 6.00 

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Air Traffic Controller: 
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two planes to the same runway and watch 
out! Written by an actual air traffic controller. 
it has variable skill levels and realistic detail 
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Land one of your own on the TRS-80. Apple 
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Computers tor Kids: 
Starting Out Early 

This popular book provides children with 
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step guide to programming in Basic. No 
need to know algebra; suitable for ages 8 
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A section for parents and teachers offers 
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Computers in Mathematics: 
A Sourcebook of Ideas 

This huge 224-page sourcebook contains 
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are presented for everything from binary 
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multiple regression analysis and differential 
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^creative corepafcircg ffl 



Blisterball: 

Fast-paced Apple Game 

A frantic, fast-paced romp that can be 
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finally five. Surviving them, the player gets 
to shoot at inelastic bonus balls. If he makes 
it this far. the second round starts. The 
balls bounce lower, the walls close in. 
Shades of Poe and Newton 1 Making superb 
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can be played by one or two people 
$2995 



Computer Music Festival Record 
Bach to Beatles in Binary 

This 1 2 LP of the Philadelphia Computer 
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music of J.S. Bach. J Pachelbel. Rimsky 
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Lennon and McCartney, and seven others 
The music ranges from Baroque to Rock. 
Traditional to Rag. and even includes an 
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The Catalog 

250 Other Great Products 

Free 48-page catalog describes 20 books 
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many other products for personal computer 
users 

Morris Plains, NJ 07950 



NOVEMBER 1981 



193 



Pet Screen, continued... 



; , 



mmmmmmmmmmmimmmsmM 




•-4 
10 

REflDV 



Fwure I. Program I output. 



every time. Outside the box. the lines are 
39-character lines, so that the carriage 
return functions as expected. 

Another problem arises in the use of the 
TAB function, which counts the columns 
starting at the beginning of the logical 
line. This can be quite confusing if the 
cursor is in the second half of a 79- 
character line and the program prints a 
TAB(5l. for example. Much to the user's 
surprise, nothing happens! The reason is 
that the cursor is already beyond the 40th 
column, and one cannot TAB backwards. 



REflDV 



Figure 6. Program 2B. 2C or 2D output. 




108 REM,, PROGRAM 1 R 

rra print "Y; 




120 FOR Z=l TO 39 PRINT "! M ; : 


NEXT 


13© PRINT 




140 FOR 2=1 TO 10 




ISO PRINT "3T SPC<37) "1" 




160 NEXT 




170 FOR 2=1 TO 39 PRINT "*:" 


NEXT 


180 PRINT "«!]"; 




190 FOR 2=1 TO 10 PRINT "»" 2 


NEXT 


Prooram IA. 




100 REM PROGRfiM 2 




110 PRINT ".T', 




120 FOR 2=1 TO 40 : PRINT " 


NEXT 


130 FOR 2=1 TO 10 




140 : PRINT "MMT; 




150 NEXT 




160 FOP 2=1 TO 40 PRINT "S" . 


NEXT 


170 D*="sr 




ISO FOR 2=1 TO 10 




190 D*=nj+"W" 




2O0 PRINT D* TflB<3) 2 




210 NEXT 




Proxram 2. 




100 REM PROnRRM 2F) 




110 PRINT "3":. 




120 FOP 2=1 TO 39 PRINT "%" i ■ 


NEXT 


130 PRINT 




140 FOR 2=1 TO 10 




150 PRINT "1" SPCC37) "»" 




160 NEXT 




170 FOR 2=1 TO 39 : PRINT "&" ; ■ 


NEXT 


180 PRINT "«W": 




190 FOR 2=1 TO 10 




2O0 PRINT TABC5) Z 




210 NEXT 




Program 2A. 









8 


2 1 


■~» 


& 


* 


4 98 


5 


J8 


at 


6 ^ 


7 


St 


% 


8 St 


9 


St 


& 


10 




mm. 


REflDV 




■ 






Fiuure 2. program 2 output. 



Try running Program 2. which is intended 
to yield the display shown in Figure 6. 
Variable DS is (here to help avoid the 
problem of line skipping we encountered 
in Program I. However, the result, shown 
in figure 2. is not quite what we intended: 
the odd numbers were not TABbed. This 
is because they were in the second half of 
a 79-character line, and the TAB argu- 
ment should have been 45. not 5. 

There are various ways to get around 
these difficulties. The simplest is to avoid 
printing in the last column. This will 
guarantee that the line length is con- 
sistently 39 throughout the program, 
thereby solving the problems. (This sug- 
gestion refers to printing under program 
control, not to the keying in of the pro- 
gram, which of course should take 
advantage of the 79-character line possi- 
bility.! Programs I A and 2A use this 



194 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 





Having trouble 
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your computer? 

'Reference manuals don't teach. Most BASIC 
texts don't cover specific personal computers. 

TIS solves these problems 

with step-by-step books 

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For PET/CBM 

Understanding Your PET/CBM $16.95 

Vol 1: Basic Programming 

PET Graphics $ 6.95 

For OSI CIP/C4P 

Understanding Your C1P/C4P $ 9.95 

A Workbook of BASIC Exercises 
For VIC 

Understanding Your VIC $13.95 

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CIRCLE 193 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



a.n.a.l.o.g.ISESS,? — — 



SUPPORTING THE ATARI* 
400* AND 800* COMPUTERS 
•Practical Applications * Personal Finonce 
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* Software Reviews ' Classifieds 

* Readers Comments * Tutorials 

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(617) 892-3488 t~l 



CIRCLE 255 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



learning 
system. 



Your Computer Costs You Nothing 



> SCOT KAMNS. Ph.D. 



New Training Device 

Training is one of your most expensive 
costs in conducting business. When an 
employee leaves or is promoted, and a 
new person must take over, how long 
will the supervisor or manager be taken 
away from his job? How much time will 
be lost, money wasted, and other im- 
portant work delayed until the new per- 
son is trained and the instructor freed 
to catch up with the projects inter- 
rupted by that training? By using The 
Learning System with an Apple com- 
puter to train just one or two employ- 
ees, you can reduce your training costs 
and pay for the entire computer sys- 
tem. 

Anyone Can Use It 

There is no programing skill or special 



instruction needed to set-up or operate 
the program. The Learning System op- 
erates like a word processor. Simply 
type in the job description or training 
program; then make up the test ques- 
tions (fill-in, multiple choice, or column 
match) to correspond to specific sec- 
tions of the information. Using the tuto- 
rial mode, the employee gets hints, en- 
couragement, and repeated exposure 
to the information, progressing at his 
own rate until he feels confident 
enough to use the exam mode (which 
does not offer additional help) to truly 
test the knowledge required for the job. 
Those results can then be scored, 
analyzed, or averaged with others. 

Many Office Applications 

Place job descriptions in your compu- 
ter disk library. Employees will enjoy 

CIRCLE 153 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



learning new jobs or additional skills 
on the computer. Your personnel man- 
ager can present a general survey of 
the company to a waiting applicant and 
observe his learning comprehension 
before the interview. 

With The Learning System, learning is 
a positive experience that will reinforce 
the desire to learn more. When people 
enjoy learning they will catch-on 
quicker and more effectively. Yourtime 
and money are saved — and an indi- 
vidual's motivation to learn increases. 

This description of The Learning Sys- 
tem is meant to stimulate your 
thoughts about its applications in your 
office. The system has so much poten- 
tial that only a brief summary of its 
features can be described here. See a 
demo at your local Apple dealer. The 
Learning System is priced at an intro- 
ductory offer of $150. 

c 1961. Micro Lab. Baft 

Apple is a trademark of Apple Computers. Inc 

/— miepe lab — 
/ ledpning center 

V — ^^e»- systems th*t -"'* 



2310 Shoh* Va«*v Road • Highland Par* il 60036 • )'?«}} ■■>*: 



Pet Screen, continued... 


\-kW':-^*.' 




® i 




m 2 


St 


1 3 


H 


1 4 


1 


1 5 


jg 


m 6 


» 


» 7 


8 


$ 8 


i 


m 9 


* 


g le 


8 


^g^§^^^ 


READY 




■ 






Fmurc .1. Pribram IA output. 






1 2 


® 


8 3 


1 


1 4 


jft 


1 5 


£ 


6 


g 


® 7 


i 


m 8 


8 


ss 9 


1 


10 


8 




^^^^^^^i^i^^»i?^M^^i^» 


REflDV 




■ 






FigUK 4. Program 2A output. 



1 06 REN E X PERI M E N T 


—j 


110 S-32768 




126 INPUT M 




130 PRINT "3"; 




140 FOR Z"S TO S+M POKE 2,102 


NEXT 


150 PRINT "M" PEEK<213) 




160 RUN 




Experiment 2. 





100 


REM 


PROGRAM 


IE 




110 


PRINT 


it *^n ■ 








120 


FOR Z« 


= 1 TO 39 


PRINT 




NEXT 


1 30 


GOSUB 


240 PRINT 






140 


FOR 2= 


=1 TO 10 








150 


■ GOSUB 240 








160 


: PRINT " s" 








170 


NEXT 










1 80 


FOR Z« 


= 1 TO 39 


: PRINT 




NEXT 


190 


SOSI IB 


240 








200 


PRINT 


"Mr; 








210 


FOR 2' 


=1 TO 10 


PRINT 


"M" 2 


: NEXT 


220 


END 










230 












240 


EL=25 


S*PEEK(19 


r">+PEEK<l! 


250 


POKE 


EL, 102 








260 


RETURN 












Program 


IB. 







100 


REM PROGRAM : 


2B 




110 


PRINT "IT'.: 






120 


FOR 2=1 


TO 39 PRINT 


••-:::" I 


: NEXT 


130 


GOSUB 260 : PRINT 






140 


FOR 2=1 


TO 10 






150 


OOSUB 


260 






160 


: PRINT 


1" 






170 


NEXT 








1 80 


FOR 2=1 


TO 39 : PRINT 


"88"; 


: NEXT 


190 


GOSUB 2i 


50 






200 


PRINT "i 


*!]" , 






210 


FOR 2=1 


TO 10 






220 


PRINT 


TRE<5> 2 






230 


NEXT 








240 


END 








250 










2td 


EL=256*PEI 


270 


POKE EL 


102 






230 


RETURN 


Program 2B. 







approach, and yield the displays shown in 
Figures 3 and 4. which closely resemble 
our original goal. 

Another solution, if you must put a 
character in the last column, is to POKK it 
there. This is easy to do if you know the 
address you need to POKE, i If you don't, 
use the routine at the end of Program IB 
and 2B to figure it out. The routine PEEKs 
into the memory locations mentioned 
above and adds 39 to get to the end of the 
screen line. Note that the routine assumes 
thai the cursor is placed on the line whose 
last column you want POKEd.l While 
printing a character in the 40th position 
affects the length of the logical line, 
poking a character there does not. Use 
Experiment 2 to check this. Programs IB 
and 2B use this fact to yield the desired 
display. Of course the entire box could 
have been POKEd onto the screen. 



100 


PEM 


PROGRAM 


1 c 






110 


PRINT " 


T' , 










129 


FOR 2=1 


TO 40 


PRINT 


II .11 


HE5 


:t 


130 


FOP 2= 


1 TO 10 










140 


PRINT 


" nm ■- 










150 


NEXT 












160 


FOR 2=1 


TO 40 


PRINT 


» " ; 


ne: 


:t 


170 


PRINT " 


•r ■ 










180 


FOR 2= 


1 TO 10 










193 


PRINT 


"Hi" 2; 










200 


P=P0S 


C0> LL= 


=PEEK<2 


13) 






210 


: IF P: 


40 AND LL=79 THEN UP* 


_ ii ^ii 


220 


PRINT 


PRINT 


UP* ■ 


UP*-" 


i 




230 


NEXT 
















Program IC. 









196 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




APPLE DISK & MEMORY UTILITY 



THE INSPECTOR 

These utilities enable the user tn examine data 
both in the Apple's memory and on disks Simple 
commands allow scanning through RAM and 
ROM memory as well as reading, displaying and 
changing data on disk 

Read and rewrite sei turns ot Random A> COT* Mm 
Reconstruct a blown VTOC Weed ixit unwanted 
control characters in CATAUXi listings 
UnDELETE deleted lik-s or programs Repair tiles 
that have erroneous data All without being under 
program control and more 

You may transter sectors l>etween disks this 
allows you to transter DOS Irom one disk to 
another thereby saving a blown disk when all that's 
blown IS DOS Itsell. or to restore a portion ol a 
blown disk from its bat kup disk 

Its unique NIBBLE read routine provides a Hi Res 
graphical representation of the data on any track 
allowing you to immediately ascertain whether 
your disk is 13 set tor or 16 sector (let an I O 
error is it because you have the wrong [X)S up- 1 
is it because of a had address field'' or a l>ad data 
field' or because a track was erased' This will 
allow you to tell man instant without hlowmgaway 
any program in meinon. 



• Repairs Blown Disks 

• Reads Nibbles 

• Maps Disk Space 

• Searches Disks 



The INSPECTOR even lets you search through 
an entire disk or through on Kurd memory for the 
appearance ol a string Now you can easily add 
lower case to your programs (with LCA) 

Do you want to add so called ilk-gal hne numberi 
into your program' or have several of the same line 
number* in a program (like the professional 
programmers do)' or input unavailable command* 
ilike H1MKM to Integer Baric)? or put quotation 

marks into PRINT statements' Here's the . \isv 
way to do them all! 

AND MORE 
The INSPECTOR provides a USER exit that will 
interlace your own subroutines with those of the 
INSPECTOR itseit Lor example, iust put a 
screen dump routine (iampk included in 
ikx umentationl at HEX 11300 and press CTRL X 
The contents of the screen page will print to your 
[winter 

ROM RESIDENT ROUTINES 
The INSPfr'CTOR utihth's come on an «msiIv 

installed KPROM This make* them always 
available tor instant use No need to load .1 disk 

and run a program 

FULLY DOCUMENTED 

Unlike other software ot its kind. The 
INSPECTOR come* with an EASY to 
understand manual and reference card Example* 
aixt graphics help even the uninitiated use the 
power of these utilities Ami furthermore, we ofler 
the kind of personal service which you have never 
experienced from a software vendor before 
CIRCLE 200 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



• Searches Memory 

• Edits Disk Sectors 

• Outputs Screen to Printer 

• Displays Memory In HEX/ ASCII 



See your LOCAL DEALER OR . . . 
Mastercard or Visa users call Kill I REE I 
800-835-2246 Kansas residents call 1-800- 
362-2421. Or send $49.95. Illinois residents 
add $3 sales tax. 

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 

All Atnite II < iHiii^iiiaiKMisttvii hne at i rwlolnlMjn Has* 
|e*hei ... ROM ..■ RAMi will ncporl I he INSPI CI (IK 
.lust id.* »■ it** t t«p m empty •* ■ hel I ih tilhff onthrrm iihvi 

l»o.iltl oi it. alt Ititi-qt'i linnv/.m' . .ml Am*' II* svstfiiis 
Will. RAM I'KIMitsioii SunK of Lt.i'iu.i.},' svsU'.us will 

it-, i'ivi' thr INSPI l I OK oi.il.sk io merge .«*! Io.kI with 
INIHASK 



And it vim. 'vuv an Aw*' II- . wiiIwhiI I'llln'i RAMim K( >M 
.n.rsv III MMrSJPI Kis* volt will still I*' *Mf to IMV II*' 

INSPI C Um lie. ..us. aw .1..' nukmg awabhk- It* RAM 
rsihinsmt. huards ai .i weiy atttrrddMr pm »• Noi milv will 
vhi he Mr io us.- II. INsl'l i IOK. hut i»"J will ..Is.. 
ruw .w . i-ss io Integer Hasi. ami oiIm-i Ln,.(t>.t.t.-s (h.i 
pnnr l... Willi thr INSPI t IOK ami ikii Ifck RAM 
h<urdis$l6 < f95.li'ssilvi...iiosi KAMhoardsairjrw (all 
out olli. .■ i..i detail 



Another Quality Product Irom 
Omega Software Products. Inc. 
222 S Riverside Plaza, Chicago. 1L 60606 
Phone (312) 648-1944 



1981 Omega Software Products. Im 
Appk' is a registered trademark of Appk' Computer. Inc 



D 



ncuiPRTPonm. 



•tTficpc 1st) presents 




PAINTER POWER 



Be an Artist 

No longer do you need art skills to 
create bold abstracts or impressionistic- 
landscapes. Using "Painter Power." you 
are able to achieve new effects that can- 
not be duplicated on canvas. Eric 
Podietz has produced a fascinating new 
art form which can be mastered by any- 
one. Using his skills as an artist and pro- 
grammer, he has been developing this 
extraordinary graphics program for over 
a year, showing it to both children and 
adults in an artmobile and a museum. 
The technique is now perfected. Take 
control of the power and speed of the 
computer and free your artistic imagina- 
tion and creativity. Micro Lab is offer- 
ing you the opportunity to create works 
of art in a new and exciting medium. 

Endless Possibilities 
Using the keyboard, paddle, or 
joystick to control the shape and move- 



BY ERIC PODIETZ 



ment of your own design, begin painting, 
alternating the six hi-resolution colors of 
Painter's palette to produce various ef- 
fects. Choose different speeds lor precise 
design placement at slower speeds or 
switch to the faster speeds for a more 
flamboyant, free-flowing effect. Expand 
into new design dimensions using repeti- 
tion of various geometric shapes, (circles, 
elipseSi sines) computed al your command 
by Painter. You will be absorbed for 
hours manipulating shapes and colors into 
a new visual expression. Save it anytime. 
Re-work it if you choose. Each creation is 
a unique, original work of computer art. 
There are two modes — one for the 
beginner and another for ihe more ad- 
vanced user. The beginner version, with a 
simpler operation, is especially suited for 
children. 

A Slide Program Too! 

You may arrange a special screening of 



your slide creations. Whether they were 
made with Painter Power or any other 
program makes no difference. Give a pro- 
fessional presentation of any saved screen. 
Slides created with Painter Power can 
also be incorporated into programs you 
produce. 

Enter our Art Fair 
Micro Lab is sponsoring a computer 
art fair of your creations. The winning en- 
try will be featured in a leading computer 
magazine. All entries received by March 
31st will be considered for this showing. 
Proof of purchase of the program is re- 
quired to enter. 

"Painter Power" will create a gallery 
of computer art on an Apple with 48K 
and a disk drive. You will also need 
Applesoft in ROM or a language card. 
The program sells for only $39.95. See a 
demo at your dealer. 



i-Mii M.oolaD ln< 



ApC* .1 1 l.tdvm*! ol Auow Con*eul««« Inc 



c 



micro lab 



systems flut work 



23tOSkoKie Valley Road 
Highland Park. IL 60035 • 312433 7550 
CIRCLE 143 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Pet Screen, continued. 



100 REM PROORRM ID 




116 PRINT "3"; 




128 FOR Z=l TO 40 PRINT "■"; 


NEXT 


138 FOR Z= 1 TO 10 




140 print u maim". 




150 NEXT 




160 FOR Z=l TO 40 PRINT "W ■ 


NEXT 


170 PRINT "CM". 




18© FOR Z= 1 TO 10 




190 • PRINT "«" Z» 




200 P«P0S<8) IF P: 40 THEN P=P- 


-4m 


218 PRINT SPC(40-P) 




220 NEXT 




Program ID. 





100 


REM 


RROC 


SRRM 




I) 




HO 


PRINT "3"; 












120 


FOR Z=l 


TO 


40 : 


PRINT 


"t" 




NEXT 


130 


FOP Z=l 


TO 


10 










140 


: PRINT 


m wm 


; 








150 


NEXT 














160 


FOR 2=1 


TO 


40 : 


PRINT 


„,.:;„ 




NEXT 


170 


D*="SJ" 














180 


FOR Z=l 


TO 


10 










190 


: D*=B*- 


►"M 


1 










200 


: PRINT 


D* 


TAB< 


5-40*<POS 


210 


NEXT 




















Program 2D. 









Yet another solution is to compensate 
for the problems caused by the 39/79 
alternative. If printing the carriage return 
sent the cursor one line below your goal, 
print a "cursor up" followed by a semi- 
colon to get it where you want it I Program 
1C). or else simulate the carriage return 
with judicious use of the SPC function 
(Program ID). If your TAB appears not to 
be working properly, use SPC (Program 
2C). or attempt to add 40 to the argument 
(Program 2D). These piecemeal solutions 
are adequate for most purposes. 

Study these programs, modify them. 
RUN them, and soon you will known all 
there is to know about this small PET 
problem. If you don't have the energy to 
do all this, buy yourself a new SO-column 
screen PET! □ 



100 REM PROGRAM 


2C 


110 PRINT "3"; 




120 FOR Z=l TO 40 PRINT "8". 


NEXT 


130 FOR Z=l TO 10 




140 : print "maim" ■■ 




150 NEXT 




160 FOR Z=l TO 40 PRINT "SI". 


: NEXT 


170 H*="SJ" 




180 FOR Z=l TO 10 




190 D*=D*+"M" 




200 PRINT D* SPC<5) Z 




210 NEXT 




ProKram 2C. 





tee 

110 

120 
1 30 
140 
150 
160 
170 
1 80 
190 

200 

210 

220 

238 

READY 



REM 



:mrrks 



REM RLL PROGRAM LISTINGS ASSUME HEW ROMS. 

REM FOR OLD POMS, REPLACE PEEK' 21 3 > WITH PEEK 

REM PEEK' 196' WITH PEEK 

REM PEEK' 197:' WITH PEEK 



<242>. 

1 224 ' 

■::225>. 



REM "T'=CLR (CLEAR THE SCREEN) 

REM "«"«H0ME 'CURSOR TO TOP LEFT OF SCREEN 

REM "T'=CUPS0R UP 

REM "W"=CURS0R DOWN 

REM "ll"=CUPS0R LEFT 

REM "M"=CURS0R RIGHT 



Remarks and an explanation of special characters used in the programs. 




"I put one loo many loops in this exercise 
program. " 



198 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



The Text Solution for APPLE II® 

Now APPLE II® Owners Can Solve Text Problems 

With VIDEOTERM 80 Column by 24 Line Video Display 

Utilizing 7 X 9 Dot Character Matrix 

Perhaps the most annoying shortcoming of the Apple II' is its limitation of displaying only 40 columns by 24 lines of 
text, all in uppercase. At last, Apple II" owners have a reliable, trouble-free answer to their text display problem. 
VIDEOTERM generates a full 80 columns by 24 lines of text, in upper and lower case. Twice the number of characters as 
the standard Apple II" display. And by utilizing a 7 by 9 character matrix, lower case letters have true descenders. But 
this is only the start. 



VIDEOTERM, MANUAL, 
SWITCHPLATE 




■tin '()» + ,-. / 

B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < < > ' 
I A B C D E F 6 H I J K L (1 N 
PCR5TUVHXYZI \]. A . 
'abcdrfjhijklano 



7X12 MATRIX 
18X80 OPTIONAL 



i • • * 1 1 '()«♦,-. / 

II 2 J 4 5 i 7 S J : ! < ■ > ' 



t SIS TU V U I TZ t \ 1 t . 

'ibcdtfjhijkliio 

pqritivuiylll'l 



VIDEOTERM 



Advanced 
Hardware 
Design 



Available 
Options 



BASICS VIDEOTERM lists BASIC programs, both integer and Applesoft, using the entire 80 
columns Without splitting Keywords Full editing capabilities are offered using the 
ESCape key sequences for cursor movement With provision lor stop/start text 
scrolling utilizing the standard Controls entry And simultaneous on-screen display 
of text being printed 

Pascal Installation of VIDEOTERM m slot 3 provides Pascal immediate control of the 

display since Pascal recognizes the board as a standard video display terminal and 
treats it as such No changes are needed to Pascal s MISC INFO or GOTOXY files, 
although customization directions are provided All cursor control characters are 
identical to standard Pascal defaults 

Other The new Microsoft Sottcard* is supported So is the popular D C Hayes Micro- 

Boards modem ll * . utilizing customized PROM firmware available from VIDEX the power- 

ful EasyWnter* Professional Word Processing System and other word processors 
are now compatible with VIDEOTERM Or use the Mountain Hardware ROMWriter" 
(or other PROM programmer) to generate your own custom character sets Natural- 
ly. VIDEOTERM conforms to all Apple OEM guidelines, assurance that you will have 
no conflicts with current or future Apple II* expansion boards 

VIDEOTERM s on board asynchronous crystal dock ensures flicker free character display 
Only the size of the Pascal Language card. VIDEOTERM utilizes CMOS and low power con- 
sumption ICs. ensuring cool, reliable operation All ICs are fully socketed for easy 
maintenance Add to that 2K of on board RAM. 50 or 60 Hz operation, and provision of power 
and input connectors lor a light pen Problems are designed out. not in 

The entire display may be altered to inverse video, displaying black characters on a white 
field PROMs containing alternate character sets and graphic symbols are available from 
Videx A switchplate option allows you to use the same video monitor for either the 
VIDEOTERM or the standard Apple II' display, instantly changing displays by flipping a 
single toggle switch The switchplate assembly inserts into one ol the rear cut outs in the 
Apple II' case so that the toggle switch is readily accessible And the Videx KEYBOARD 
ENHANCER can be installed, allowing upper and lower case character entry directly (rom 
your Apple II' keyboard 

1K of onboard ROM firmware controls all operation of the VIDEOTERM No machine 
language patches are needed for normal VIDEOTERM use 



Firmware Version 2.0 



Characters 7x9 matrix 
Options 7x12 matrix option, 

Alternate user definable 
character set option 
Inverse video option 



Display 24 x 80 (lull descenders) 

18 x 80 (7 x 12 matrix with full descenders) 



Want to know more 9 Contact your local Apple dealer today for a demonstration VIDEOTERM is available 
through your local dealer or direct Irom Videx in Corvallis. Oregon Or send lor the VIDEOTERM Owners 
Relerence Manual and deduct the amount if you decide to purchase Upgrade your Apple II' to lull terminal 
capabilities lor hall the cost ol a terminal VIDEOTERM At last 



7X9 MATRIX 
24X80 STANDARD 



Apple »• is a trademark of Apple Computer Inc 

ROMWntt*" h) a trademark of Mountain Hardware Inc 

Micromodem »• is a trademark of C Hayes Associates inc 

SoMcard' is a trademark of Microsoft 

Easy Writer* ••> a trademark ol Information Unlimited Software Inc 



PRICE: • VIDEOTERM includes manual $345 

• SWITCHPLATE $ 19 

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introducing the 

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• SEE REAL UPPER AND lower CASE ON THE SCREEN 
'ACCESS ALL YOUR KEYBOARD ASCII CHARACTERS 



Videx has the perfect companion lor your 
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If you want to program in BASIC, just put it 
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provements Now you can enter thOM fllialve9 

characters directly from the keyboard 

quire the Control key to be pressed with the 

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idex 



VIOEX 
897 N.W. Grant Avenue 
Corvallis. Oregon 97330 
Phone (503) 758-0521 



CIRCLE 240ON READER SERVICE CARD 



E. Lynn Crawford 

With spiraling inflation and extremely 
high interest rates, lending institutions are 
developing new types of home mortgages 
to insure higher yields. The fixed rate, 
fixed term, instrument most of us know 
as a home mortgage is dead! 

Throughout the United States, new 
mortgages known as "variable rate" or 
"roll over" mortgages are being used. This 
type of mortgage allows the lending 
institution to increase (or decrease) the 
interest rate, typically every three years, 
in step with the economy. This, of course, 
means increasing monthly mortgage pay- 
ments through the years. 

Now a new type of mortgage is being 
proposed by lending institutions. This 
mortgage is a "shared appreciation mort- 
gage" or SAM. Basically it provides for 
the lending institution to participate in 
the appreciation of the home, the lending 
institution reduces the interest rate by 
two or three points (percent). 

It works like this. In return for a one- 
third share of the appreciation, a bank 
will reduce the mortgage rate by three 
percent. Or in return for 25% of the 
appreciation, lending institutions will 
reduce the interest rate by two percent. 
If the home is sold within the allotted 
time, then the lending institution receives 
its share of the appreciation of the prop- 
erty. 

If the home is not sold within the allotted 
time, the home is appraised and the lending 
institution's share is due and payable by 
the home owner. The mortgage may 
provide for this lump sum payment of 
interest income or shared appreciation to 
be added to the mortgage. 

A reduction of three percent in the 
interest rate can mean a substantial reduc- 
tion in monthly payments, allowing the 
buyer to purchase a larger home or spend 
less per month on a smaller home. But 
computing the possibility of gain or loss 
overall (interest cost plus loss of shared 
appreciation) is almost impossible without 
the aid of a computer. 

Question, is this type of mortgage in 
the best interest of the home owner? The 
following program for the TRS-80 can 
provide the answer. □ 

Lynn Crawford. N045 Ouklandon Rd.. IndlMiapott, 

IN 462.36. 




A New Type 



of Mortgage 



is it Best for You? 



SAM MORTGAGE COMPARISONS 
THE COMPARISONS BELOW ARE BASED ON THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION: 



SALES PRICE 
INITIAL MORTGAGE 
INTEREST RATE 
MONTHLY PAYMENT 
SHARED PERCENTAGE 
APPRECIATION RATE 



STANDARD MORTGAGE 

$ 40,000.00 

$ 30,000.00 

14.0000% 

S 473.95 

-0- 

12.0000% 



SAM MORTGAGE 

$ 40,000.00 

$ 30,000.00 

11.0000% 

S 380.93 

33.300% 

12.0000% 



THE COMPARISONS WILL BE RUN FOR 5 YEARS. 

*« ALL PIGURES ARE BELIEVED ACCURATE BUT ARE NOT GUARANTEED. ** 



AMORIZATION DETAILS 









TOTAL 


PRINCIPAL 


PRINCIPAL 




CURRENT 




PROPERTY 


YEAR 


TYPE 




INTEREST 


REDUCTION 


BALANCE 


APPRECIATION 




VALUE 


1 


STD 


S 


4,100.75 


$ 1,586.65 


$ 28,413.30 


S 


4,800.00 


S 


44,800.00 




SAM 


S 


3,233.91 


S 1,337.25 


$ 28,662.80 


s 


4,800.00 


$ 


44,800.00 








TOTAL 


SHARE 


LENDERS 




NET 




LENDERS 








EQUITY 


EQUITY 


EQUITY 




EQUITY 




INCOME 




STD 


S 


16,386.70 


-0- 


-0- 


s 


16,386.70 


$ 


4,100.75 




SAM 


$ 


16,137.20 


$ 4,800.00 


$ 1,598.40 


$ 


14,538.80 


S 


4,832.31 








TOTAL 


PRINCIPAL 


PRINCIPAL 




CURRENT 




PROPERTY 


YEAR 


TYPE 




INTEREST 


REDUCTION 


BALANCE 


APPRECIATION 




VALUE 


2 


STD 


$ 


7,964.54 


$ 3,410.26 


$ 26,589.70 


S 


5,376.00 


S 


50,176.00 




SAM 


S 


6,313.08 


$ 2,829.24 


S 27,170.80 


s 


5,376.00 


S 


50,176.00 








TOTAL 


SHARE 


LENDERS 




NET 




LENDERS 








EQUITY 


EQUITY 


EQUITY 




EQUITY 




INCOME 




STD 


s 


23,586.30 


-0- 


-0- 


s 


23,586.30 


s 


12,065.30 




SAM 


s 


23,005.20 


$ 10,176.00 


$ 3,388.61 


s 


19,616.60 


s 


12,935.60 








TOTAL 


PRINCIPAL 


PRINCIPAL 




CURRENT 




PROPERTY 


YEAR 


rYPE 




INTEREST 


REDUCTION 


BALANCE 


APPRECIATION 




VALUE 


3 


STD 


S 


11,556.00 


$ 5,506.21 


$ 24,493.80 


S 


6,021.12 


s 


56,197.10 




SAM 


$ 


9,219.60 


$ 4,493.88 


S 25,506.10 


s 


6,021.12 


s 


56,197.10 








TOTAL 


SHARE 


LENDERS 




NET 




LENDERS 








EQUITY 


EQUITY 


EQUITY 




EQUITY 




INCOME 




STD 


$ 


31,703.30 


-0- 


-0- 


s 


31,703.30 


s 


23,621.30 




SAM 


s 


30,691.00 


$ 16,197.10 


$ 5,393.64 


s 


25,297.40 


s 


24,160.20 








TOTAL 


PRINCIPAL 


PRINCIPAL 




CURRENT 




PROPERTY 


YEAR 


TYPE 




INTEREST 


REDUCTION 


BALANCE 


APPRECIATIi 




VALUE 


4 


STD 


$ 


14,834.40 


$ 7,915.17 


$ 22,084.80 


$ 


6,743.66 


s 


62,940.80 




SAM 


$ 


11,933.50 


S 6,351.16 


$ 23,648.80 


s 


6,743.66 


s 


62,940.80 








TOTAL 


SHARE 


LENDERS 




NET 




LENDERS 








EQUITY 


EQUITY 


EQUITY 




EQUITY 




INCOME 




STD 


s 


40,855.90 


-0- 


-0- 


s 


40,855.90 


$ 


38,455.70 




SAM 


s 


39,291.90 


$ 22,940.80 


S 7,639.28 


s 


31,652.70 


s 


38,339.40 








TOTAL 


PRINCIPAL 


PRINCIPAL 




CURRENT 




PROPERTY 


YEAR 


TYPE 




INTEREST 


REDUCTION 


BALANCE 


APPRECIATION 




VALUE 


5 


STD 


s 


17,753.10 


$ 10,683.90 


$ 19,316.10 


s 


7,552.89 


s 


70,493.70 




SAM 


$ 


14,432.50 


$ 8,423.35 


S 21,576.70 


s 


7,552.89 


$ 


70,493.70 








TOTAL 


SHARE 


LENDERS 




NET 




LENDERS 








EQUITY 


EQUITY 


EQU ITY 




EQUITY 




INCOME 




STD 


s 


51,177.60 


-0- 


-0- 


s 


51,177.60 


s 


56,208.80 




SAM 


s 


48,917.00 


$ 30,493.70 


$ 10,154.40 


s 


38,762.60 


s 


55,286.90 



200 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Educational Excellence 



Excellent educational software is the 
exception rather than the rule. 



Excellence in educational software Its not easily 
achieved. 

Many large publishers have entered the computer 
software business Many have flopped Why? Because 
producing good software is not the same as producing 
a textbook 



Tough Criteria 

Good educational software must meet 
specific objects in the teaching/learning 
process It must motivate and hold the 
attention of the students It must not bore 
the gifted students nor be over the heads of 
slower students It must be user friendly 
to both the teacher and student. And it must 
be accompanied by clear support material, 
worksheets and all the material necessary 
to use it effectively 

A tall order 

But one which MECC has met. 

The Minnesota Educational Computer 
Consortium (MECCI was founded in 1973 
with the goal of extending the benefits of 
computers to every school in the state Over 
the years. MECC has developed procedures 
tor finding and perfecting programs from 
contributors throughout the state 

Few Programs Quality 

Before a program is accepted for the MECC 
library it is judged on specific criteria For 
example: 

1) Accuracy Is all spelling and grammer 
correct? Does each question provide for a 
correct and appropriate response? 

2) Audience Is the intended audience 
(grade level and subject) served by the 
degree of diff cutty and scope of the program? 
Is the reading level of the text material suit- 
able? 

31 Clarity Are explanationsand instruc- 
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4jGraphics Are the graphics appropriate 
and sufficient in quantity? 

Other criteria include documentation, 
function, programming, and the like Similar 
criteria are applied to the documentation 
This insures that the reading level is appro- 
priate, that objectives are well-stated and 
that associated materials are available 

What this all means is that the educational 
software packages from MECC are among 
the best available anywhere They are 
pedigogically sound, throroughly tested and 
well documented 

Now the MECC software library is available 
to both schools and individuals through 
Creative Computing Software 

MECC software is currently available only 
on disk for the Apple II All disks run under 
DOS 3 2 and require a minimum of 32K 
memory and Applesoft in ROM or an Apple 
II Plus 

Software using a printer uses the Apple 
serial, parallel or communications card. 

Order Today 

Order in confidence at no risk All MECC 
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To order any MECC software package, 
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Express include card number and expiration 
date. Charge orders may also be called in to 
our toll-free number. School purchase orders 
should add an additional $2 00 billing fee 

Order MECC software today for the highest 
quality and best value in educational software 
available anywhere. 

NOVEMBER 1981 



Apple Demonstration Diskette 
MECC-701. $19 95 

A sample of the different kinds of applica- 
tions available on the MECC diskettes is 
shown The software demonstrates applica- 
tions in drill and practice, tutorial, simulation, 
problem solving, and worksheet generation 
Samples from music, science, social studies, 
industrial arts, reading and mathematics are 
provided 

Elementary -Volume 1 (Mathematics) 
MECC- 702 $24 95 

The first elementary diskette contains 
programs to be used in the elementary 
mathematics classroom Games of logic such 
as BAGELS. TAXMAN, and NUMBER, drill 
and practice programs, such as SPEED 
DRILL. ROUND, and CHANGE, and pro- 
grams about the metric system such as 
METRIC ESTIMATE. METRIC LENGTH, and 
METRIC 21 are included on the diskette 

Elementary-Volume 2 (Language Arts) 
MECC-703. $24 95 (Available 7/81 1 

The teacher can enter lists of spelling 
words in the computer and have them used 
by the program SPELL, which drills students 
on the spelling. MIXUP which presents the 
word in mixed up order, or WORD FIND. 
which will create a word find puzzle for the 
teacher to duplicate If words and definitions 
are entered, a CROSS WORD puzzle can 
be generated or a WORD GAME can be 
played Two other programs included on 
this diskette are TALK, a program designed 
to introduce students to the computer or 
AMAZING which prints out worksheet mazes 
Several programs on this diskette use a 
printer. 

Elementary-Volume 3 (Social Studies) 
MECC-704. $24 95 (Available 7/81) 

The sell series, SELL APPLES. SELL 
PLANTS. SELL LEMONADE, and SELL 
BICYCLES which appears on the ELEMEN- 
TARY VOLUME 3 diskette can be used to 
teach elementary economics to students in 
grades 3-6 CIVIL will reinact battles of the 
CIVIL war while STATES and STATES2 
provide drill and practice on the location of 
states in the US and their capitals 

Elementary -Volume 4 (Mathematics And 

Science) 
MECC-705. $24.95 

Two mathematics programs ESTIMATE 
and MATHGAME provide reinforcement on 
estimating and basic facts. Food chains in 
fish can be studied through ODELL LAKE 
while ODE LL WOODS deals with food chains 
in animals SOLAR DISTANCE teaches the 
concepts or distances in space and URSA 
provides a tutorial on constellations. 

Elementary-Volume 5 (Language Arts) 
MECC-719. $24 94 (Aailable 7/81) 

ELEMENTARY-VOLUME 5 deals with 
the reading concept of prefixes The diskette 
contains five lessons which both teach the 
prefixes of UN. RE. DIS. PRE. and IN Two 
review drils. DRAGON FIRE and PRE-APP 
II. are also contained on the diskette 



Elementary— Volume 6 
MECC-725. $24 95 (Available 7/81) 

Historical simulations. OREGON. 
VOYAGEUR and FURS are included in the 
ELEMENTARY- VOLUME 6diskette Along 
with these programs are NOMAD which 
teaches map reading and SUMER 

Special Needs-Volume 1 (Spelling) 
MECC-727. $24 95 (Available 7/81) 

This diskette is designed to drill handi- 
capped students on frequently misspelled 
primary and intermediate words Students 
answer problems by either using the game 
buttons, the game paddles or any key on 
the keyboard. 

Science-Volume 2 (Senior High) 
MECC- 709. $24 95 (Available 7/81) 

Many of the programs on this diskette 
were developed by Minnesota teachers 
PEST, which deals with the use of pesticides 
and CELL MEMBRANE which the user takes 
the part of a cell membrane, can be used in 
biology classes SNELL plots light refraction 
demonstrating SNELL slaw while COLLIDE 
simulates the collision between two bodies 
DIFFUSION deals with the diffusion rates 
ol various gasses. NUCLEAR SIMULATION 
shows radioactive decay of nine different 
radioisotopes. ICBM and RADAR teach 
angles and protections on a coordinate sys- 
tem 

Science-Volume 3 (Middle School) 
MECC-707. $24.95 (Available 7/811 

The FISH program through the use of 
low resolution graphics show the circulatory 
system of a fish Simulations like ODELL 
LAKE which is used to explore food chains. 
URSA which teaches about constellations, 
and OUAKES whch simulates earthquakes 
are on the diskette MlNERALScanbeused 
in the area of earth science to identify 29 
minerals by having students perform simple 
tests 

Mathematics-Volume 1 (Senior High) 
MECC-706. $24 95 (Available 7/81 ) 
BAGELS. SNARK. ICBM. and RADAR will 
teach students logic while reinforcing the 
concepts ol plotting prints or angle measure- 
ments ALEGBRA provxles a drill and practice 
in solving equations. Three programs on 
the diskette can be used in plotting equations 
on a grid: SLOPE which is designed tor use 
in ninth grade with linear functions. POLY- 
GRAPH which will plot any equation on a 
rectangular coordinate system, and POLAR 
which graphs functions on polar coordi- 
nates 

Aestheometry teaches the topic of curves 
by viewing curves from two perspectives 
The first method demonstrates the space 
concepts of elliptical parabolic and hyper- 
bolic curves. Curve sketching designs are 
developed to provide an aesthetic view of 
geometric shapes The second method uses 
a mathematical approach and defines a curve 
as the intersection of planes with a cone 
The support booklet provides worksheets 
and classroom ideas 



Teacher Utilites-Volume 1 
MECC-715. $24 95 (Available 7/81) 

The TEACHER UTILITIES diskette is 
designed to aid the teacher and would not 
be used by the student unless the teacher 
creates questions using the REVIEW pro- 
gram This program allows the teacher to 
set up a list of questions which can be used 
either by the REVIEW program or the TEST 
GENERATOR program The teacher can 
also make CROSS WORD puzzles WORD 
FIND puzzles. BLOCK LETTER banners and 
POSTERS using this program FREQUENCY 
and PERCENT can be used to calculate 
grades and to do statistical analysis A printer 
is needed lor some of the programs on this 
diskette 

Programmer s Aid -Volume 1 
MECC-720. $32 95 (Available 7/81) 

The PROGRAMMER s AID diskette pro- 
vides help lor the programmer. Programs to 
be able to UPLOAD and DOWNLOAD to 
the MECC system, programs that work with 
text files including FP TO TEXT. RANDOM 
EDITOR. SEQUENTIAL EDITOR, and TEXT 
LIST along with programs to work with binary 
files. BINARY FILE INFO. BINARY FILE 
TO FPare included Two programs TABLES 
and MERGE allow the user to create.change 
and merge graphic shapes for use in a 
program FREE SPACE will tell the amount 
of space on the diskette while HIDDEN 
CHARACTERS will locate contol character 
STARTER will put standard routines such 
as space bar. music, graphic characters or 
input into a users program which is just 
being created or already created 

MICAS -Volume 1 

MECC-721. $32 95 (Available 7/81) 

Microcomputer Integrated Computerized 
Accounting System requiresdual disksand 
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computerized accounting system provides 
a realistic experence with automated 
accounting systems The package consists 
of four integrated systems; ( 1 ) general ledger. 
12) accounts payable. (3) accounts receivable, 
and (4) inventory control 

Shape Tables-Volume 1 

MECC-724. $24 95 (Available 7/81) 

The SHAPE TABLES diskette includes 
12filesof 187 shapes that can be incorpor- 
ated in a user s program Also included are 
aids needed to work with shape tables 



creative 

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Program Listing 



SAM MORTGAGE COMPARISONS 

A PROGRAM TO COMPARE INTEREST EXPENSE OF FIXED TERM 
FIXED RATE MORTGAGES WITH THE EXPENSE OF SAM (SHARED 
APPRECIATION MORTGAGES) TYPE MORTGAGES. 



10 

20 

30 

40 

50 

60 

70 

80 

90 

100 

110 

120 •■*»*•••* « 

130 ' 

140 ' 

150 * 

160 • 

170 'EQUITY VARIABLES 



'* ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



BY E. LYNN CRAWFORD 
3/5/81 



VARIABLE LIST * 



180 


i 


NE - NET EQUITY 




190 


' 


SR ■ SHARE PERCENTAGE RATE 




200 


1 


SE - SHARE EQUITY 




210 


• 


TE = TOTAL EQUITY 




220 


i 


LE ■ LENDERS EQUITY 




230 


•APPRECIATION VARIABLES 




240 


1 


AR = APPRECIATION RATE AVERAGE OVER N YEARS 


250 


« 


TA = TOTAL APPRECIATION 




260 


1 


YA = YEARLY APPRECIATION 




270 


•INTEREST VARIABLES 




280 


i 


AI - ACCUMULATED INTEREST 




290 


i 


I « INTEREST 




300 


i 


IR = INTEREST RATE 




310 


i 


MI ■ MONTHLY INTEREST 




320 


• 


TI = TOTAL YEARLY INTERST 




330 


i 


PR ■ PERCENTAGE RATE 




340 


'PRINCIPAL VARIABLES 




350 


' 


PV « PROPERTY VALUE 




360 


i 


SP ■ SALES PRICE 




370 


• 


P - PAYMENT 




380 


• 


PB ■ PRINCIPAL BALANCE 




390 


• 


PR - PRINCIPAL REDUCTION 




400 


i 


TP - TOTAL PRINCIPAL REDUCTION 




410 


"MISCELLANEOUS 




420 


1 


L - LOOP 




430 


t 


N - NUMBER OF YEARS 




440 


1 


M - MONTHS 




450 


1 


HCS - HARD COPY 




460 


1 


QS ■= QUESTION 




470 


1 


X - SWITCH FROM STANDARD TO SAM AND BACK 


480 


1 


TL = TIMING LOOP 




490 


* 


C - CORRECTION 




500 


1 


U$ * PRINT USING STRINGS (UA$ THRU 


UIS) 


510 


1 


LI - LENDER'S INCOME 




520 


1 


X$ » TYPE STRING 




530 


1 


PL - PAGE LENGTH 




540 


1 


Z - FOR NEXT LOOP 




550 


OOSUB 2660 • > FOR NAME BLOCK 




560 


« 






570 


• 






580 


i 


* TO INITIALIZE * 




590 


i 






600 


UA$ 


■ " SMI, Ml. M $M., ■.,... 


610 


UBS 


. " -0- 


**.«*(%" 


620 


UC$ 


- " H.tMM 


**.*•*•%" 


630 


UD$ 


» "$###,.#«.##" 




640 


UES 


- " ##" 




650 


UF$ 


% % $!#», 1*1. M $**»,*** 


** $«**,***.«* 


Sim, mi. •• Sim.im.m" 




660 


UGS 


% % S MM -0- 


-0- 


SIM, III. It SMI, Ml. II" 




670 


UH$ 


- "SMI, Ml. II SIM, Ml. M" 




680 


UIS 


* " -0- $***,*»*.**" 




690 


1 






700 


1 






710 


1 


• TO ENTER DATA * 




720 


1 






730 


CLS 






740 


PRINT "TO ENTER DATA, SIMPLY RESPOND TO 


THE QUESTIONS ASKED 


BY 


THE 


COMPUTER . " 




750 


PRINT "PLEASE ENTER THE DATA IN DECIMAL 


FORM, WITHOUT THE 



USE OF COMMASOR S SIGNS. 



202 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



CIRCLE 130 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



fl WEST CQA 



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$2345 


NEC 5520 SPINWRITER (7720> ^ ^E 


$2695 


NEC 5530 SPINWRITER (7730) 


$2345 


NEC 12" MONITOR 


$ 229 


OKIDATA MICROLINE-80 


$ 399 


OKIDATA MlCROLINE-82 


$ 529 


OKIDATA MICROLINE-83 M 


$ 769 


DIABLO 630 W ^M 


$1995 


APPLE II PLUS 48K W aW M 


$1139 


APPLE DISK w/3.3 DOS Controller 


$ 525 


APPLE DISK w/o Controller 


$ 449 


HAZELTINE 1420 


$ 799 


NORTHSTAR HORIZON II 32K QD 


$2925 


ANADEX DP-9500/9501 


$1249 


TELEVIDE0 912C 


$ 669 


TELEVIDEO920C 


$ 729 


TELEVIDEO950 


$ 929 


CBM 8032 COMPUTER 


$1149 


CBM 8050 DISK DRIVE 


$1349 


CBM 4032 COMPUTER 


$1029 


CBM 4040 DISK DRIVE 


$1029 


CBM 4022 


$ 649 


CBM VIC-20 


$ 269 


RADIO SHACK II 64K 


$3245 


RADIO SHACK III 16K 


$ 849 


LEEDEX/AMDEK 100 


$ 139 


LEEDEX/AMDEK 100G 


$ 169 


LEEDEXVAMDEK COLOR- 1 13" Color Monitor 


$ 329 


MICROTEK 16K RAMBOARD for Atari 


$ 79 


MICROTEK 32K 


$ 149 


QUME SPRINT 9/45 (Full Panel) 


$2295 


ATARI 400 16K 


$ 349 


ATARI 825 PRINTER 


$ 650 


ATARI 850 INTERFACE 


$ 139 


ATARI 810 DISK DRIVE 


$ 449 


ATARI 800 


$ 749 



PRICES ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



Call for price list of A TARI software 
We carry the complete line of Personal Software 



WEST COAST 
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OMEGA SALES CO. 

3533 Old Conejo Rd. #102 

Newbury Park. CA 91320 

1-805-499-3678 

CA. TOLL FREE 1-800-322-1873 




OMEGA 

BALES 

CO. 



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1 -800-556-7586 

OMEGA SALES CO. 

12 Meeting St. 

Cumberland. Rl 02864 

1-401-722-1027 



HM 



Omega sales company 



CIRCLE 213 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




SAM, continued 



Color Computer 4K S 31 
W/Ext. Basic 16K $459 



Model II 64K 
$3300 





Atari 800 32KS 789 



Model III 16K 

$839 

2 DR • RS232C 

$2100 



These are lust a lew of our many 
fine offers — computers, periph- 
erals, modems, printers, disc 
drives and an unusual selection 
of package values. Call TOLL 
FREE today and check us out for 
price and warranty. 



Factory warrantees on Apple and 
Atari equipment Other equipment 
carries manufacturer's warranty or 
Computer Plus 180 day extended 
warranty Combined warrantees 
carry Computer Plus 180 day war- 
ranty or original manufacturer's 
warranty 



MALES INQUIRIES ARE INVITED 

Prices subject to change without notice 

IRS- 80 it a registered trademark ot Tandy Corp 

Call TOLL FREE 

1 -800-141-81 24 

comp uter 
'pus 1 



Write tor your 
tree catalog 



245A Great Road 
Littleton. MA 01460 
(617)466-3193 Dept F 

C I H C L^6WnTea I DE , fR?RvTcEC A R D 




760 PRINT "FOR EXAMPLE, 12 3/4* INTEREST WOULD BE ENTERED AS 

.1275 AND $3,650.45 WOULD BE ENTERED AS 3650.45." 
770 GOSUB 2400 



780 


GOSUB 


2410 


790 


GOSUB 


2420 


800 


GOSUB 


2430 


810 


GOSUB 


2440 


820 


GOSUB 


2450 


830 


GOSUB 


2460 


840 


GOSUB 


2470 


850 


GOSUB 


2480 


860 


GOSUB 


2490 


870 


PV = SP 


880 


GOSUB 


2500 


890 


PB<1) 


= PB 


900 


PB(2) 


= PB 


910 


1 




920 


1 




930 


1 




940 


1 




950 


CLS 





* DATA ENTRY CORRECTION t. RECAP * 



960 PRINT TAB(18) "SAM MORTGAGE COMPARISONS" 

970 PRINT "(1) HARD COPY PRINTOUT? - " ; HCS 

980 PRINT "(2) SALES PRICE OR INITIAL VALUE = "| 

990 PRINT USING UD$; SP 

1000 PRINT "(3) INITIAL MORTGAGE BALANCE = "| 

1010 PRINT USING UDS; PB 

1020 PRINT "(4) ANTICIPATED AVERAGE APPRECIATION RATE PER YEAR " ; PR( 4 ) ; "»" 

1030 PRINT "(5) COMPARISONS TO BE MADE OVER ";N;" YEARS." 

1040 PRINT TAB(10) "STANDARD MORTGAGE DATA:" 

1050 PRINT "(6) INTEREST RATE ■ ":PR<1>;"»" 

1060 PRINT "(7) MONTHLY PAYMENT - 

1070 PRINT USING UDS:P(1) 

1080 PRINT TAB(IO) "SAM MORTGAGE DATA:" 

1090 PRINT "(8) INTEREST RATE » ";PR(2);"»" 

1100 PRINT "(9) MONTHLY PAYMENT = " ; 

1110 PRINT USING UD$;P<2> 

1120 PRINT "(10) MORTGAGE COMPANY SHARES ";PR(3);"%" 

1130 INPUT "DO YOU WANT TO CORRECT ANY OF THE DATA SHOWN" ;Q$ 

1140 IF LEFT$(QS,1) ■ "Y" GOTO 1160 

1150 GOTO 1190 

1160 INPUT "ENTER ITEM NUMBER YOU WANT TO CORRECT" ; C 

1170 ON C GOSUB 2490 ,2400 ,2410 ,2480 ,2470 ,2420 ,2430 ,2440 ,2450 ,2460 

1180 GOTO 870 

1190 CLS 

1200 PRINT CHRSI23) 

1210 PRINT 3 462, "ONE MOMENT PLEASE" 

1220 IF LEFTS(HC$,1) = "Y" GOSUB 2090 

1230 ' 

1240 ' 

1250 ' 

1260 ' 

1270 FOR L 



MATH COMPUTATIONS * 



1280 FOR X 
1290 FOR M 



1 TO N 
1 TO 2 
TO 12 



1320 PR(X) 
1330 TI(X) 



1300 I(X) = IRIX) * PB(X) 
1310 MUX) ■ I(X)/12 

• P(X) - MI(X) 

= TI(X) + MI(X) 
1340 TP(X) = TP(X) + PRIX) 
1350 PB(X) - PB(X) - PR(X) 
1360 IF PB(X) < P(X) GOTO 2760 
1370 NEXT M 
1380 NEXT X 
1390 Y = Y + 1 
1400 YA = AR * PV 
1410 PV = PV + YA 
1420 TEC 1) = PV - PB( 1) 
1430 TE(2) - PV - PB(2) 
1440 SE - PV - SP 
1450 LE = SE * SR 
1460 NE(1) = TE( 1) 
1470 NE(2) = PV - PBI2) - LE 
1480 AI(l) = AK1) + Till) 
1490 AK 2) = AK2) + TK2) 
1500 LI » LE + AK2) 

1510 IF LEFTS! HC$,1) ■ "Y" GOTO 1860 
1520 INPUT "PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE" ; QS 
1530 • 
1540 ' 
1550 ' 
1560 ' 
1570 CLS 

1580 PRINT "COMPARISONS FOR YEAR NUMBER "; 
1590 PRINT " 

1600 PRINT "TOTAL INTEREST"! 
1610 PRINT TABOO) USING UH$ ;TI < 1 ) ; TI ( 2 ) 
1620 PRINT "PRINCIPAL REDUCTION"; 
1630 PRINT TABI30) USING UH$;TP( 1 ) ;TP( 2 ) 



204 



SCREEN PRINTOUT * 



STD MTG SAM MTG" 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




NEECO 



WHY BUY FROM THE BEST? 

Service... Support... 
Software. . . 



fx commodore 



MULTI-CLUSTER 

For Commodore Systems allows 3 
CPUs (Expandable to 8k to access a 
single Commodore Disk 

MULTI-CLUSTER (3 CPUs) S 795 

Each Additional CPU (up to 81 . . . S 199 




16K B (16K RAM-40 Column) - Lim. Qty $ ** 

32K B (32K RAM-40 Clm.) - Lim. Qty »■£» 

4016 (16K RAM 4.0 Basic-40 Clm.) » *» 

4032 (32K RAM 4.0 Basic-40 Clm.) »<«» 

8032 (32K RAM 4.0 Basic-80 Clm.) *■*»•! 

8050 Dual Disk (1 Meg Storage) *'i* 

4040 Dual Disk (343K Storage) » 1 £*> 

8010 IEEE Modem $ 2°° 

C2N Cassette Drive J * 

CBM - IEEE Interlace Cable * «° 

IEEE - IEEE Interface Cable $ 50 

VIC 20 Home/Personal Computer * 295 

ACS 8000-2 64K 1M $ |™0 

ACS 8000-15 64K 1M * 5990 

ACS 8000-6 208K 14.5M $<°*» 

ACS 8000-7 208K 29.0M J'1o90 

ACS 8000-10 208K 10M $ 8500 

ACS 8000-10/MTU $ 1099t > 



$645 
S 745 
$945 
$ 459 



EPSON PRINTERS 

MX-80 PRINTER 

MX-80 FT 

MX-100 

MX-70 

INTERFACE CARDS . _ 

8141 (RS-232) * ,f5 

8150 (2K Buttered RS-232) J '» 

8161 (IEEE 488) f » 

8131 (Apple Card) * » 

8230 (Apple Card) » » 

8220 (TRS-80 Cable) * •» 

DIARLO 630 PRINTER 

DIABLO 630 - Serial - RS-232 $2710 

Tractor Option $ 250 



NEC SPINWRITER PRINTERS 

5530 (Parallel) $3°55 

5510 (Serial) $3°55 

5520 (KSR-Serial) wJJS 

Tractor Option $225 



APPLE 

16K APPLE II* $1330 

32K APPLE II* $1430 

48K APPLE II* $1530 

APPLE DISK w/3 3 DOS . S 650 

APPLE DRIVE Only $ 490 

APPLE III 128K - In Stock! 
w/ Monitor ♦ 
Info Analystpak $4740 



AMDEK MONITORS INTERTEC COMPUTERS 




Video 100 12" B*W $ 179 

Video 300 12" Green $ 249 

Color 1 13" Low Res $ 449 

Color I1 13" High Res $999 




64K Superbrain 

(360 Disk Storage). CP/M™ . . . $3495 
64K QD Superbrain 

(700K Disk Storage). CP/M'". . $3995 



*CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research 



ATARI COMPUTERS 

Atari 400 (16K RAM) $ 399 

Atari 800 (32K RAM) - good thru 8/31 $1080 

Atari 410 RECORDER $ 8995 

Atari 810 DISK DRIVE $ 599 95 

NEECO carries all available ATARI Software and Peripherals. 



PROFESSIONAL 
SOFTWARE 

WordPro 1 8K $ 29.95 

WordPro 3 (40 Clm.)16K ....$ 199 95 

WordPro 3* $ 295 

WordPro 4 (80 Clm.) 32K . . . . $ 375 
WordPro 4* $ 450 



JUST A SAMPLE OF THE MANY PRODUCTS WE CARRY. CALL US FOR OUR NEW 60-PAGE CATALOG. 
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NOVEMBER 1981 



205 



CIRCLE 285 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




SAM, continued... 



TRS-80 
MODEL I 

DISK 
INTERFACING 

$5.95 

$7.95 Foreign Airmail (US Funds) 

Postpaid mailed to you 
FIRST CLASS 

United Stalei Only 

Send To: 

80-U.S. Journal 

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(206)475-2219 

•\ DIVISION III mi NORTHWI si I'l III ISIIIM, 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 



Send. 



.Copies of the Guide 



Check Enclosed 

Visa or MasterCharge 

n 

Exp. Date 

Signature 

Name 

Address 

City 

Zip 



IKs Ml „ ., i, .,,„!,., rtl Irnuik .J I \M>Y < OKI' 



.State 




1640 PRINT "PRINCIPAL BALANCE , 
1650 PRINT TAB(30) USING UHS : PB ( 1 ) : PB( 2 ) 
1660 PRINT "CURRENT APPRECIATION"; 
1670 PRINT TAB! 30) USING UH$;YA;YA 
1680 PRINT "PROPERTY VALUE"; 
1690 PRINT TABOO) USING UH$;PV;PV 
1700 PRINT "TOTAL EQUITY"; 

1710 PRINT TAB! 30) USING UH$ ;TE( 1 ) ;TE( 2 ) 
1720 PRINT "SHARE EQUITY"; 
1730 PRINT TAB(30) USING UI$;SE 
1740 PRINT "LENDERS' EQUITY"; 
1750 PRINT TABOO) USING UI$;LE 
1760 PRINT "NET EQUITY"; 

1770 PRINT TAB(30) USING UHS ;NE( 1 ) ; NE( 2 ) 
1780 PRINT "LENDERS INCOME"; 
1790 PRINT TABOO) USING UH$;AI(1);LI 
1800 PRINT 
1810 NEXT L 

1820 INPUT "PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE" ;QS 
1830 GOTO 2890 
1840 ' 
1850 • 
1860 • 
1870 ' 
1880 CLS 

1890 PRINT 9 470, "PRINTING YEAR NUMBER 

TOTAL 
PROPERTY" 
TYPE INTEREST 
VALUE" 



* PRINTING SUBROUTINE * 



;Y 
PRINCIPAL 



REDUCTION 



PRINCIPAL 
BALANCE 



* HARD COPY RECAP * 
"SAM MORTGAGE COMPARISONS" 



1900 LPRINT 
CURRENT 

1910 LPRINT "YEAR 
APPRECIATION 

1920 X$ « "STD" 

1930 LPRINT USING UE$;Y; 

1940 LPRINT USING UF$ ; X$ ;TI ( 1 ) ;TP( 1 ) ; PB( 1 ) ; YA ; PV 

1950 XS - "SAM" 

1960 LPRINT TABO) USING UFS ; XS ; TI < 2 > ; TP< 2 ) ; PBO > ; YA ; PV 

1970 LPRINT TAB(17) " TOTAL SHARE LENDERS 

NET LENDERS" 

1980 LPRINT TABC17) "EQUITY EQUITY EQUITY 
EQUITY INCOME" 

1990 XS = "STD" 

2000 LPRINT TABO) USING UGS ; XS ;TE( 1 ) ; NE( 1 ) ; AI ( 1 ) 

2010 XS = "SAM" 

2020 LPRINT TABO) USING UFS ;XS ;TE< 2 ) ;SE; LE;NE( 2 ) ; LI 

2030 LPRINT CHRS( 138) .-LPRINT CHRSU38) 

2040 GOSUB 2570 

2050 NEXT L 

2060 GOTO 2890 

2070 • 

2080 ' 

2090 ■ 

2100 ' 

2110 LPRINT TAB! 28) 

2120 LPRINT CHRS<138) 

2130 LPRINT TABO) "THE COMPARISONS BELOW ARE BASED ON TDK 

FOLLOWING INFORMATION:" 

2140 LPRINT CHRSU38) 

2150 LPRINT TABOl) "STANDARD MORTGAGE SAM MORTGAGE" 

2160 LPRINT "SALES PRICE"; 

2170 LPRINT TABOO) USING UAS;SP;SP 

2180 LPRINT "INITIAL MORTGAGE"; 

2190 LPRINT TABOO) USING UAS;PB;PB 

2200 LPRINT "INTEREST RATE"; 

2210 LPRINT TABOO) USING UCS ; PR( 1 ) ; PR( 2 ) 

2220 LPRINT "MONTHLY PAYMENT"; 

2230 LPRINT TABOO) USING UAS ; P( 1 ) ; P( 2 ) 

.'240 LPRINT "SHARED PERCENTAGE"; 

2250 LPRINT TABOO) USING UBS; PRO) 

2260 LPRINT "APPRECIATION RATE"; 

2270 LPRINT TABOO) USING UCS ; PR ( 4 ) ; PR ( 4 ) 

2280 LPRINT CHRSU38) 

2290 LPRINT "THE COMPARISONS WILL BE RUN FOR "-N-" YEARS " 

2300 LPRINT CHRS ( 138) 

o^n ^ INT \" ALL FIGURES ARE BELIEVED ACCURATE BUT ARE NOT GUARANTEED. 

2320 FOR Z - 1 TO 3: LPRINT CHRSU38): NEXT Z 

2330 LPRINT TABOO) "AMORIZATION DETAILS" 

2340 LPRINT CHR$(138) 

2350 RETURN 

2360 " 

2370 ' 

2380 • 

2390 ' 

2400 INPUT "ENTER SALE PRICE OR INITIAL VALUE ";SP: RETURN 

2410 INPUT "ENTER AMOUNT OF INITIAL MORTGAGE " ; PB : RETURN 

2420 INPUT "STANDARD MORTGAGE INTEREST RATE ";IR(D: RETURN 

2430 " 

2440 



* DATA ENTRY SUBROUTINE * 



INPUT "STANDARD MORTGAGE MONTHLY PAYMENT '"; P( 1 ) : RETURN 

TMDHrt. M ..... ..AnA.M.^.n _ ._ 



INPUT 



SAM MORTGAGE INTEREST RATE ";IR(2): RETURN 
SAM MORTGAGE MONTHLY PAYMENT " ; P( 2 ) ! RETURN 
SAM MORTGAGE SHARED PERCENTAGE " ; SR : RETURN 
2470 INPUT "NUMBER OF YEARS FOR WHICH YOU WANT TO MAKE COMPARISONS 
N: RETURN 



2450 INPUT 
2460 INPUT 



206 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



80 COLUMN GRAPHICS 



The image on the screen was created 
by the program below. 



10 VISMEM: CLEAR 

20 P=160: Q-100 

30 XP-144: XR«1. 5*3. 1415927 

40 YP-56: YR*1: ZP-64 

50 XF-XR/XP: YF-YP/YR: ZF=XR/ZP 

60 FOR ZI— Q TO Q-l 

70 IF ZK-ZP OR ZI>ZP GOTO 150 

80 ZT»ZI*XP/ZP: ZZ=ZI 

90 XL-INT (. S+SQR (XP*XP- ZT*ZT) ) 
100 FOR XI— XL TO XL 
110 XT«SQR(XI*XI+ZT*ZT)*XF: XX-XI 
120 YY«(SIN(XT)+.4*SIN(3*XT) ) *YF 
130 GOSUB 170 
140 NEXT XI 
150 NEXT ZI 
160 STOP 
170 Xl-XX+ZZ+P 
180 Yl»YY-ZZ+Q 

190 GHODE 1: MOVE XI, Yl: WRPIX 
200 IF Yl-0 GOTO 220 
210 GMODE 2: LINE X1,Y1-1,X1,0 
220 RETURN 



3rv , h The Integrated 

r Visible Memory for 
the PET has now been 
redesigned for the new 
12" screen 80 column 
and forthcoming 40 
column PET computers 
from Commodore. Like 
earlier MTU units, the 
new K- 1008-43 package 
mounts inside the PET 
case for total protection. 
To make the power and 
flexibility of the 320 by 200 
bit mapped pixel graphics display easily accessible, we have 
designed the Keyword Graphic Program. This adds 45 
graphics commands to Commodore BASIC. If you have been 
waiting for easy to use, high resolution graphics for your 
PET, isn't it time you called MTU? 

K-1008-43M Manual only $10 (credited toward purchase) 
k-1008-43 Complete ready to install package $495 

Mastercharge and Visa accepted 

Write or call today for our full line catalog describing all 
MTU 6502 products, including our high speed 8" Floppy 
Disk Controller for up to 4 megabytes of PET storage. 



Micro Technology Unlimited 

2806 Hillsborouqh Street 
PO Box 1 2I06 
Raleigh NC 27605 USA 
I9I9I833 I458 



NOW 80 COLUMN PETS CAN HAVE MTU HIGH RESOLUTION GRAPHICS 



CIRCLE 224 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SAM, continued. 



THE 



UNIVERSE 

"^ AT YOUR ^ 

FINGERTIPS 



ASr- 



TellStar 

Jor the Apple II 



Choose a date. lime, and place on 
Earth and let TellStar display the 
Stars, Planets. Sun, Maon and 
fascinating Stellar Objects in 
High Resolution Graphics 

With interactive commands, 
TellStar enables you to easily 
locate and identify stellar obiects 
Right Ascension. Declination, 
Azimuth. Elevation, Rise and Set 
Times are presented adiusted for 
precession Planetary data is calcu- 
lated using Kepler's equations 
Constellations are drawn before 
your eyes Print High Resolution 
Graphics displays on a Silentype 
Scientific data can be printed on 
any printer 

A Calculation Utility is provided 
for equatorial, ecliptic, horizontal, 
and precession conversions 

TellStar Level I on disk (39.95 

Northern Hemisphere Star Tables 

TellStar Level lion disk $79.95 

Comprehensive 47 page manual 
Northern Hemisphere Star Tables 
Southern Hemisphere Star Tables 
Messier Object Star Tables 



Visit your local computer store for dem- 
onstration or write for more information 



At1flr*'s-. 
City 



Z.p 



J1 Information Unlimited 

^~-Z*a Software, Inc. 
" = -~jm 281 Arlington Avenue 

- -^ Berkeley. CA 94707 
— ^™ (415) 525-9452 
TaMStar ■ a trademark of Scrtarf Software Services 
is a trademark of Apple Computers. Inc 



2480 INPUT "AVERAGE YEARLY APPRECIATION DURING PERIOD ";AR: 

2490 INPUT "DO YOU WANT A HARD COPY PRINTOUT ";HC$: RETURN 

2500 PR'l) - IR(1)*100 

2510 PR(2) - IR(2)*100 

2520 PR(3) - SR*100 

2530 PR(4) - AR*100 

2540 RETURN 

2550 ■ 

2560 • 

2570 ' 

2580 • 

2590 IF PEEK (16425) < 



RETURN 



PAGE LENGTH 



56 THEN RETURN 



2750 


• 






2760 


• 






2770 


* 






2780 


M 


■ 


12 


2790 


X 


= 


2 


2800 


L 


= 


N 



2600 PL » 66 - (PEEK! 16425) ) 

2610 FOR Z = 1 TO PL: LPRINT CHR$(138): NEXT Z 

2620 POKE 16425,0 

26 30 RETURN 
2640 ' 
2650 ' 

2660 ' * TITLE BLOCK * 

2670 ' 

2680 CLS 

2690 PRINT CHR$(23) 

2700 PRINT »? 452, "SAM MORTGAGE COMPARISONS" 

2710 PRINT 8 584, "BY E. LYNN CRAWFORD" 

2720 FOR TL • 1 TO 1500: NEXT TL 

27 30 RETURN 
2740 " 



* END OF MORTGAGE TERM 



2810 PRINT "THE NEXT FIGURES WILL BE FOR THE FINAL MORTGAGE 
YEAR. MORTGAGE FIGURES MAY NOT BE ACCURATE DUE TO ROUNDING. 

2820 IF LEFT$(HC$,1> = "Y" GOTO 2840 

2830 GOTO 1390 

2840 LPRINT "FINAL MORTGAGE YEAR. MORTGAGE FIGURES MAY NOT 
BE ACCURATE DUE TO ROUNDING." 

2850 LPRINT CHR$(138) 

2860 GOTO 1390 

2870 ' 

2880 ' 

2890 ' * ANOTHER PRINTOUT? * 

2900 • 

2910 CLS 

2920 PRINT:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT 

2930 GOSUB 2600 

2940 INPUT "DO YOU WISH TO RUN ANOTHER COMPARISON" ;Q$ 

2950 IF LEFT$(Q$,1) - "Y" GOTO 3020 

2960 CLS 

2970 PRINT CHR$(23) 

2980 PRINT e 466, "THANK YOU!" 

2990 PRINT l3 590, "HAVE A NICE DAY." 

3000 GOSUB 2720 

3010 END 

3020 CLEAR 

3030 GOTO 580 



Engineering Software Library 
Apple II 48K DOS 3.3 Or Listing Only 

I. Truss And Linkage Analysis 

20 & 3D. Up To 70 Beams 

II. Beam Analysis 

Section Properties & Diagrams 

III. Linear Natural Frequencies 

IV. Torsional Natural Frequencies 

Holzer Method With Branching 

V. Rubber Element Design 

Compression And Shear Pad 

VI. Bolted Joint Design 

Write For Complete Program List 
Written In Basic. Easily Converted 

User Oriented. Complete Prompting 
Disc Or Listing $40 Ea. 

Engineering Software, Suite 2, 

104 Queenwood Rd., Morton, IL 61 550 

(309) 263-2602 



• *••••**•••* 
IK IK 

Me PERSONAL ik 

3K m 

JK COHPUTER m 

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«t SOFTWARE )K 

WC JK 

Is your software* a qanv. a business 
systfR. or a Mathematical solution 1 ? 
Do you desire national distribution 
uhi le protecting Hour author ship"? 
To have your software earn noney 
for you contact: 



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Lanhan, nD 20706 
(301) 159-1330 
<301) 350-2993 




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CIRCLE 267 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MODEL II 



MODEL 




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26 1062 16K III 849.00 

26-1066 48K III 

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COLOR 



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26-1563 ScripsitDisk 79.00 

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26-1 165 Line Printer V 1710 00 

26-1 167 Line Printer VII 360 00 

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26-1 168 Line Printer VIII 720.00 



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14-812 Recorder 72.00 

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From Stock on Most Items i»$»o i. » ,.„!.. .,.d nod. -.,„,>, <>» <h. 1**41 cor P 

CIRCLE 183 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



A copy of the manufacturer's war- 
ranty can be obtained free upon 
specific written request to the 
Electronics Department of our 
Cairo. Georgia Retail Store. 



NOVEMBER 1981 



209 



Traveller 

in 
your 

Computer 



Chris Marvel 







As In life, players have 

adventures together 

and learn to rely on 

one another. 



"Put a Dungeon in Your Computer" in 
the July issue of Creative Computing. 
inspired me to adapt Glen Charnock's sys- 
tem to Traveller. In case you're not famil- 
iar with it. Traveller is one of a series of 
popular sci-fi "role playing" games not 
unlike Dungeons & Dragons. The big dif- 
ference is that it deals with the future and 
possibly some predicted reality rather 
than fantasy, magic, and myth. Not that I 
am knocking D&D players— I play D&D 
myself on occasion. It's just that Traveller 
is easier to identify with, and for sci-fi nuts 
like me, it has adventure that can be sav- 
ored. 

What Is Traveller 

Traveller, published by Game Design- 
er's Workshop, 203 North St., Normal, IL 
61761, is a "role-playing" game about 
future societies. It deals with their strug- 
gles and the technology that has enabled 
them to reach the stars. It postulates the 
probable problems societies will have 
with communication and transportation 
over the vastness of space. 

The game is refereed in much the same 
manner as D&D. A referee generates 
characters and a universe for them to 
explore, and determines the course of 
play. He writes down each different 
planet, and for those which are habitable, 
he records continents, topography, 
oceans, cities and even, on occasion, dif- 
ferent countries on the same planet. 

Play begins with a referee creating a 
character for the player. Characters are 
created in a different environment from 
those in D&D. The characters' attributes 
are strength, dexterity, endurance, intelli- 
gence, education, and social standing. 
Since the society that the character has 
grown up in requires compulsory military 
service, each character must either enlist 
or be drafted. Most people choose the 
latter because by doing so they increase 
their chances of obtaining officer status 
on the first hitch. 

Christopher Marvel, 1313 Beaufort, Laramie, WY 
82070. 



210 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Some of the Brightest Apple Software Available... 



VBRSACALC . 

Sort Visicaic 

Batch update 

Conditional tasting 

Menu-driven modules 

Auto-cataiog 

Punt the list of commands 

13 or 16 sectors 

$100 



PERFORMANCE MANAGER, . 

This Versacalc driven Visicaic module 
allows you to compare current month 
and year to date performance against 
budget or goal, previous year, and 12 
month moving average figures Use it 
to manage your budget, sales, produc 
don, and other situations where you 
want to monitor individual categories 
as well as an entire department or firm 
Requires Visicaic 3 3 

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FIXED ASSET MANAGER , - 

This menu-driven Visicaic module uses 

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Management of 65 assets per sheet 

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Automatic batch updating 

Requires Visicaic 3 3 

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aurora lyitcmi inc. 



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Machine language debugger 
Trace, single-step, and background 
Displays registers, flags, stack. 

and six locations of choice 
Relocatable 

Allows changes to displayed values 
Compatible with DOS. BASlCs. and 

graphics 
Output to screen or printer 
Can trace BASIC programs 

m 



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Accounts Payable 

Current & Future Tenant Records 

Automatic Posting 

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$695 

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Teecfter's Gredeftoofc MO 

Mercn.no Band Databata $40 

Quantum Atom A Sine Waves $40 

Oaniity Lab $40 

£ femertf s and Symbol* $40 

Balancing Molecules $40 



is a small circuit board that tits on the 
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40 80 column video switching The 
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$50 



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$250 



The EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, , 

Ah the usual word processor functions 

40 or 80 columns selectable 

Real shift key without soldering 

Full formal control 

Full forms handling 

Keyboard input at print time 

Supports any printer 

Built in Card File w'Reporl Generator 

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C- 



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NOW AVAILABLE FOR CP/M 

MICROSTAT, the most powerful statistics package available 
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MICROSTAT requires 48K. Microsoft MBasic with CP/M and 
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CIRCLE 283 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

NOVEMBER 1981 



CIRCLE 154 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



211 



Traveller, continued... 

If the player survives the first tour of 
service, he may reenlist. Benefits are 
bestowed on the player for rank, length of 
service, and branch of service (some 
branches are more hazardous than 
others). Prizes at the player's final dis- 
charge can include tickets for star travel, 
a yearly pension, all sorts of experience, a 
membership in the highly prized Travel- 
ler's Aid Society, and even, on a rare occa- 
sion, ownership of a star ship— Scout 
Class. Various attributes of one player 
may make him valuable to another. As in 
life, players have adventures together and 
learn to rely on one another. 

The sooner the character is created, the 
sooner the player can start exploring the 
universe. A typical opening exchange 
may go something like this: 

Referee (Playing the part of a customs 
official on Regina): "What is your destina- 
tion?" 

Player 1 : "Dragonia." 

Player 2: "Moonglow." 

Referee: "Your tickets and passports 
please." 

Player 1 : "Here. One mid-passage." 

Player 2: "Low passage." 

Player 2. after being discharged as 
Third Officer in the Merchants, is on his 
way to pick up a newly-constructed Ser- 
pent Class Scout Ship on Moonglow. 
Heavily in debt to the tune of 21.630.000 
credits. Player 2 has allied himself wiih 
Player 1. They have combined their funds 
to hire a band of mercenaries led by 
Player 3 to hijack the passenger starship. 
They will then be able to ransom the lives 
of all first class passengers and raise the 
funds to buy their dream. Player 4 has 
accepted a commission in the Imperial 
Navy and is sworn to uphold the loosely 
defined laws of the Imperial Confedera- 
tion. 

Referee: "Your weapons must be 
checked before entering the boarding 
area." 

Player 3 emerges from hiding with nine 
mercenaries in battle dress equipped with 
laser carbines. Four Port Guard androids 
with laser rifles, alerted by startled pass- 
ersby are thrown into action. They open 
fire hitting two mercenaries before being 
eliminated. 

And so goes the play. The referee 
describes the action through the use of his 
tables and charts. Possibilities are infinite. 
Charts are endless. And too much of both 
tend, as in most role-playing games, to 
lessen the players' enjoyment. 

Computerizing Traveller 

I am totally convinced that computers 
can be employed successfully as tools to 
increase enjoyment and make life easier 
for the referee. For Pete's sake, if you 
don't have one it's a great excuse to buy a 
computer! 



The following program modules take 
some of the drudgery out of refereeing 
while enabling the player to establish the 
basic worlds of the universe. To use this 
program all you need is a hex paper map 
sold in most hobby stores, colored pencils 
or press on numbers, and of course, your 



The following program 

modules take some of 

the drudgery out of 

refereeing while 

maintaining the 

referee concept 



computer (in this case, I have used a TRS- 
80). Each record number as recorded on 
disk becomes a separate world occur- 
rence and is marked on the hex map. As 
soon as the worlds have been created and 
marked, consult the jump generator to 
determine the routes for star lanes. Each 
world may then be neatly tucked away on 
disk or can be printed out using the 



NEWDOS JKL screen print command 
and stored in a notebook for future refer- 
ence. If you decide to store on disk, the 
second program will read the file by 
record number and describe the world. 
Just record the record number on the hex 
map and presto, your map is linked to the 
computer. Oh. by the way. the program is 
written using NEWDOS80 DISK FILES 
and must be changed if you intend to run 
with TRSDOS. I have marked those lines 
for readers who wish to do this. 

The second module is a character gen- 
erator which generates a Traveller char- 
acter. This is interactive with each player 
making early decisions about his or her 
characters. The referee may advise the 
player about the best course of action 
besides helping to whet the player's appe- 
tite for adventure. In the end this will 
provide a neatly described character for 
both referee and player. 

These are only a referee's aids and are 
not intended to limit his imagination. 
Most referees have very fertile imagina- 
tions. 

For those readers who don't like typing 
code into your computer, I would be glad 
to send a copy. You provide a clean disk 
and $5. and I will provide you with a copy 
of the three programs listed. D 



World Generator 



10 'WORLD GENERATOR Fr)R TRAVELER" tm i - GAME DESIGNER WORKSHOP 

-■0 -BY CHRISTOPHER C. MARVEL / MARVEL SOF I WARE COPYRIGHT 1980 

70 '1313 BEAUFORT. LARAMIE. WYOMING R2070 

40 RANDOM 

50 CLEAR1000:DEFSTRA:DIMPl»i 15), P:«( 15), P3*i 15) 

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70 DEF FNC-B2+B1 

80 C1=0:B-0:B1=0:B2=0:RN=0 

90 CLS:PRINTCHR*< 23 > : PRINT : PRINT" 4 ****MOrld * * * » *" 

100 PRINT"* **«*n*rator * * >" 

110 PR INT S PRINT " 4 4 4 4 44 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 + 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 ♦ 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 44 . ♦ 

»»*•*« ":PRINT:PRINT" BY" 

120 PRINT:PRINT"CHRISTOPHER C. MARVEL" 

140 PRINT: PRINT" COPYRIGHT 1980" 

150 FORJ=1TO3000:NEXT 

160 CLS:PRINTa320. "GENERATE 1 - WORLDS OR 2 - JUMPS FOR PLANETS" : INPUT" "; x> 

170 ONXXGOTO 18)0,2430 

180 0PEN"0", 1, "WORLD/DAT", "MF", 150 • NEWDOSS0 FILE 

190 INPUT"DO YOU WISH TO GENERATE AN ENTIRELY NEW GALAXY " ; A*i IFLEFT*t A». 

1 ) <> "N" THEN210 

200 INPUT"LAST RECORD IN WORLD DATA FILE" 

210 B-0:B1=0:B2=0:S1=0:S2=0: 1*0: J=0:A0-"0" 

•sALAXY 
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+ + ■»♦♦ 4 ♦ 444" 

270 B=RND< 2> 

240 IFB=2THEN270 

250 PRTNT"N0 WORLD IN HEX" : INPUT"ENTER TO CONTINUE" ;XX 

EXIST IN HEX 

260 GOTO220 

270 INPUT"NAME PLANET" ;N» 

280 CLS:PRINT"««»=PLANET«=«=«"«=««»«========";n»; "==.==«»==" 

' GENERATE oLANET 

290 GOSUB3070:GOSUB2120:GOSUB1830 

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: P 1 *= " " : P2*= P3»> N»= NEW 



R L D 



GENERATOR' ♦.. 4 



' DOES WORLD 



212 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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You are 

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Your skill is measured by nine rankings, up to STAB LORD. 
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HAWK I uses 
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The games of tomorrow for the minds ol today. 
CIRCLE 183 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



NOVEMBER 1981 



213 



Traveller, continued 




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214 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



The story behind the two best selling 
computer games books in the world. 

Computer 
Gaines 



by David H.Ahl 

Everybody likes games Children like tic 
tac toe. Gamblers like blackjack. Trekkies 
like Star Trek. Almost everyone has a favor- 
ite game or two. 

It Started In 1971 

Ten years ago when I was at Digital 
Equipment Corp. (DEC), we wanted a pain- 
less way to show reluctant educators that 
computers weren't scary or difficult to use. 
Games and simulations seemed like a good 
method. 



So I put out a call to all our customers to 
send us their best computer games. The 
response was overwhelming. I got 21 ver- 
sions of blackjack, 15 of nim and 12 of 
battleship. 

From this enormous outpouring I se- 
lected the 90 best games and added 1 1 that 
I had written myself for a total of 101. I 
edited these into a book called 101 Basic 
Computer Games which was published by 
DEC. It still is. 

When I left DEC in 1974 I asked for the 
rights to print the book independently. 
They agreed as long as the name was 
changed. 







Introduction 


Hi-Lo 


Contents of Basic Computer Games (right) 


The Basic Language 
Conversion to Other 


High l-O 
Hockey 


and More Basic Computer Games (below). 


Basics 


Horserace 






Acey Ducey 


Hurkle 






Amazing 


Kinema 






Animal 


King 






Awari 


Letter 


Artillery-3 
Baccarat 


Lite Expectancy 
Lissajous 


Bagels 
Banner 


Life 

Life For Two 


Bible Quiz 


Magic Square 


Basketball 


Literature Quiz 


Big 6 


Man-Eating Rabbit 


Batnum 


Love 


Binary 


Maneuvers 


Battle 


Lunar LEM Rocket 


Blackbox 


Mastermind 


Blackjack 


Master Mind 


Bobstones 


Masterbagels 


Bombardment 


Math Dice 


Boom 


Matpuzzle 


Bombs Away 


Mugwump 


Bogall 


Maze 


Bounce 


Name 


Bumbrun 


Millionaire 


Bowling 


Nicomachus 


Bridge-It 


Minotaur 


Boxing 


Nim 


Camel 


Motorcycle Jump 


Bug 


Number 


Chase 


Nomad 


Bullfight 


One Check 


Chuck-A-Luck 


Not One 


Bullseye 


Orbit 


Close Encounters 


Obstacle 


Bunny 


Pizza 


Column 


Octrix 


Buzzword 


Poetry 


Concentration 


Pasart 


Calendar 


Poker 


Condot 


Pasart 2 


Change 


Queen 


Convoy 


Pinball 


Checkers 


Reverse 


Corral 


Rabbit Chase 


Chemist 


Rock. Scissors. Paper 


Countdown 


Road race 


Chief 


Roulette 


Cup 


Rotate 


Chomp 


Russian Roulette 


Dealer's Choice 


Safe 


Civil War 


Salvo 


Deepspace 


Scales 


Combat 


Sine Wave 


Defuse 


Schmoo 


Craps 


Slalom 


Dodgem 


Seabattle 


Cube 


Slots 


Doors 


Sea war 


Depth Charge 


Splat 


Drag 


Shoot 


Diamond 


Stars 


Dr. Z 


Smash 


Dice 


Stock Market 


Eliza 


Strike 9 


Digits 


Super Star Trek 


Father 


Tennis 


Even Wins 


Synonym 


Flip 


Tickertape 


Flip Flop 


Target 


Four In A Row 


TV Plot 


Football 


3-D Plot 


Geowar 


Twonky 


Fur Trader 


3-D Tic-Tac-Toe 


Grand Prix 


Two-to-Ten 


Golf 


Tic Tac toe 


Guess-It 


UFO 


Gomoko 


Tower 


ICBM 


Under & Over 


Guess 


Train 


Inkblot 


Van Gam 


Gunner 


Trap 


Joust 


Warfish 


Hammurabi 


23 Matches 


Jumping Balls 


Word Search Puzzle 


Hangman 


War 


Keno 


Wumpus 1 


Hello 


Weekday 


LGame 


Wumpus 2 


Hexapawn 


Word 



Converted to Microsoft Basic 

The games in the original book were in 
many different dialects of Basic. So Steve 
North and I converted all the games to 
standard Microsoft Basic, expanded the 
descriptions and published the book under 
the new name Basic Computer Games. 

Over the next three years, people sent in 
improved versions of many of the games 
along with scores of new ones. So in 1979, 
we totally revised and corrected Basic 
Computer Games and published a com- 
pletely new companion volume of 84 ad- 
ditional games called More Basic Com- 
puter Games. This edition is available in 
both Microsoft Basic and TRS-80 Basic for 
owners of the TRS-80 computer. 

Today Basic Computer Games is in its 
fifth printing and More Basic Computer 
Games is in its second. Combined sales are 
over one half million copies making them 
the best selling pair of books in recrea- 
tional computing by a wide margin. There 
are many imitators, but all offer a fraction of 
the number of games and cost far more. 

The games in these books include classic 
board games like checkers. They include 
challenging simulation games like Camel 
(get across the desert on your camel) and 
Super Star Trek. There are number games 
like Guess My Number, Stars and Battle of 
Numbers. You'll find gambling games like 
blackjack, keno, and poker. All told there 
are 185 different games in these two 
books. 

Whether you're just getting started with 
computers or a proficient programmer, 
you'll find something of interest. You'll find 
15-line games and 400-line games and 
everything in between. 

The value offered by these books is out- 
standing. Every other publisher has raised 
the price of their books yet these sell for 
the same price as they did in 1974. 

Moneyback Guarantee 

Examine one or both of these books and 
key some games into your computer. If 
you're not completely satisfied we'll refund 
the full purchase price plus your return 
postage. 

Basic Computer Games costs only $7.50 
and More Basic Computer Games just 
$7.95 for either the Microsoft or TRS-80 
edition (please specify your choice on your 
order). Both books together are $ 1 5. Send 
payment plus $2.00 shipping and handling 
to Creative Computing Press. Morris 
Plains, NJ 07950. Visa, MasterCard and 
American Express orders should include 
card number and expiration date. Charge 
card orders may also be called in toll-free to 
800-631-81 12 (in NJ 201-540-0445). 

Order today to turn your computer into 
the best game player on the block. 

creative 
GOiRpatiRg 

Morris Rains, NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631 -81 12 

(InNJ 201-540-0445) 

CIRCLE 350 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Traveller, continued. 



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216 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




IF VOU EN|OV MUSIC, WHY |UST LISTEN? 

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THE PRODUCT. All s ciononin.il 9-voke Mush 
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THE COMPANY. Al I has been making computer 
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CIRCLE 127 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



| Continental Adventures Presents 
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CIRCLE 231 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



NOVEMBER 1981 



217 



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218 



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CIRCLE 179 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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CIRCLE 124 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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CIRCLE 133 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



new from jem 



TEMPERATURE 
PROBE KIT 



DESCRIPTION 

The kit, at a cost of 
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ducer, mounted in a glass 
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without the glass tube, and 
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physiology experiments. 
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SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES 

plot iselting and freezing 
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examine temperature reg- 
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CIRCLE 198 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





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FOR THE 

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NOVEMBER 1981 



227 



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228 



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